• Title/Summary/Keyword: anticancer

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Enhanced anticancer effects of a methylation inhibitor by inhibiting a novel DNMT1 target, CEP 131, in cervical cancer

  • Kim, Dong Hyun;Kim, Hye-Min;Huong, Pham Thi Thu;Han, Ho-Jin;Hwang, Joonsung;Cha-Molstad, Hyunjoo;Lee, Kyung Ho;Ryoo, In-Ja;Kim, Kyoon Eon;Huh, Yang Hoon;Ahn, Jong Seog;Kwon, Yong Tae;Soung, Nak-Kyun;Kim, Bo Yeon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.342-347
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    • 2019
  • Methylation is a primary epigenetic mechanism regulating gene expression. 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine is an FDA-approved drug prescribed for treatment of cancer by inhibiting DNA-Methyl-Transferase 1 (DNMT1). Results of this study suggest that prolonged treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine could induce centrosome abnormalities in cancer cells and that CEP131, a centrosome protein, is regulated by DNMT1. Interestingly, cancer cell growth was attenuated in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting the expression of Cep131. Finally, Cep131-deficient cells were more sensitive to treatment with DNMT1 inhibitors. These findings suggest that Cep131 is a potential novel anti-cancer target. Agents that can inhibit this protein may be useful alone or in combination with DNMT1 inhibitors to treat cancer.

Recent Progress in Drug Delivery Systems for Anticancer Agents

  • Kim, Chong-Kook;Lim, Soo-Jeong
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.229-239
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    • 2002
  • Recent progress in understanding the molecular basis of cancer brought out new materials such as oligonucleotides, genes, peptides and proteins as a source of new anticancer agents. Due to their macromolecular properties, however, new strategies of delivery for them are required to achieve their full therapeutic efficacy in clinical setting. Development of improved dosage forms of currently marketed anticancer drugs can also enhance their therapeutic values. Currently developed delivery systems for anticancer agents include colloidal systems (liposomes, emulsions, nanoparticles and micelles), polymer implants and polymer conjugates. These delivery systems have been able to provide enhanced therapeutic activity and reduced toxicity of anticancer agents mainly by altering their pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Furthermore, the identification of cell-specific receptor/antigens on cancer cells have brought the development of ligand- or antibody-bearing delivery systems which can be targeted to cancer cells by specific binding to receptors or antigens. They have exhibited specific and selective delivery of anticancer agents to cancer. As a consequence of extensive research, clinical development of anticancer agents utilizing various delivery systems is undergoing worldwide. New technologies and multidisciplinary expertise to develop advanced drug delivery systems, applicable to a wide range of anticancer agents, may eventually lead to an effective cancer therapy in the future.

Oriental Medicine papers review on Anticancer Effect of Ginseng (인삼의 항암작용에 대한 한의학 관련 논문 분석)

  • Jang, Sung-Ill;Yoo, Hwa-Seung
    • Journal of Haehwa Medicine
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.145-151
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    • 2011
  • Backgrounds: Multidisciplinary approaches including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are currently being performed to target various cancers in Western Medicine. However, some cancers still remain difficult to battle, which has long attracted many scientists for the discovery of new agents to fight cancers. Ginseng is one of the herbs used in Oriental Medicine including Korea, China and Japan. We have further investigated ginseng for its anticancer effect. Objective: This is a comprehensive review summary of anticancer effect of ginseng and ginsenoids as a possible agent for future cancer treatment. Methods: Data were retrieved from two web sites; www.pubmed.com and www.riss.kr, and authorized texts concerning anticancer effects of ginseng. From collected data, information on anticancer effect of ginseng was thoroughly sorted, restructured, then assessed. Results: Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer belongs to Araliaceae Panax family, a perennial prairie plant with its root known as Ginseng Radix. Ginseng induces anticancer effect through cell cycle arrest, acceleration of apoptosis, anti-angiogenesis, and suppression of metastasis. Anticancer effect of ginseng may be due to single compound or multi-compound actions. Many studies report involvement of immune mechanisms of cytokines, Natural Killer (NK) cells, macrophages and some antibodies in enhancing anticancer effect of ginseng. In near future, possibility of applying these mechanisms into clinical trials is convinced. There were some important findings on saponin in ginsenoids in reviewing for this article; First, eradication of metastatic tumors were influenced by macrophage activation. Second, suppression of malignant melanoma cell metastasis to lung were induced by macrophage and NK cell activation in spleen with red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP). Third, final metabolites of M1, M4 had exerted anticancer effect of ginseng. Conclusion: Unknown anticancer mechanisms of ginseng have been studied for many years up until now. Ginseng is comprised of multiple bio-chemical compounds that create complex pharmaceutical interactions. Therefore, for its proper usage and safe prescription, studies on different types of ginseng and patients' susceptibility to ginseng according to their constitution and stages of the disease should be further pursued. More efforts are needed to understand the anticancer mechanisms of ginseng as well.

