• Title, Summary, Keyword: antimicrobial activity

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Pharmacological Studies of Cefoperazone(T-1551) (Cefoperazone(T-1551)의 약리학적 연구)

  • Lim J.K.;Hong S.A.;Park C.W.;Kim M.S.;Suh Y.H.;Shin S.G.;Kim Y.S.;Kim H.W.;Lee J.S.;Chang K.C.;Lee S.K.;Chang K.C.;Kim I.S.
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.55-70
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    • 1980
  • The pharmacological and microbiological studies of Cefoperazone (T-1551, Toyama Chemical Co., Japan) were conducted in vitro and in vivo. The studies included stability and physicochemical characteristics, antimicrobial activity, animal and human pharmacokinetics, animal pharmacodynamics and safety evaluation of Cefoperazone sodium for injection. 1) Stability and physicochemical characteristics. Sodium salt of cefoperazone for injection had a general appearance of white crystalline powder which contained 0.5% water, and of which melting point was $187.2^{\circ}C$. The pH's of 10% and 25% aqueous solutions were 5.03 ana 5.16 at $25^{\circ}C$. The preparations of cefoperazone did not contain any pyrogenic substances and did not liberate histamine in cats. The drug was highly compatible with common infusion solutions including 5% Dextrose solution and no significant potency decrease was observed in 5 hours after mixing. Powdered cefoperazone sodium contained in hermetically sealed and ligt-shielded container was highly stable at $4^circ}C{\sim}37^{\circ}C$ for 12 weeks. When stored at $4^{\circ}C$ the potency was retained almost completely for up to one year. 2) Antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates. Among the 230 clinical isolates included, Salmonella typhi was the most susceptible to cefoperazone, with 100% inhibition at MIC of ${\leq}0.5{\mu}g/ml$. Cefoperazone was also highly active against Streptococcus pyogenes(group A), Kletsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella flexneri, with 100% inhibition at $16{\mu}g/ml$ or less. More than 80% of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes and Salmonella paratyphi was inhibited at ${\leq}16{\mu}/ml$, while Enterobacter cloaceae, Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aerogenosa were somewhat less sensitive to cefoperagone, with inhibitions of 60%, 55% and 35% respectively at the same MIC. 3) Animal pharmacokinetics Serum concentration, organ distritution and excretion of cefoperazone in rats were observed after single intramuscular injections at doses of 20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg. The extent of protein binding to human plasma protein was also measured in vitro br equilibrium dialysis method. The mean Peak serum concentrations of $7.4{\mu}g/ml$ and $16.4{\mu}/ml$ were obtained at 30 min. after administration of cefoperazone at doses of 20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg respectively. The tissue concentrations of cefoperazone measured at 30 and 60 min. were highest in kidney. And the concentrations of the drug in kidney, liver and small intestine were much higher than in blood. Urinary and fecal excretion over 24 hours after injetcion ranged form 12.5% to 15.0% in urine and from 19.6% to 25.0% in feces, indicating that the gastrointestinal system is more important than renal system for the excretion of cefoperazone. The extent of binding to human plasma protein measured by equilibrium dialysis was $76.3%{\sim}76.9%$, which was somewhat lower than the others utilizing centrifugal ultrafiltration method. 4) Animal pharmacodynamics Central nervous system : Effects of cefoperazone on the spontaneous movement and general behavioral patterns of rats, the pentobarbital sleeping time in mice and the body temperature in rabbits were observed. Single intraperitoneal injections at doses of $500{\sim}2,000mg/kg$ in rats did not affect the spontaneous movement ana the general behavioral patterns of the animal. Doses of $125{\sim}500mg/kg$ of cefoperazone injected intraperitonealy in mice neither increased nor decreased the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time. In rabbits the normal body temperature was maintained following the single intravenous injections of $125{\sim}2,000mg/kg$ dose. Respiratory and circulatory system: