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Biological activity and analysis of α-glucosidase inhibitor from mulberry (Morus alba L.) wine (오디와인의 생리활성 및 α-glucosidase 저해제의 분석)

  • Son, Woo-Rim;Choi, Sang-Won
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.877-885
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    • 2013
  • Wine extracts of four different berry fruits, such as mulberry, blueberry, strawberry, and raspberry, were investigated for antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase, and ${\alpha}$-glucosidase activities by using in vitro assays. Additionally, quantitative changes of ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitor in mulberry wine were determined by HPLC according to mulberry cultivars and fermentation process. Among four berry wines examined, mulberry wine showed the most potent ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory activity with 69.37% at 0.23 mg/mL, while blueberry and strawberry wines exhibited the strongest inhibition against DPPH radical and tyrosinase activity, respectively. Four compounds were isolated and purified from mulberry wine by a series of isolation procedures, such as solvent fractionation, and Diaion HP-20, ODS-A, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Among them, Comp. 4 exerted the strongest ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory activity ($I_C_{50}=31.57{\mu}M$), and its chemical structure was identified as quercetin by UV and NMR spectral analysis. Finally, the "Daeseongppong" (16.83 ppm) muberry wine had larger amount of quercetin than the "Iksuppong" (14.85 ppm) and "Cheongilppong" (8.92 ppm) mulberry wines, but their contents of three mulberry wines decreased considerably with aging process. These results suggest that mulberry wine containing quercetin acted as ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitor may be useful as a potential functional wine for improving diabetic disorder.

Biological Activity of Sorghum bicolor M. cv. Bulgeunjangmoksusu Extracts (붉은장목수수 추출물의 생리활성)

  • Kim, Joo-Seok;Lee, Yea-Ji;Yang, Jinfeng;Sa, Yeo-Jin;Kim, Myeong-Ok;Park, Jong-Hyuk;Park, Dong-Sik;Yu, Chang-Yeon;Kim, Myong-Jo
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.111-118
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to determine the biological activities of Sorglum bicolor extracts. Organic fractions, including n-Hexane, EtOAc, and n-BuOH fractions were obtained from the methanol extract of Sorglum bicolor M.. In DPPH radical scavenging activity, $SC_{50}$ values of methanol extract and EtOAc fraction were exhibited $0.66{\pm}0.26{\mu}g/mL$ and $1.03{\pm}0.02{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. Contents of total polyphenol and flavonoids in EtOAc fraction, which were much higher than those of other fractions, were 58.12 mg/g and 4.79 mg/g respectively. Also, effects of reducing power was strongly showed in EtOAc fraction. ${\alpha}$-Glucosidase and ${\alpha}$-amlyase inhibition activities were showed the higher effect in D.W. fraction ($2.83{\mu}g/mL$, $36.64{\mu}g/mL$). In MTT assay in the AGS, HT29 and HCT116 cell lines were significantly higher in the n-BuOH fraction than in the other fractions at $50{\mu}g/mL$ concentration of extracts.

Effect of Water Uptake Rate on Germination Characteristics of Waxy Rice Seeds and Guaiacol Peroxidase Activity during Early Imbibition (종자의 수분흡수속도가 찰벼 품종별 발아특성과 침윤초기 Guaiacol Peroxidase활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Shon, Jiyoung;Kim, Junhwan;Lee, Chung-Kuen;Yang, Woonho;Yoon, Young-Hwan;Chung, Nam-Jin;Kim, Chung-Kon;Kim, Bo-Kyung;Choi, Kyung-Jin
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.58 no.4
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    • pp.416-423
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    • 2013
  • Germination is controlled by internal factors of seeds and external factors such as water, temperature and light. We investigated the relationship between germination characteristics of four waxy rice cultivars and patterns of water uptake, antioxidant enzymes and free soluble sugars during early imbibition. Seed viabilities by tetrazolium test of four different rice cultivars were higher than 95% and germination rates of the hulled rice seeds were on 95% average. However, germination rate of intact rice among four cultivars showed a big difference depending on temperature. Water uptake of hulled and intact rice seeds during imbibition reached a stationary phase at around 30% moisture content. Although rates of water uptake were faster in hulled rice and high temperature than intact rice and low temperature condition, difference of those among cultivars was greater under low temperature than high temperature. The time required for rice seeds to uptake 30% water was negatively correlated with percentage of germination, germination energy, germination speed and mean germination time. Guaiacol peroxidase activity at 24h of imbibition was correlated with germination energy and germination speed but not percentage of germination. Catalase activity, soluble protein and maltose concentration at 24h of imbibition were not correlated with characteristics of germination. These results suggest that a time required for rice seeds to uptake 30% of water significantly correlated with germination and guaiacol peroxidase activity during early imbibition plays an important role in initiation of germination.

Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Orostachys japonicus with Medicinal Herbs in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats (생약재와 와송 추출물의 복합조성물이 Streptozotocin 유발 당뇨성 흰쥐의 혈당강하 및 혈중 지질성분에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Soo-Jung;Shin, Jung-Hye;Ju, Jong-Chan;Kang, Shin-Kwon;Sung, Nak-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.587-594
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    • 2013
  • The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects from Wa-song (Orostachys japonicus) extracts with mixtures of medicinal herbs (such as Baekbokyung, Changchul and Sa-in) were evaluated in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Thirty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to five groups; normal, diabetic control (D-control), a group fed a medicinal herbs mixture (D-MH), and a group fed composites of O. japonicus with mixtures of medicinal herbs (1:1, D-MHOA and 3:1, D-MHOB). All were fed on their diet for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, the body weight of all experimental groups increased compared to the diabetic control group, with the D-MHOB group having a significantly higher increase. Fasting glucose levels in all experimental groups (compared to the D-control group) significantly decreased after 2 weeks, but between 2~3 weeks, the levels in the D-MH group were similar to the D-MHOA group. After 4 weeks, the fasting glucose level of the D-MHOB group was the lowest compared to the other groups. In a test of oral glucose tolerance, blood glucose levels were highest 60 minutes after feeding glucose; however this level improved significantly in the groups fed an experimental diet compared to the D-control group. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were 1.9 times higher in the D-control group than the normal (3.9%), but levels in the experimental groups were significantly decreased in D-MHOA and D-MHOB groups compared to the D-MH group. In the high amounts of O. japonicus to medicinal herbs mixture, total lipids and cholesterol significantly decreased in the serum, while HDL-C levels increased. GPT activity was significantly lower in the D-MHOB group compared to the other groups. Lipid peroxide levels decreased in the D-MHOA and D-MHOB groups compared to the D-MH group. Antioxidant activity was higher depending on the dose of O. japonicus. Overall, O. japonicus exhibited effective hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic actions enhanced by a combination of medicinal herbs.

Change of Antioxidant Activities in Carrots (Daucus carota var. sativa) with Enzyme Treatment (효소처리 가공이 당근(Daucus carota var. sativa)의 항산화 활성 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoo, Jin-Kyoun;Lee, Jin-Hee;Cho, Hyung-Yong;Kim, Jung-Gook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.262-267
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this research is to minimize the loss of nutrients in carrots (Daucus carota var. sativa). A protopectinase was used to enzymatically macerated and separate cells without damage. The enzyme modification group's collection rate was 81% (residue rate 19%), while the grinding process group's collection rate was 56% (residue rate 44%)-an over 20% of collection rate difference. Thus we predicted a big difference in transference number after the process and wastage. In comparing ingredient changes in the enzyme modification group versus the grinding process group, the content of ${\beta}$-carotene (the carrot's main ingredient) showed a change in protection factor (PF) ($2.2{\pm}0.2$ PF, $1.4{\pm}0.4$ PF, respectively), total polyphenol content ($89{\pm}3.42{\mu}g/g$, $64{\pm}4.16{\mu}g/g$, respectively), and total flavonoid content ($68{\pm}2.73{\mu}g/g$, $41{\pm}3.26{\mu}g/g$, respectively). Thus we confirmed that nutrient destruction, due to cell membrane preservation, occurred less often in the enzyme modification process than the mechanical grinding process group. We also measured DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and nitrite scavenging activity. DPPH radical scavenging activity was $87{\pm}0.29%$ and $74{\pm}1.56%$ in the enzymatic modification group compared to the mechanical grinding process group, respectively. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was $44{\pm}0.49%$ and $32{\pm}0.48%$ in the enzymatic modification group compared to the mechanical grinding process group, respectively. Nitrite scavenging activity was $59{\pm}0.53%$ and $46{\pm}0.62%$ in the enzymatic modification group compared to the mechanical grinding process group, respectively. Our results show that cell membrane preservation, via the protopectinase enzyme process, decreases the loss of nutrients and still preserves inherent antioxidants.

