• Title, Summary, Keyword: antimicrobial activity

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Antimicrobial Activity of Garlic Heated under Different Conditions, Time of Heating, and pH

  • Kim, Eun-Hee;Kang, Seung-Sik;Kang, Dong-Hee;Kyung, Kyu-Hang
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.771-775
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    • 2009
  • Antimicrobial activity of garlic (pH 6.0) heated at $120^{\circ}C$ reached its maximum at 45 min of heating and maintained the level for the rest of heating time (300 min) when tested against Candida utilis ATCC42416. The principal antimicrobial compound was allyl alcohol (AA), a highly volatile compound without sulfur in its molecule. The concentration of AA in heated garlic gradually increased to over 2,000 ppm for the first 90 min and stayed at the level without appreciable changes in spite of further heating. Other antimicrobial compounds secondary to AA were lowly volatile sulfur compounds including diallyl polysulfides (diallyl trisulfide, diallyl tetrasulfide, and diallyl pentasulfide) and heterocyclic sulfur compounds (4-methyl-1,2,3-trithiolane, 5-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrathiane, and 6-methyl-1,2,3,4,5-pentathiepane). When the pH of the garlic extract was lowered before heating, considerably more secondary antimicrobial sulfur compounds were formed and the antimicrobial activity was stronger than the pH unadjusted garlic. Lowly volatile sulfur compounds contributed a significant part of antimicrobial activity of heated garlic only during the early period (45-120 min) of heating regardless of pH treatment.

Antimicrobial Activity of Chemical Substances Derived from S-Alk(en)yl-L-Cysteine Sulfoxide (Alliin) in Garlic, Allium sativum L.

  • Choi, Mi-Kyung;Chae, Kyung-Yeon;Lee, Joo-Young;Kyung, Kyu-Hang
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2007
  • Garlic (Allium sativum L.) contains a specific sulfur compound, the S-allyl derivative of L-cysteine sulfoxide, and has long been known for its antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. The principal antimicrobial compound of garlic is S-allyl-L-propenethiosulfinate (allicin) which is generated by an enzyme, alliinase (L-cysteine sulfoxide lyase), from S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (alliin). This compound exists exclusively in Allium as a major non-protein sulfur-containing amino acid. S-Allyl-L-propenethiosulfinate belongs to the chemical group of thiosulfinates and is a highly potent antimicrobial. The potency of garlic extract is reduced during storage since thiosulfinates are unstable and are degraded to other compounds some of which do not have antimicrobial activity. Diallyl polysulfides and ajoene are sulfur compounds derived from allicin that do possess antimicrobial activity. It was recently found that garlic becomes antimicrobial on heating at cooking temperatures, and that the compound responsible for this is allyl alcohol, which is generated from alliin by thermal degradation.

Developing a Testing Method for Antimicrobial Efficacy on TiO2 Photocatalytic Products

  • Kim, Jee-Yeon;Park, Chang-Hun;Yoon, Je-Yong
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.136-140
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    • 2008
  • $TiO_2$ photocatalyst has been known to exhibit a notable disinfecting activity against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. A lot of commercial $TiO_2$ photocatalyst products have been developed for antimicrobial purposes. However, a standard method has not yet been proposed for use in testing antimicrobial activity. In this study, we developed a $TiO_2$ photocatalytic adhesion test method with film as the standard testing method for the evaluation of antimicrobial activity. This method was devised by modifying the previous antimicrobial products test method, which has been widely used, and considering the characteristics of $TiO_2$ photocatalytic reaction. The apparatus for testing the antimicrobial activity was composed of a Black Light Blue (BLB) lamp as UV-A light source, a Petri dish as the cover material, and a polypropylene film as the adhesion film. The standard $TiO_2$ photocatalyst sample, Degussa P25 $TiO_2$ - coated glass, could only be used once. The optimal initial concentration of the microorganism, proper light intensity, and light irradiation time were determined to be $10^6$ CFU/mL, 1.0 mW/$cm^2$, and 3 hr, respectively, for testing and evaluating antimicrobial activity on the $TiO_2$ surface.