Respiration rate, blood pressure, heart rate and ECG of anesthetized rabbits were monitored for 3 hours following single intravenous injections of cefoperazone at doses of $125{\sim}2,000mg/kg$. The respiration rate decreased by $3{\sim}l7%$ at all the doses of cefoperazone administered. Blood pressure did not show any changes but slight decrease from 130/113 to 125/107 by the highest dose(2,000 mg/kg) injected in this experiment. The dosages of 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg seemed to slightly decrease the heart rate, but it was not significantly different from the normal control. All the doses of cefoperazone injected were not associated with any abnormal changes in ECG findings throughout the monitering period. Autonomic nervous system and smooth muscle: Effects of cefoperazone on the automatic movement of rabbit isolated small intestine, large intestine, stomach and uterus were observed in vitro. The autonomic movement and tonus of intestinal smooth muscle increased at dose of $40{\mu}g/ml$ in small intestine and at 0.4 mg/ml in large intestine. However, in stomach and uterine smooth muscle the autonomic movement was slightly increased by the much higher doses of 5-10 mg/ml. Blood: In vitro osmotic fragility of rabbit RBC suspension was not affected by cefoperazone of $1{\sim}10mg/ml$. Doses of 7.5 and 10 mg/ml were associated with 11.8% and 15.3% prolongation of whole blood coagulation time. Liver and kidney function: When measured at 3 hours after single intravenous injections of cefoperaonze in rabbits, the values of serum GOT, GPT, Bilirubin, TTT, BUN and creatine were not significantly different from the normal control. 5) Safety evaluation Acute toxicity: The acute toxicity of cefoperazone was studied following intraperitoneal and intravenous injections to mice(A strain, 4 week old) and rats(Sprague-Dawler, 6 week old). The LD_(50)'s of intraperitonealy injected cefoperazone were 9.7g/kg in male mice, 9.6g/kg in female mice and over 15g/kg in both male and female rats. And when administered intravenously in rats, LD_(50)'s were 5.1g/kg in male and 5.0g/kg in female. Administrations of the high doses of the drug were associated with slight inhibition of spontaneous movement and convulsion. Atdominal transudate and intestinal hyperemia were observed in animals administered intraperitonealy. In rats receiving high doses of the drug intravenously rhinorrhea and pulmonary congestion and edema were also observed. Renal proximal tubular epithelial degeneration was found in animals dosing in high concentrations of cefoperazone. Subacute toxicity: Rats(Sprague-Dawley, 6 week old) dosing 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg/day of cefoperazone intraperitonealy were observed for one month and sacrificed at 24 hours after the last dose. In animals with a high dose, slight inhibition of spontaneous movement was observed during the experimental period. Soft stool or diarrhea appeared at first or second week of the administration in rats receiving 2.0g/kg. Daily food consumption and weekly weight gain were similar to control during the administration. Urinalysis, blood chemistry and hematology after one month administration were not different from control either. Cecal enlargement, which is an expected effect of broad spectrum antibiotic altering the normal intestinal microbial flora, was observed. Intestinal or peritoneal congestion and peritonitis were found. These findings seemed to be attributed to the local irritation following prolonged intraperitoneal injections of hypertonic and acidic cefoperazone solution. Among the histopathologic findings renal proximal tubular epithelial degeneration was characteristic in rats receiving 1 and 2g/kg/day, which were 10 and 20 times higher than the maximal clinical dose (100 mg/kg) of the drug. 6) Human pharmacokinetics Serum concentrations and urinary excretion were determined following a single intravenous injection of 1g cefoperazone in eight healthy, male volunteers. Mean serum concentrations of 89.3, 61.3, 26.6, 12.3, 2.3, and $1.8{\mu}g/ml$ occured at 1,2,4,6,8 and 12 hours after injection respectively, and the biological half-life was 108 minutes. Urinary excretion over 24 hours after injection was up to 43.5% of administered dose.