Effect of Different Light Emitting Diode (LED) Lights on the Growth Characteristics and the Phytochemical Production of Strawberry Fruits during Cultivation (파장별 LED광이 딸기의 생장 특성과 생리 활성 물질 형성에 미치는 효과)

  • Choi, Hyo Gil;Kwon, Joon Kook;Moon, Byoung Yong;Kang, Nam Jun;Park, Kyoung Sub;Cho, Myeong Whan;Kim, Young Cheol
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.56-64
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    • 2013
  • Recent unusual weather due to global warming causes shortage of daily sunlight and constitutes one of the primary reasons for agricultural damages. LED light sources are frequently utilized to compensate for the shortage of sunlight in greenhouse agriculture. The present study is aimed at evaluating formations of phytochemicals as well as growth characteristics of mature strawberry fruits ('Daewang' cultivar) during cultivation in a closed growth chamber equipped with artificial LED light as a sole light source. Each LED light of blue (448 nm), red (634 and 661 nm) or mixed blue plus red (blue:red = 3:7) was separately supplied and the intensity of each light was adjusted to $200{\pm}1{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$ at plant level with a photoperiod consisted of 16 hours light and 8 hours darkness. Strawberries grown under mixed LED light of blue and red wavelengths showed a higher production of fruits than those grown under other LED treatments. Fructose, one of the free sugars, increased in mixed LED light-grown fruits. Anthocyanin contents were elevated remarkably in the mixed LED light-grown fruits compared with those in other LED treatments. Contrastingly, contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were not of much different from one another among the fruits treated with various LED lights. On the other hand, ripening of strawberry fruits was found to be faster when grown under blue LED light compared with other LED treatments. Moreover, antioxidant activities of blue or red LED light-grown fruits, respectively, were significantly higher than those of mixed LED light-grown fruits. We suggest that when daylight is in shortage during cultivation in a greenhouse, supplementation of sunlight with LED light, which is composed of blue and red wavelengths, could be useful for the enhancement of productivity as well as of free sugar content in strawberry fruits. In addition, for the strawberry culture in the plant factory, selective adoption of LED light wavelength would be required to accomplish the purpose of controlling fruit maturation time as well as of enhancing contents of sugars and antioxidants of fruits.

Anti-Obesity Effect of Red Garlic Composites in Rats Fed a High Fat-Cholesterol Diet (고지방-콜레스테롤 식이성 흰쥐에서 홍마늘 복합물의 항비만 효과)

