• Title, Summary, Keyword: antibiotic resistant

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A Study on the Distribution of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Domesticated Animal Feces (가축 분변중의 항생제 내성균주의 분포에 관한 연구)

  • Kwon, Hyuk-Ku;Lee, Jang-Hoon;Kim, Jong-Geu
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.142-150
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: To estimate the multi-antibiotic resistant bacterial contaminant load discharged from livestock farms, we randomly selected livestock farms specializing in cattle, swine, and fowl and collected bacterial strains from domesticated animal feces and compost samples. Problems with resistance to antibiotics are becoming worldwide issues, and as the consumption of antibiotics appears to be excessive in Korea as well, the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria shows the possibility to cause potentially serious social problems. Methods: To monitor multi-antibiotic resistant bacterial constituents, aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli were isolated from domesticated animal feces and compost. Antibiotic resistance testing was performed by the disc diffusion method using 13 different antibiotics. Results: Examining the degree of sensitivity to antibiotics of the aerobic bacteria originating from domesticated animal feces, fowl feces showed the highest distribution rate (35.5%), followed by swine feces compost (23.1%), swine feces (18.2%), cattle feces (14.9%), and cattle feces compost (8.2%). Antibiotic resistance tests of aerobic bacteria and E. coli originating from domestic animals feces resulted in 83.6% and 73.5% of each strain showing resistance to more than one antibiotic, respectively. Conclusions: These results suggest that increasing multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria in the environment has a close relation to the reckless use of antibiotics in livestock.

A Peptide Antibiotic AMRSA1 Active against Multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Produced by Streptomyces sp. HW-003

  • Lee, Hyeon-Woo;Choi, Jong-Whan;Kim, Hyun-Won;Han, Dong-Pyou;Shin, Woon-Seob;Yi, Dong-Heui
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.7 no.6
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    • pp.402-408
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    • 1997
  • The antibiotic-producing strain HW-003 was screened from soil and found to be effective against the multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The spore chain of HW-003 was retinaculiaperti, and the spore surface was spiny. Strain HW-003 has a LL-diaminopimelic acid isoform in the cell wall. The aerial mass color of the strain was gray, and the reverse side was yellow-brown. The strain produced melanin, but did not produce soluble pigments. According to the Taxon program, HW-003 showed best match with Streptomyces cyaneus. Antibiotic production reached a maximum after 72-h cultivation. The antibiotic was purified with silica gel column chromatography, octadecylsilyl column chromatography, and HPLC. The purified antibiotic, AMRSA1, showed strong inhibitory activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and gram-positive bacteria. The molecular weight of AMRSA1 was about 1, 100. AMRSA1 was a peptide antibiotic containing alanine and serine.

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Study on Antibiotic Resistant Enterobacteria in Pharmaceutical Effluent (제약회사 폐수처리장 방류수 중 항생제 내성 Enterobacteria에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jae-Gun;Kim, Young Jin
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.34-40
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: This study aims to examine the concentration, diversity, and antibiotic characteristics of penicillin G resistant enterobacteria present in pharmaceutical effluent. Methods: Water sampling was performed from a pharmaceutical company in Gyeonggi-do Province, Korea in March 2015. Water samples were plated in triplicate on tryptic soy agar plates with 32 mg/L of penicillin G. Penicillin G resistant enterobacteria were selected from the effluent and were subjected to 16S rRNA analysis for penicillin G resistant species determination. Identified resistant strains were tested for resistance to various antibiotics. Results: Penicillin G resistant enterobacteria were present at 6.2% as to culturable heterotrophic bacteria. Identified penicillin G resistant enterobacteria exhibited resistance to more than 10 of the antibiotics studied. These resistant bacteria are gram negative and are closely related to pathogenic species. Conclusion: Multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria in the effluent suggest a need for disinfection and advanced oxidation processes for pharmaceutical effluents.