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The Effect of Two Terpenoids, Ursolic Acid and Oleanolic Acid on Epidermal Permeability Barrier and Simultaneously on Dermal Functions (우솔릭산과 올레아놀산이 피부장벽과 진피에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구)

  • Suk Won, Lim;Sung Won, Jung;Sung Ku, Ahn;Bora, Kim;In Young, Kim;Hee Chang , Ryoo;Seung Hun, Lee
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.263-278
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    • 2004
  • Ursolic acid (UA) and Oleanolic acid (ONA), known as urson, micromerol and malol, are pentacyclic triterpenoid compounds which naturally occur in a large number of vegetarian foods, medicinal herbs, and plants. They may occur in their free acid form or as aglycones for triterpenoid saponins, which are comprised of a triterpenoid aglycone, linked to one or more sugar moieties. Therefore UA and ONA are similar in pharmacological activity. Lately scientific research, which led to the identification of UA and ONA, revealed that several pharmacological effects, such as antitumor, hepato-protective, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and anti-hyperlipidemic could be attributed to UA and ONA. Here, we introduced the effect of UA and ONA on acutely barrier disrupted and normal hairless mouse skin. To evaluate the effects of UA and ONA on epidermal permeability barrier recovery, both flanks of 8-12 week-old hairless mice were topically treated with either 0.01-0.1mg/mL UA or 0.1-1mg/mL ONA after tape stripping, and TEWL (transepidermal water loss) was measured. The recovery rate increased in those UA or ONA treated groups (0.1mg/mL UA and 0.5mg/mL ONA) at 6h more than 20% compared to vehicle treated group (p < 0.05). Here, we introduced the effects of UA and ONA on acute barrier disruption and normal epidermal permeability barrier function. For verifying the effects of UA and ONA on normal epidermal barrier, hydration and TEWL were measured for 1 and 3 weeks after UA and ONA applications (2mg/mL per day). We also investigated the features of epidermis and dermis using electron microscopy (EM) and light microscopy (LM). Both samples increased hydration compared to vehicle group from 1 week without TEWL alteration (p < 0.005). EM examination using RuO4 and OsO4 fixation revealed that secretion and numbers of lamellar bodies and complete formation of lipid bilayers were most prominent (ONA=UA > vehicle). LM finding showed that thickness of stratum corneum (SC) was slightly increased and especially epidermal thickening and flattening was observed (UA > ONA > vehicle). We also observed that UA and ONA stimulate epidermal keratinocyte differentiation via PPAR Protein expression of involucrin, loricrin, and filaggrin increased at least 2 and 3 fold in HaCaT cells treated with either ONA (10${\mu}$M) or UA (10${\mu}$M) for 24 h respectively. This result suggested that the UA and ONA can improve epidermal permeability barrier function and induce the epidermal keratinocyte differentiation via PPAR Using Masson-trichrome and elastic fiber staining, we observed collagen thickening and elastic fiber elongation by UA and ONA treatments. In vitro results of collagen and elastin synthesis and elastase inhibitory activity measurements were also confirmed in vivo findings. These data suggested that the effects of UA and ONA related to not only epidermal permeability barrier functions but also dermal collagen and elastic fiber synthesis. Taken together, UA and ONA can be relevant candidates to improve epidermal and dermal functions and pertinent agents for cosmeseutical applications.

Causative Pathogens and Therapeutic Assessment of Cefprozil in Acute Otitis Media (급성 중이염의 원인 병원균과 Cefprozil 치료의 임상적 평가)

  • Kang, Jin-Han;Kim, Jong Hyun;Park, Yong-Soo;Choi, Young-Chul;Noh, Heil;Yang, Hoon Shik;Kim, Kyu Sung;Moon, Yeon Sook;Hong, Young Jin
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.459-466
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : AOM is the most common bacterial URI in children. The bacteriology and antibiotic Tx of AOM in children has been studied in many countries. But, there is few study of causative pathogens and antibiotic Tx of AOM in our country. In this aspect, we performed prospective clinical study to confirm the causative pathogens and assess the clinical responses of cefprozil in AOM patients. Methods : Thirty three AOM patients enrolled in this study. Tympanocentesis for isolation of causative pathogens were performed before Tx of cefprozil. The study patients received cefprozil with dose of 15 mg/kg/bid.po/day for 10-12 days, and initially assessed the clinical response at 4-5 days after receiving cefprozil and finally at the end visit. In vitro susceptibility tests of cefprozil to isolated pathogens were done by disc diffusion method, and in vitro susceptibility tests of cefaclor and cefixime to isolated pathogens were simultaneously performed. Results : Bacterial pathogens[S. pneumoniae(10), H. influenzae(5), S. aureus(2), M. catarrhalis(1) and Group A stretococcus(1)] were isolated from 19 patients. Clinically, all patients had history of abrupt high fever except one. Tympanic perforation was dominant in pathogens isolated cases, and otalgia was significantly developed in non-pathogens isolated cases. The ages of pathogens isolated cases were usually below 2 years. Eighty four point nine percent of the patients including two cases with isolation of intermediate resistant S. pneumoniae were clinically improved. Antimicrobial in vitro activity to S. pneumoniae of cefprozil were superior than that of cefacor and cefixime. Conclusion : We confirm that bacteria has the causative role in about 60% cases, and S. pneumoniae is the most common pathogen. Clinically, there were some differences in symptoms, signs and ages between pathogens isolated and non-pathogens isolated cases. The clinical responses of cefprozil in our patients revealed similar outcomes to other countries. And we reconfirm that cefprozil may be clinically effective in cases of AOM due to intermediate resistant S. pneumoniae.