A study of the tendency of anti-cancer experimental study using herbal medicines (한약(韓藥)을 이용(利用)한 항암(抗癌) 실험연구(實驗硏究)의 경향(傾向)에 관(關)한 고찰(考察))

  • Kim, Hyung-A;Lim, Sung-Woo;Lee, Won-Chul
    • THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN ORIENTAL ONCOLOGY
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.211-232
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    • 1998
  • Because there were lots of side effects and tolerances to the existing anticancer therapeutics, the experiment extracting the anticancer effect from medicinal herbs is in progress liviely. Therefore the purpose of this study were to research the tendency and the course of anticancer studies. To research the tendency of anticancer studies, medicinal herbs of fifty three experimental papers were analyzed and to examine the course of studies, anticancer papers in the medical world were used. The obtained results were as follows: Methods of herbal medicinal treatments were elimination the pathogenic factor(祛邪) and supporting healthy energy(扶正) method used. In this study, immediately tumor bearing and immune response were the most important point. The subject of immediately tumor bearing was not in the specific cancer but in the influence on the life span of general cencerous cells. In the experimental study of immune response, the effect on NK cell activity of medicinal herbs most studied. The combined usage of medicinal herbs and anticancer agent mostly intended to know whether it inhibits the tumor cell growth. The serum test and blood cell number test show if medicinal herbs inhibit side effect of anticancer agent. More than 80 percents of used medicinal herbs, there were anticancer activities. However anticancer experimental studies using medicinal herbs two weak points. The one, it was difficult to choose a prescription according to differentiation of symptoms and signs(辨證論) of the Oriental Medicine, because we put to the test not a man but a mouse. The other, as we observed the indirect effect of the whole physiological regulation caused by synergic effects of the complex prescription, we don't understand the detailed mechanism of the herb. Therefore, if the anticancer effect of the herb is proved the experiment, we should research the concrete medical action of medicinal herbs and immunological analysis of herbal medicines to the body.

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A Review on Experimental Research about Anticancer Drug Combined Treatment with Herbal Medicine for Killing or Inhibiting Proliferation of Cancer cells in Korea. (항암제와 한약재의 병용투여 시 암세포 증식억제 효과에 대한 국내 실험연구 문헌고찰)

  • Lee, Ji Eun;Choi, Jin Yong;Han, Chang Woo;Choi, Jun Yong;Park, Seong Ha;Kim, So Yeon
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.391-412
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    • 2017
  • Objective : In this study, we searched the experimental research about combined treatment of anticancer drug and herbal medicine for killing or inhibiting proliferation of Cancer cells searched in OASIS and KISS. This study aimed to analyze the experimental research paper about anticancer drug combined treatment with herbal medicine. Methods : We collected the research paper including killing or inhibiting proliferation of Cancer cells in OASIS and KISS using keyword anticancer drug with herbal medicine, tumor suppressor with herbal medicine, inhibition of Cancer with herbal medicine and combined treatment with herbal medicine. Assorting by cancer cells, we analyzed experimental results cancer cell viability, anticancer drug dosage, tumor weight and survival rate. Also, we checked the effects of herbal medicine on cancer and additive effect reducing side effect of anticancer drug. Results : Total 45 studies were selected. 38 studies reported combined treatment of anticancer drug and herbal medicine was more effective than only anticancer drug. The death of cancer cells was synergistically induced by the cotreatment of anticancer drug and herb extracts. The studies suggest that the cotreatment of anticancer drug and herb extracts could reduce side effect of anticancer drug. In addition, some studies reported cotreatment mechanism like apoptotic death signal processes. In combined treatment of anticancer drug and herb extracts, The expression of Fas/Fas L, Bax, Bcl2, Caspase-3 etc.. was markedly increased in cancer cells. Conclusions : Our results suggest that anticancer drug combined treatment with herbal medicine could be efficient for killing or inhibiting proliferation of cancer cells. However, this paper had some limitation as follows: First, collected studies have been published only for korean journal. Second, results of research and effects of combined treatment are not collected objectively. To solve these problems, more objective and balanced studies should be performed.

Analysis of Chromosome Aberrations and Micronuclei in Peripheral Lymphocytes of Nurses in a Hospital (병원 근무 간호사들의 염색체 이상 및 소핵 빈도에 미치는 위험요인)

  • Jeon Hye Jeong;Kim Tae Hwan;Choi Soo Yong;Chung Hai won
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.150-156
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    • 2005
  • Analysis of chromosome aberration (CA) and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay in peripheral lymphocytes of nurses exposed to low levels of anticancer drug and Ethylene Oxide(EO) gas in a hospital were performed. The frequency of CA was increased in the exposed compared to the controls whereas no increase of the frequency of MN was found. The frequencies of chromatid type CA were 1.2, 3.91 and 9.67 per 500 cells in the controls, workers exposed to anticancer drug and workers exposed to EO, respectively. Lower frequency of CA in nurses handling anticancer drugs with safety covers compared to those without safety covers was observed, but it was not statistically significant. The frequency of CA in nurses handling anticancer drugs increased by the frequency of mixing anticancer drugs. Poisson regression analysis showed a significant association of the frequency of chromatid type CA with age, duration of wort exposure to anticancer drug and EO gas exposure, but no association of the frequency of chromosome type CA with any variables. The results suggested that there were associations between CA and the occupational exposure to low levels of anticancer drug and EO gas.

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