Antibiotic Susceptibity of Pathogenic Microorganisms Isolated in Korea -The Problem of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance- (한국에서 분리된 병원성 세균의 항균제에 대한 감수성 -특히 다제내성을 중심으로-)

  • Park, Seung-Hahm
    • The Journal of the Korean Society for Microbiology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1970
  • This report is to observe the rate of multiple resistance to various antibiotics among staphylococcus aureus and E. coli which were isolated with high frequency at our department during 1969. 1. One hundred fifty two strains(20.6%) resistant to four antibiotics multiple resistant was the highest incidence among 739 strains of Staphylococcus aureus. 2. Regarding the multiple antibiotic resistant of Staphylococcus aureus, 75strains(10.1%) to SA. PC. TC the three antibiotics resistant, have been observed, with the highest incidence, and next to this, 69 strains(9.3%) to SA. PC. SM. TC the four autibiotics resistant, and 68 strains(9.2%) to SA. PC. SM. CM. TC. SM. the six antibiotics resistant, have been observed in descending order. 3. The case of one hundred twenty seven strains(28.0%) of the six antibiotic multiple resistant among 454 strains of Escherchia coli was the highest incidence. 4. Concerning the multiple antibiotic resistant of Escherichia coli, 70 strains(l5.4%) to SA. SM. CM. TC. EM. FD. the six antibiotics resistant, have been observed, with the highest incidence, and next to this, 59 strains(l3.0%) to SA. SM. CM. TC. EM. FD. AC the seven antibiotics resistant, and 42 strains(9.3%) to SA. SM. CM. TC. EM. FD. KM. AC the eight antibiotics resistant have been observed in descending order.

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Activity of Essential Oil from Mentha piperita against Some Antibiotic-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains and Its Combination Effects with Antibiotics

  • Choi, Sung-Hee;Shin, Seung-Won
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.164-168
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    • 2007
  • To investigate natural antibiotics from plant essential oils and to evaluate their synergism with current antimicrobial drugs in inhibiting antibiotic-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of eleven plant essential oils and their main components were established for two antibiotic-susceptible and two antibiotic-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, using broth microdilution tests. Potential synergism with oxacillin, norfloxacin, or erythromycin was evaluated using a checkerboard microtitre assay. Among the tested oils, Mentha piperita oil and its main component, menthol, exhibited the strongest inhibitory activities against all of the tested strains. The activity of antibiotics against antibiotic-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae was enhanced significantly by combination with Mentha piperita oils and its main component, menthol. In conclusion, the combination Mentha piperita essential oil or menthol with antibiotics could be used to reduce the effective dose of antibiotic and to modulate the resistance of S. pneumoniae strains.

Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Resistance of Coliform Bacteria Isolated from Mineral Water (약수에서 分離한 大腸菌群의 일부 중금속 및 抗生劑耐性에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Jee-Yeon;Zong, Moon-Shik
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.63-73
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    • 1989
  • The purposes of this study were to find out the heavy metal and antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria from mineral water and the resistant factors. For the experiment, mineral water samples were taken from A area and B area during the period from march to July, 1988. The results of the experiment were as follows 1. From mineral water, eleven resistant coliforms and one susceptible coliform were isolated. 2. All resistant isolates harbored diverse plasmids of ranged ca. 14-54kb. 3. Susceptible coliform harbored a only plasmid of ca. 2.8 kb. 4. All resistant isolates harbored common size of plasmid of ca. 14kb. 5. As a result of the transformation and agarose gel electrophoresis experiments, resistant factor was R-plasmid. In conclusion, It is suggested that heavy metal contamination of mineral water is the selective pressure for the plasmid encoding the tolerance. Heavy metal resistance, in some case, is present with antibiotic resistance. Therefore, heavy metal contamination of mineral water induces antibiotic resistant bacteria.

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Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Rhapontigenin Produced from Rhapontin by Biotransformation Against Propionibacterium acnes

  • Kim, Jeong-Keun;Kim, Na-Rae;Lim, Young-Hee
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.82-87
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    • 2010
  • Biotransformation is often used to improve chemical activity. We evaluated the antimicrobial activity of rhapontigeuin, converted from rhapontin after treatment with Pectinex. Rhapontigenin showed 4-16 times higher antimicrobial activity than rhapontin. The activity was higher against Gram-positive strains than Gram-negative strains. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of rhapontigenin, retinol, and five antibiotics were determined by the microbroth dilution method for antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant Propionibacterium acnes. We also investigated the in vitro antibacterial activity of rhapontigenin in combination with antibiotic against antibiotic-resistant P. acnes. The antibiotic combination effect against resistant P. acnes was studied by the checkerboard method. The combination formulations (rhapontigenin and clindamycin, retinol and clindamycin) showed synergistic effects on the inhibition of the growth of clindamycin-resistant P. acnes. It is predictable that the combination of antibiotics with rhapontigenin is helpful to treat acne caused by antibiotic-resistant P. acnes. The antibacterial activity of rhapontigenin was enhanced by biotransformation.