Effects of Medicinal Plants Extract on Naengmyeon Broth (약용식물 추출물이 냉면육수에 미치는 영향)

  • 김명숙;최윤희;홍선표
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.328-333
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    • 2003
  • When the extract of the medicinal plants, Kaempferia galanga L., Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Foeniculum vulgare, was added to Naengmyeon broth with the concentration of 0.1% and 0.3% each, its effect during the preservation time of broth was investigated. pH of the extract-added broth was lower than control at the initial, but higher after 72 hours of preservation, which showed that when it added 0.1% and 0.3% of extract to the broth, pH of Kaempferia galanga L. was 4.92 and 5.08 respectively, whereas control was 4.60. Titratable acidity was lowered after 48 hours and also Kaempferia galanga L. showed the lowest acidity with 0.66 for adding 0.1% of its extract and 0.55 for 0.3% of adding, but control was 0.89 at the time of 90 hours of preservation, and then it showed to be lowered in the order of Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Eugenia caryophyllata and Foeniculum vuigare. Turbidity of each broth added the extracts of four of the medicinal plants was 7.5∼7.9 and 7.9∼8.2, respectively for 0.1% and 0.3% of concentration at the initial, but it began to lower and 90 hours later it was 8.8∼9.5 and 8.7∼9.0 respectively, whereas control was 10.8. Total viable cells(TVC) and coliform bacteria(CB) were increased with great at the 72 hours of preservation time, and Kaempferia galanga L. was the most effective, which when control was 4.8${\times}$10 CFU/ml at 72 hours, TVC was 1.7${\times}$10 CFU/ml for the addition of 0.1% of extract and 0.9${\times}$10 CFU/ml for 0.3%. CB was 3.2${\times}$10 CFU/ml for 0.1% and 1.7${\times}$10 CFU/ml for 0.3% respectively and 6.0 ${\times}$ 10 CFU/ml for control at the time of 72 hours, and it was lowered in the order of Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Eugenia caryophyllata and Foeniculum vulgare. Volatile basic nitrogen content detected that control was 2.67mg% at first, and then increased to 3.96mg% at 90 hours of preservation, but the broth added with the extract of Kaempferia galanga L. was 2.58mg% for 0.1% and 2.47mg% for 0.3% at the initial, and at 90 hours it was 3.64mg% and 3.33mg% respectively. The results of adding the extracts of four medicinal plants for the improvement of the preservation time of Naengmyeon broth, were that the most effective medicinal plant was Kaempferia galanga L. and the antimicrobial activity of the medicinal plant extracts for Naengmyeon broth was highly effective after 3 days of preservation time.

The Development of Functional Seasoning Chicken Products using Natural Extracts of Green Tea and Water Soluble Mineral Ion (녹차와 기능수를 이용한 기능성 양념 계육 개발)

  • 성삼경;조영석;김은주;김수민
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.171-179
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    • 2003
  • In order to investigate the effects of pickle carrier on physico-chemical characteristics of seasoning chicken products, chicken were cured in seasoning containing 100 ppm germanium water, green tea, water soluble mineral and mixtures(100 ppm germanium water+green tea+water soluble mineral) after addition of 0.1% concentration to the weight of chicken. The determination of pH, salt and sugar contents were carried out, according to curing time. The salt content showed 1.11 %, 1.21 % in cured at 24 hours in control of breast and leg, irrespective of chicken parts, in which showed 19.94 brix, 18.89 brix in sugar content, respectively. These results mean that breast and leg meat added with natural extracts and functional water showed higher sugar content than that of control, in which revealed shortening of curing time by increasing penetrating velocity of salt and sugar content. Thus, salt and sugar content tended to be increased as the curing time of pickle carrier were extended in seasoning chicken after dipping in pickle containing water soluble mineral ions for 6 hours. The seasoning chicken treated with natural extracts and functional water showed a lower than that of control in hardness, irrespective of chicken parts. Overall, the seasoning chicken treated with natural extracts and functional water showed a low TBARS value and Log CFU/g, in which revealed antioxidative and antimicrobial activity. The sensory evaluations of seasoning chicken added with natural extracts and functional water containing water-soluble mineral ions were not significantly different(P<0.05). The glutamic acid among free amino acid contents showed a high in seasoning chicken treated with green tea, compared to control. This amino acid played a important role in taste of seasoning meat. The doneness appearance in seasoning chicken added with natural extracts and functional water containing water-soluble mineral ions tended to not be different, compared to those of control. These results revealed that seasoning chicken added with natural extracts and functional water containing water-soluble mineral ions would be attractive in fast food market on the basis of improvement of tenderness, shortening of curing time and uniformity of roasting appearance in seasoning chicken.

