• Title/Summary/Keyword: antioxidant

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Large scale enzymatic production of chitooligosaccharides and their biological activities (키토산올리고당의 효소적 대량생산 및 생리활성)

  • Kim, Se-Kwon;Shin, Kyung-Hoon
    • Food Science and Industry
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.2-32
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    • 2020
  • In recent years, significant importance has been given to chitooligosaccharides (COS) due to its potent notable biological applications. COS can be derived from chitosan which is commonly produced by partially hydrolyzed products from crustacean shells. In order to produce COS, there are several approaches including chemical and enzymatic methods which are the two most common choices. In this regard, several new methods were intended to be promoted which use the enzymatic hydrolysis with a lower cost and desired properties. Hence, the dual reactor system has gained more attention than other newly developed technologies. Enzymatic hydrolysis derived COS possesses important biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant, anti-hypersentive, anti-dementia (Altzheimer's disease), anti-diabeties, anti-allergy, anti-inflammatory, etc. Results strongly suggest that properties of COS can be potential materials for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical product development.

Beneficial constituents and physiological activity of fermented Codonopsis lanceolata and Platycodon grandiflorus by Lentinula edodes mycelium (더덕, 도라지 표고균사발효물의 유용성분 및 생리활성)

  • Koh, Young-Woo;Yun, Kyeong-Won;Kim, Kyung-Je;Jin, Seong-Woo;Im, Seung-Bin;Ha, Neul-I;Jeong, Hee-Gyeong;Kim, Seung-Ju;Kim, Bok-Seon;Choi, Yu-Jin;Song, Da-Hye;Seo, Kyoung-Sun
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.300-309
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    • 2021
  • This study was conducted to develop food and medicinal products containing useful components of Lentinula edodes in Codonopsis lanceolata and Platycodon grandiflorus for use as herbal medicine. We manufactured C. lanceolata (FCLM) and P. grandiflorus (FPLM) extract fermented with L. edodes mycelium. The effect of the two fermented products on proximate composition, free sugar, organic acid, 𝛽-glucan, ergothioneine, ergosterol, and vitamin D2 levels, and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell growth were studied. The proximate composition analysis results showed that the crude fiber and crude fat content in FCLM was higher than that in FPLM, and the crude protein and soluble nitrogen content in FPLM was higher than that in FCLM. Free sugar analysis detected arabinose, glucose, and sucrose in both FCLM and FPLM, and the total free sugar content was high in FPLM. The organic acid content was lower in FCLM and FPLM compared to C. lanceolata and P. grandiflorus before fermentation. The 𝛽-glucan content was higher than that of L. edodes used as a control in both fermented products, FCLM and FPLM. The content of ergothioneine, an antioxidant, was higher in FCLM than in FPLM. Ergosterol content was highest in L. edodes which was used as a control, and the two fermented products showed similar content. Vitamin D2 was detected only in FCLM and FPLM, and FPLM (0.58±0.01 mg%) showed a higher vitamin D2 content than FCLM (0.47±0.01). FCLM and FPLM showed a higher level of cell viability for 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes compared to non-fermented C. lanceolata and P. grandiflorus. In addition, FCLM and FPLM inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation more than C. lanceolata and P. grandiflorus before fermentation, which may exert an anti-obesity effect.

Promotion effects of steam-dried Betula platyphylla extract on hair regrowth (자작나무 증포 추출물의 발모 촉진 효과)