The Distribution of Indicator Microorganisms and Identification of Antibiotic Resistant Strains in Domestic Animal Feces (가축 분변 유래 지표미생물 분포 및 항생제 내성 균주의 동정)

  • Kim, Jong-Geu;Lee, Jang-Hoon;Kwon, Hyuk-Ku
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.289-297
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: To estimate the microbial contaminant load discharged from livestock farms, we randomly selected livestock farmers of cattle, swine, and fowl and collected bacterial strains from domestic animals' feces and compost samples. Recently, as multi-antibiotic-resistant bacteria and super bacteria showing resistance to a variety of antibiotics have been reported one after another, the ecological and health hazard of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is emerging as an important issue. Methods: Monitored indicator microorganism constituents were totak coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC), and aerobic bacteria. The multi-antibiotic-resistant bacteria were identified from investigated indicator microorganisms by 16S rRNA sequencing. Results: By microbiological analysis, the largest population of aerobic bacteria ($1.5{\times}10^5$ CFU/g) was found in cattle fecal compost, and total coliforms ($1.1{\times}10^7$ CFU/g) and fecal coliforms ($1.0{\times}10^5$ CFU/g) were found primarily in swine fecal compost, while the lowest population was found in fowl fecal compost. Among the 67 strains separated from aerobic bacteria, five strains expressing high antibiotic resistance were selected in each sample. We found the multi-antibiotic resistant strains to be Shigella boydii, Staphylococcus lentus, Acinetobacter sp. and Brevibacterium luteolum. Conclusions: These results suggest that increasing numbers of multi-antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the environment have a close relation to the reckless use of antibiotics with livestock.

Antibacterial Activity of Glycyrrhizae Radix against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (감초의 메티실린 내성 황색포도구균에 대한 생육억제 효과)

  • 김미랑;정병무;신정인;윤철호;정지천;서운교
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.223-232
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    • 2002
  • Objectives : Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) CCARM 3251 and S. aureusKCTC 1928 have been known to be resistant to many kinds of antibiotics. The extract of Glycyrrhizae Radix showed antibacterial activity against MRSA and antibiotics-resistant S. aureus. Methods : We examined the effects of the water-soluble extract and the methanol-soluble extract of Glycyrrhizae Radix on MRSA and antibiotic-resistant S. aureus. The methanolic extract was further fractionated with organic solvents such as hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate in that order. Results and Conclusions : The methanol-soluble extract of Glycyrrhizae Radix showed relatively high antibacterial activity against MRSA and antibiotic-resistant S. aureus. However, the water-soluble extract of Glycyrrhizae Radix showed no antibacterial activity against MRSA and antibiotic-resistant S. aureus. Among the fractions tested, the chloroform fraction showed the highest antibacterial activity against MRSA and antibiotic-resistant S. aureus. The methanol-soluble extract of Glycyrrhizae Radix minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against MRSA and antibiotics-resistant S. aureus were $5{\;}mg/m{\ell}$ in both. The methanol-soluble extract of Glycyrrhizae Radix was separated using thin-layer chromatography and detected with UV -detector. Further study should be carried out to identify which effects cell growth inhibition of MRSA and antibiotics-resistant S. aureus.

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Study on Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Surface Water Receiving Pharmaceutical Complex Effluent (제약공단 방류수 유입 하천에서의 항생제 내성 bacteria에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Young Jin;Kim, Young Gyu
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.409-418
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to characterize penicillin G resistant bacteria in surface water from pharmaceutical complex effluent. Methods: Surface water was sampled from pharmaceutical complex effluent in Gyeonggi-do Province, Korea in March 2015. Water samples were plated in triplicate on tryptic soy agar plates with 32 mg/L of penicillin G. Penicillin G resistant bacteria were selected from the effluent and subjected to 16S rRNA analysis for the penicillin G resistant species determination. Identified resistant strains were tested for resistance to various antibiotics. Results: Penicillin G resistant bacteria were present at 8.0% in terms of culturable heterotrophic bacteria. Identified penicillin G resistant bacteria exhibited resistance to more than nine of the antibiotics studied. These resistant bacteria are gram negative and are closely related to pathogenic species. Conclusion: Multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria in the surface water of pharmaceutical complex effluent suggest the need for disinfection and advanced oxidation processed for pharmaceutical effluent.