Synergy Effect of Chlorhexidine and Essential Oils on Antimicrobial Activity in Dental Impression Materials (치과용 인상재에서의 클로르헥시딘과 에센셜 오일의 항균성능에 대한 상승효과)

  • Lee, Kwang-Rae
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.240-244
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    • 2018
  • There is growing concern about cross infection among the patients to patients, patients to staffs, and tools to patients in healthcare facilities, especially in dentistry. In this study, the most widely used dental impression materials were prepared and the synergy effect of Chlorhexidine and essential oil on antimicrobial activity was examined in the impression materials. Chlorhexidine concentration of 0.1 wt% and 0.5 wt% showed no antimicrobial activity on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Candida albicans. At 1.0 wt% Chlorhexidine, 0% of E. coli and 34.7% of Candida albicans were survived. Bergamot (Essential oil) concentration of 0.5 wt% and 1.0 wt% showed no antimicrobial activity on E. coli. At 2.0 wt% Bergamot oil, 71.9% of E. coli were survived. Tea tree oil (Essential oil) of 0.5 wt% showed no antimicrobial activity on E. coli. At 1.0 wt% Tea tree oil, 11.2% of E. coli was survived. At 2.0 wt% Tea tree oil, no E. coli was survived. However, no E. coli was survived at the concentration of 0.8 wt% Bergamot with 0.3 wt% Chlorhexidine. At the concentration of 0.8 wt% Tea Tree oil with 0.3 wt% Chlorhexidine, 1.3% of E. coli were survived. The experimental results showed that the synergy effects between Chlorhexidine and essential oils on antimicrobial activity were prominent.

Antimicrobial finishes of Textiles with Poly(hexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride) Containing Silicone Reactive Groups -Effects of Treatment Methods and Kind of Fibers on the Laundering Durability- (실리콘 반응성기가 도입된 Poly(hexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride)를 이용한 섬유제품의 항미생물 가공-처리방법과 섬유 종류에 따른 내세탁성 변화-)

  • 김영호;최재원
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.38 no.8
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    • pp.410-419
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    • 2001
  • Poly(hexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride) containing silicone reactive groups (PHGS) was used as an antimicrobial finishing agent for textile fabrics, and the effects of treatment methods and kind of fibers on the laundering durability of antimirobial activity were studied. The antimicrobial activity of PHGS-treated cotton fabrics was not affected by the treatment methods such as padding methods, padding temperature, drying or curing conditions. They showed excellent antimicrobial activity even after laundering with alkaline detergents. On the other hand the synthetic fiver fabrics, such as PET, nylon 6, and acrylics, treated with PHGS solution under various conditions exhibited no antimicrobial activity after launderings although they showed excellent antimicrobial activity before laundering. These results ruled out the possibility that the durability in the case of cotton fabrics may come from the formation of insoluble crosslinked film on the fiber surface via self-crosslinking between hydroxyl groups in PHGS. They rather confirmed the suggestion that the reactions between PHGS and hydroxyl groups in cellulose impart laundering durability to PHGS treated cotton fabric.

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Effects of Solvents and Extracting Condition on the Antimicrobial Activity of Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix (Saliva miltiorrhiza ) Extract (용매와 추출조건에 따른 단삼 (Salvia mitiorrhiza) 추출물의 항균력)

  • 목종수;박욱연;김영목;장동석
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.1001-1007
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    • 1994
  • In order to develop a natural food preservative, dried salviae miltiorrhizae radix (Salvia miltiorrhiza) was extracted with several solvents, and then antimicrobial activity was investigated. The optimum extracting condition for the antimicrobial sustance from the sample, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracted substance against microorganisms were also examined. Antimicrobial activity of the initial ethanol extract from the sample was the strongest compared to those of other solvent extracts such as n-hexane, acetone, butanol, methanol and water. the optimum extractingcondition for antimicrobial substance from the sample was shaking extraction for 2 hours at room temperature incase that 10 volumes of absolute ethanol was added to crushed Saliva Miltiorrhiza. The ethanol extract had strong growth inhibition activity against Gram-positive Bacteria (MIC, 3.13-50$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml) such as B. cereus, B, subtilis, L. minocytogenes, S. aureus, Sc. Mutans. Among Grampositive bacteria tested, Bacillus species was the most susceptibile to the extracted substance. The antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract from the sample was weak to Gram -negative bacteria yeasts, for example MIC for Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts was 0.8mg/ml and 0.4-0.8mg/ml , respectively.