  • Lee, Soo-Jung;Hwang, Cho-Rong;Kang, Jae-Ran;Shin, Jung-Hye;Kang, Min-Jung;Sung, Nak-Ju
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.671-680
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    • 2012
  • Three kinds of dietary composites-R+T, R+F, and R+TF-were combined in green tea (T), dietary fiber (F), and green tea dietary fiber mixture (TF) to red garlic extract (RG), respectively. The effects of their diets on anti-obesity were investigated $in$ $vitro$ and $in$ $vitro$ in obese rats induced high fat-cholesterol. In $in$ $vivo$ rats, the total phenolic content of the R+T and R+TF was 1.9~2.0 times higher, and their total cholesterol adsorption was 9.5~11.5 times higher than that of RG. $In$ $vivo$, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups (Normal, HFC, HRG, HR+T, HR+F and HR+TF). Afterwards, the diets of the HRG, HR+T, HR+F, and HR+TF groups were supplemented with 1% of RG and its dietary composites (R+T, R+F, and R+TF) for 4 weeks, respectively. The final body weight of the HRG, HR+T, HR+F, and HR+TF groups decreased significantly compared to the group fed high fat-cholesterol (HFC), but the food efficiency ratio was not significantly different from the HFC group. The liver weight of the HFC group doubled compared to the normal group, whereas that of HR+T and HR+TF groups decreased significantly. The weight of visceral and epididymal fat decreased significantly in the groups fed the composites compared to the HFC group. The obesity index of HR+TF group decreased significantly only when compared to the HFC group. The serum lipid profile such as total lipids, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL- and VLDL-cholesterol, as well as the atherogenic index and cardiac risk factors decreased drastically in all experimental groups compared to the HFC group, and the levels of HR+T, HR+F and HR+TF groups were a similar trend. GPT activity was not significantly different among the groups fed the composites, and it decreased significantly in the HRG group. The content of the lipid peroxide level decreased significantly in the HRG group and in the groups fed the composites, compared to the HFC group. Serum antioxidant activity was the highest in the HR+T group. We suggest that the hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effect of the RG composites, achieved by mixing green tea extract and/or dietary fiber, was due to their total phenolic content and total cholesterol adsorption effect.

Antioxidative Effect and Component Analysis of Eriobotrya japonica Leaf Extracts (비파엽 추출물의 항산화 효능과 성분분석)

  • Kim, Su-Ji;Park, Jin-O;Park, Soo-Nam
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 2012
  • In the present study, the antioxidative properties, inhibitory activity on tyrosinase, and active components of Eriobotrya japonica (E. japonica) leaf extract were investigated. The free radical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH) scavenging activity ($FSC_{50}$) of extract/fraction of E. japonica leaf was in the order 50 % ethanol extract ($22.625{\mu}g/mL$) < ethyl acetate fraction (6.75) < deglycosylated aglycone fraction (5.06). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities ($OSC_{50}$) of fraction/extracton ROS generated in $Fe^{3+}-EDTA/H_2O_2$ system using the luminol-dependent chemiluminescenceassay were investigated. $OSC_{50}$ of the ethyl acetate fraction, deglycosylated aglycone fraction, and ethanol extract were 0.75, 0.79, and $1.61{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. The cellular protective effects of E. japonica leaf extract on the rose-bengal sensitized photohemolysis of human erythrocytes were investigated. The protective effects of extract/fraction of E. japonica leaf were increased in a in a concentration dependent manner ($5{\sim}50{\mu}g/mL$). Especially, ${\tau}50$ of ethyl acetate fraction at concentrations of $10{\mu}g/mL$ and $50{\mu}g/mL$ showed the most protective effects at 390.8 min and 1471.5 min. The inhibitory effect ($IC_50$) on tyrosinase of E. japonica leaf extracts was higher than arbutin, known as a skin-whitening agent. The order of inhibitory effects was acetate fraction ($75.25{\mu}g/mL$) < 50 % extract (74.1) < deglycosylated aglycone fraction (43.35). TLC of the ethyl acetate fraction showed 7 bands (EJL 1 - EJL 7). HPLC of the aglycone fraction exhibited 2 peaks, kaempferol and quercetin. The amounts of kaempferol and quercetin were 53.7 and 46.3 %. respectively. Therefore, The amounts of kaempferol and its glucoside were a little bit higher than quercetin and its glucoside in E. japonica leaf extract. Accordingly, these findings suggest that extracts/fractions of E. japonica leaf can function as antioxidants in biological systems, especially skin exposed to UV radiation, and protect cellular membranes against ROS. Thus, the extract/fraction of E. japonica leaf may be used in novel functional cosmetics as antioxidants against skin photoaging.