Developments of Functional Sausage using Plant Extracts from Pine Needle and Green Tea (솔잎 및 녹차 추출물을 이용한 기능성 소시지 개발)

  • 김수민;조영석;성삼경;이일구;이신호;김대곤
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.20-29
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    • 2002
  • The functional sausage added to effective extracts are prepared to carried out to investigate functional and storage characteristics. This products were stored at different temperature. The changes of pH were tended to be a little ranged from pH 6.07 to pH 6.35 in control. At the same time, the pH changes treated with plant extracts showed the same tendency as control. The treatments using natural extracts revealed a little low TBARS value during storage at 10$^{\circ}C$. The nitrite scavenging ability of extracts from pine needle were higher than those of green tea extracts, irrespective of storage temperature. The VBN content was tended to be increased as storage time goes by, irrespective of storage temperature. The treatments using plant extracts revealed a little low VBN content, compared to control during storage. The changes of total bacteria were more increased to 2.2${\times}$10$^1$∼3.2 ${\times}$ 10$\^$6/ CFU/g during storage at 30$^{\circ}C$ than 2.2${\times}$10$^1$∼3.3${\times}$10$^2$CFU/g in case of storage at 10$^{\circ}C$. The treatments using plant extracts revealed an antimicrobial activity until storage at 3 days, compared to control. The lightness of sausage color were a little more decreased gradually during storage at 30$^{\circ}C$ than those of storage at 10$^{\circ}C$. Overall, the lightness of sausage color treated with pine needle extracts were a more bright than those of control. However, the redness of sausage color treated with pine needle and green tea showed the most lowest red color, compared to control. Sensory test suggested that the changes of sausage color, flavor, texture and taste were tended to be decreased gradually. In conclusion, pine needle extract was the most effective natural resources on the basis of the functional and physico-chemical properties of sausage of sausage.

Effects of Gemifloxacin on Achilles Tendon in Immature Rats (Gemifloxacin이 미성숙 랫드의 아킬레스건에 미치는 영향)

  • Bae, Jin-Gye;Kim, Young-Soo;Kim, Se-Eun;Shim, Kyung-Mi;Kang, Seong-Soo;Cho, Ik-Hyun;Lee, Soo-Han;Park, Chang-Hyun;Uhm, Chang-Sub;Jeong, Moon-Jin;Han, Song-Iy;Lim, Sung-Chul;Bae, Chun-Sik
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 2006
  • Gemifloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent that exhibits potent activity against most Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms, and has a comparatively low chondrotoxic potential in immature animals. This study examined the effects of gemifloxacin on the Achilles tendons in immature Sprague-Dawley rats treated by oral intubation once daily for 5 consecutive days from postnatal week 4 onward at doses of 0 (vehicle), and 600mg/kg body weight Ofloxacin was used for comparison. The Achilles tendon sperimens were examined by electron microscopy. In comparison with the vehicle-treated controls, there were ultrastructural changes in all samples from the gemifloxacin- and ofloxacin-treated rats. Degenerative changes were observed in the tenocytes, and the cells that detached from the extracellular matrix were recognizable. The degree of degenerative changes and the number of degenerated cells in the Achilles tendon were significantly higher in the treated group than in the control group. Moreover, among the quinolone treated groups, these findings were more significant in the ofloxacin treated group, and less significant in the gemifloxacin treated group. It is unclear what these findings mean with respect to the possible risk ill juvenile patients treated with gemifloxacin or other quinolones. However, these results show that gemifloxacin causes fewer changes in the connective tissue structures.