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오미자 추출물의 항균특성 검토

  • Park, Yang-Won
    • 한국생물공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.495-496
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the Omija extracts against the microorganism. The extracts were shown the antimicrobial activity, 10 percents e χ tracts inhibited the growth of bacteria in the various temperature ranges. However no affect shown the other fungi except the bacteria. As the results antimicrobial activity of the all extracts were not destroyed in the high temperature furthermore it shows the strong antimicrobial activity against the autoclave at $121^{\circ}C$ for 15min.

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Antimicrobial Activity of Rumex crispus Fractions

  • Lee, Kyoung-Min;Jeong, Gwi-Taek;Park, Don-Hee
    • 한국생물공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.268-270
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Rumex crispus development of antibiotics derived from natural products. To confirm antimicrobial activity, paper disc method and growth inhibition in liquid culture were applied. Antimicrobial activity was observed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Vibrio vulificus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Cαndida bombicola.

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Comparative study on the antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activity of commercially available toothpastes (수종의 상용 세치제들의 향균 및 향염효과 비교연구)

  • Rhyu, In-Chul
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.557-566
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    • 1996
  • It is known that some natural extracts from plants have a various range of antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activity. There are lots of clinical trials to develop toothpastes containing natural extracts for prevention of dental caries and gingival inflammation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activity of magnolol containing toothpastes and other commercial toothpastes. Eleven kinds oftoothpastes were used. They include magnolol, sanguinarine, Myrrha, Mori radicis cortex,Cimicifugae rhizoma, sodium fluoride, aminocaprolactic acid etc. Six strains of bacteria were used for this test, ego Porphylomonas gingivalis, Prevotellain-termedia, Actinobacillus actinomy cetemcomitans, Streptococcus mutans, Stretococcus sanguis, and Actinomyces species. Antimicrobial activity was determined by an agar dillution method and a broth microdillution method. Antiinflammatory activity was assessed by the inhibition of $PGE_2$ production from gingival fibroblast with the addition of rHIL-1 and centrifuged solution of toothpastes. Control group was only rHIL-1 additive sample. $PGE_2$ enzyme immunoassay systemfAmersham, In. Buckinghamshire, U.K). $PGE_2$ level was measured by ELISA reader with 450 nm, The results from the study revealed that toothpastes containing natural extracts generally had high antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activity. Especially magnolol containing toothpaste showed higher antimicrobial activity than other toothpastes, and sanguinarine containing toothpaste showed particularly high antimicrobial activity in A. actinomicetemcomitans and A. viscosus. In some degree all toothpastes inhibited $PGE_2$ production, but magnolol containing toothpaste was potent inhibitor of $PGE_2$. Sodium chloride containing toothpaste had also effective result. The results suggested that toothpastes containing natural extracts were promising in plaque control and prevention of dental caries and gingivitis.

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Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and total phenolic content of three Pinus species

  • Kim, Hyeusoo;Lee, Byongsoon;Yun, Kyeong Won
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 2013
  • This study compared the antimicrobial activity and total phenolic content of three Pinus plants (Pinus densiflora, P. thunbergii, P. rigida) for the first time. The antimicrobial activity of the water fraction of methanol extract of fresh leaves was stronger than that of fallen leaves at any concentrations. The water fraction of crude methanol extract from fresh leaves of P. thunbergii showed a higher growth inhibitory activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria than that of P. densiflora and P. rigida. The results from the disc diffusion method followed by measurements of minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) indicate that Bacillus subtilis was the most sensitive microorganism with the lowest MIC value. The highest total phenolic content was found in fresh leaves of P. rigida and P. thunbergii. The assay showed that the fresh leaves of the three Pinus plants contained higher total phenolic content than fallen leaves of the three plants. The antimicrobial activity was related with the total phenolic content.