Comparison of Seasonal Concentration of Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide in Swine House according to Pig's Growth Stage (돼지 생육 단계에 따른 계절별 암모니아와 황화수소의 돈사 내 농도 비교)

  • Kim, Ki Youn;Ko, Han Jong;Kim, Hyeon Tae
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.163-168
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study is to quantify the levels of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide inmechanically ventilated slurry-pit swine house according to pig's growth stage and seasonal condition. Mean concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the housing room of gestation/farrowing pigs were 5.60 (${\pm}2.48$) ppm and 178.4 (${\pm}204.8$) ppb in spring, 2.51 (${\pm}3.08$) ppm and 86.6 (${\pm}112.5$) ppb in summer, 4.96 (${\pm}2.84$) ppm and 182.3 (${\pm}242.6$) ppb in autumn, and 6.82 (${\pm}3.42$) ppm and 206.3 (${\pm}356.8$) ppb in winter, respectively. Mean concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the housing room of nursery pigs were 7.18 (${\pm}3.26$) ppm and 486.0 (${\pm}190.2$) ppb in spring, 4.23 (${\pm}2.95$) ppm and 206.4 (${\pm}186.9$) ppb in summer, 7.02 (${\pm}2.65$) ppm and 465.4 (${\pm}156.8$) ppb in autumn, and 9.25 (${\pm}3.68$) ppm and 618.4 (${\pm}298.3$) ppb in winter, respectively. Mean concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the housing room of growing/fattening pigs were 9.26 (${\pm}3.02$) ppm and 604.4 (${\pm}186.8$) ppb in spring, 6.78 (${\pm}3.88$) ppm and 312.5 (${\pm}215.4$) ppb in summer, 9.34 (${\pm}2.14$) ppm and 578.2 (${\pm}248.1$) ppb in autumn, and 14.65 (${\pm}3.15$) ppm and 825.3 (${\pm}316.9$) ppb in winter, respectively. As a result, mean concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in terms of pig's growth stage were highest in growing/fattening housing room followed by nursery housing room and gestation/farrowing housing room (p<0.05). The swine house showed the highest levels of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in winter followed by spring, autumn and summer. However, there was no significant difference of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide among seasons (p>0.05).

Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Postharvest Quality of Kohlrabi (콜라비의 수확 후 MA 포장에 따른 품질 유지 효과)

  • Park, Me-Hea;Choi, Ji-Weon;Kim, Yong-Bum;Kim, Myeong-Hae;Won, Hee-Yeon;Shin, Sun-Young;Kim, Ji-Gang
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.655-665
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    • 2014
  • The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on kohlrabi (Brassica olerace L. gongulodes group)'s quality and antioxidant molecule during storage was examined to determine the optimal film package for maintaining freshness. To extend shelf life, MAP was tested using PE $50{\mu}m$ and oriented polypropylene (OPP) films with oxygen transmission rate (OTR) at 3,000, 10,000, $15,000mL/m^2/day/atm$. The OPP film packaging with modified oxygen transmission rate showed a delay in a weight loss and extended storage period. The package with OTR 3000 attained the desired gas composition of $O_2$ 3.2-6.7 kPa and $CO_2$ 13.1-19.8 kPa, in storage at room temperature. Kohlrabi stored in this package showed the lowest weight loss and the highest visual quality. Deterioration and off-odor were developed more rapidly in PE $50{\mu}m$ towards the end of the storage at room temperature. However, there are no differences among OTR films in visual quality and off-odor until 60 days at cold storage. Vitamin C content of kohlrabi was reduced rapidly in OTR 15000 with high transmission rate and showed less loss in PE $50{\mu}m$ and OTR 3000 in both room temperatures and cold storage. Results revealed that an OPP film with OTR 3000 extended the shelf life of kohlrabi in storage with maintained quality and vitamin C.