Effect of Pitamin as an Antibiotics Replacement for Organic livestock Feed Additives in Broiler Chickens (유기사료원료로서 소나무껍질 추출물 피타민의 브로일러에 대한 항생제 대체효과)

  • Kim, Byong-Wan;Oh, Jin-Seok;Han, Ohan-Taek;Park, Sang-Oh;Park, Byung-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.111-125
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    • 2009
  • Pitamin is a component of pine bark extract that exhibits antimicrobial activity and a variety of physiological effects. This study was earned out to investigate the effects of dietary pitamin as an organic livestock feed additive in broiler chickens. A 35 day trial was conducted to determine the influence of dietary premix containing 5% pitamin; investigated parameters included blood lipids, growth performance, quality characteristics of carcasses, and changes of caecal microbials in broiler chickens. Chickens were randomly divided into groups that were untreated (control), treated conventionally with antibiotics in the absence of premix, received 0.1 % or 0.2% premix containing 5% pitamin. Plasma lipids were lower in groups fed diets with pitamin premix (p<0.05). The body weight gain from broiler chickens fed with the diet containing 0.1% pitamin premix and antibiotics was similar, and was significantly higher than that of the other groups (p<0.05). The weight of breast muscle and thigh meat of carcasses was similar, and was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). Abdominal fat and thymus index from chickens receiving either pitamin-supplemented premix was significantly lower and increased, respectively, that of the antibiotic and control groups (both p<0.05). The chickens on the pitamin premix-supplemented diets evidenced significantly higher caecal levels of Bifidobacterium species as compared with the chickens on the control diet (p<0.05). These results suggest that feeding a diet supplemented with a 0.1% premix containing 5.0% pitamin for 35 days maintains the production of broiler chickens at a level comparable to that obtained from the use of antibiotics.

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Study on Anti-inflammatory and Anti-microbial Effect of Pinus rigida Mill. inner Bark Extracts as a Cosmetic Material (리기다소나무(Pinus rigida Mill.) 내수피 추출물에 대한 화장품 소재로써의 항염 및 항균효과)

  • Jang, Min-Jung;Kim, Young-Hun;An, Bong-Jeun;Lee, Chang-Eeon;Lee, Jin-Tae;Kim, Sea-Hyun;Lee, Byung-Guen;Lee, Do-Hyung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.97 no.3
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    • pp.215-220
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    • 2008
  • Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in the applications of plant-based extracts to both cosmetic and medicinal industries. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effect of P. rigida extracts by water and ethyl acetate. Anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effect of P. rigida extracts by water and EtOAc were investigated by using nitrite scavenging ability, nitric oxide production and anti-microbial ability. In the test of nitrite scavenging ability, P. rigida extracts by water and EtOAc showed 88.7% and 99% at 100 ppm concentration, respectively. The cell viability was measured using the MTT assay at 24 hours after P. rigida extracts as shown in over 80%. Anti-inflammatory effect was examined in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. NO productions in LPS and P. rigida extracts stimulated group were decreased in a concentration and were dependent on time as compared with LPS stimulated. The water extracts showed the highest inhibition at the 100 ppm concentration. In anti-microbial activity test, the water extract with 3.0 mg/disc resulted in the clear zone of 14 mm, and ethyl acetate with that of 15 mm for Staphylococcus aureus. However, P. rigida extracts didn't show any growth inhibitory effect on Esherichia coli. These results indicate that the extracts of P. rigida have anti-inflammatory activities as a cosmeceuticals.

Utilization of Probiotic Starter Cultures for the Manufacture of Low-fat Functional Fermented Sausages (저지방 기능성 발효소시지의 제조를 위한 복합 유산균주의 이용)

  • Kim, Young-J.;Lee, Hong-C.;Park, Sung-Y.;Park, Sun-Y.;Oh, Se-Jong;Chin, Koo-B.
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.51-58
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    • 2008
  • This study was performed to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of fermented sausages containing probiotic starter cultures (LK-30 plus, Lactobacillus plantarum 155 and 167, and Pediococcus damnosus L12) with reduced fat levels, and to determine the optimum condition for the manufacture of these products. Although low-fat fermented sausages were reduced fat content at the amount of 90% and the ripening time by 1-2 weeks, as compared to regular-fat counterpart, they became harder and had many winkles outside due to the extreme drying. In addition, fat level in fermented sausages affected the composition and shear force values. During ripening, pH, lightness and yellowness values tended to decrease, however, microbial counts of inoculated lactic acid bacteria were increased up to $10^8-10^9cfu/g$ within 3 days and remained constant thereafter. Low-fat fermented sausages had higher microbial counts than regular-fat ones. Although the inoculated probiotic starter cultures alone had the functional properties, such as cholesterol reduction, anti-high blood pressure and antimicrobial activity, they did not have distinctive characteristics in the fermented sausages. Based on these results, the low-fat fermented sausages were successfully manufactured, but a little bit increased fat level and improved functional properties in the fermented sausages would be required to have better quality as compared to regular-fat counterparts.