  • Ahn, Jeong Won;Jang, Su Kil;Jo, Bo Ram;Kim, Hyun Soo;Jeoung, Eui Young;Hillary, Kithenya;Yoo, Yeong Min;Joo, Seong Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.54 no.1
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    • pp.43-51
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    • 2022
  • Regulation of the hair follicle cycle in association with dermal papilla cells is one of the most interesting targets for promoting hair regrowth. In this study, we examined whether steam-dried Betula platyphylla extracts (BPE) promote hair growth by upregulating in vitro and in vivo responses of dermal papilla cells. The data showed that BPE3 contained high amounts of phenolic compounds with higher antioxidant effects and increased hair growth-related genes, including fibroblast growth factor7 and Wnt7b, in dermal papilla cells. Notably, BPE3 effectively enhanced the formation of hair follicles by increasing FGF7, Wnt7b, and vascular endothelial growth factor in C57BL/6N dorsal skins. Additionally, BPE3 significantly decreased the expression of inflammatory repertoires, inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-6, and cyclooxygenase 2. Several small molecules, such as betulin and unsaturated fatty acids, support the pharmacological activity of BPE3. In conclusion, BPE3 effectively promoted hair growth by activating dermal papilla cells and enhancing hair follicle cycles by attenuating the inflammatory environment in the scalp.

Compositional changes in maesil-cheong formulated with turanose during the storage period (투라노스 당침을 통해 제조된 매실청의 저장기간 중 성분 함량 변화)

  • Kim, Jung-Geun;Yoo, Sang-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.53 no.6
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    • pp.688-694
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    • 2021
  • Turanose is a potential candidate for use as a functional sweetener because of its gentle taste, low calorie, and non-cariogenicity. The aim of this study was to replace sucrose with turanose to produce health-beneficial maesil-cheong. Quality effects of turanose on maesil-cheong were evaluated by determining the contents of free sugars, organic acids, amygdalin, and antioxidant activity. The pH and Brix values of sucrose- and turanose-based maesil-cheong remained at the same level between 2.83 and 3.00 and 54.6-58.6°Bx, respectively, after 90-day storage. Among oxalic, malic, and citric acids, citric acid content was the highest in both maesil-cheong samples. Turanose did not significantly hydrolyze in maesil-cheong, whereas sucrose was completely hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose. Thus, turanose is suitable for the development of acidic maesil-cheong to improve its health promoting effect. Turanose showed product qualities similar to sucrose-based maesil-cheong. Turanose can be used as a functional sweetener or bulking agent in processed foods.

Characterization of Antidiabetic Compounds from Extract of Torreya nucifera (비자나무 추출물의 항당뇨 활성물질의 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Ji Won;Kim, Dong-Seob;Lee, Hwasin;Park, Bobae;Yu, Sun-Nyoung;Hwang, You-Lim;Kim, Sang Hun;Ahn, Soon-Cheol
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2022
  • Natural products have gained increasing attention due to their advantage of long-term safety and low toxicity for a very long time. Torreya nucifera is widespread in southern Korea and Jeju Island and its seeds are commonly used as edible food. Oriental ingredients have often been reported for their insecticidal, antioxidant and antibacterial properties, but there have not yet been any studies on their antidiabetic effect. In this study, we investigated several biological activities of T. nucifera pericarp (TNP) and seeds (TNS) extracts and proceeded to characterize the antidiabetic compounds of TNS. The initial results suggested that TNS extract at 15 and 10 ㎍/ml concentration has inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, that is 14.5 and 4.35 times higher than TNP, respectively. Thus, the stronger antidiabetic TNS was selected for the subsequent experiments to characterize its active compounds. Ultrafiltration was used to determine the apparent molecular weight of the active compounds, showing 300 kDa or more. Finally the mixture was then partially purified using Diaion HP-20 column chromatography by eluting with 50~100% methanol. Therefore we concluded that the active compounds of TNS have potential as therapeutic agents in functional food or supplemental treatment to improve diabetic diseases.

Multicenter Evaluation on the Efficacy of N-Acetyl Cystine in Relieving the Symptoms of Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Disease (인후두 역류질환에서 N-Acetyl Cysteine의 증상 개선 효과에 대한 다기관 평가)

  • Kim, So Yean;Kwon, Tack Kyun;Kim, Han Su;Son, Young Ik;Woo, Seung Hoon;Woo, Jeong-Soo;Lee, Seung Won;Lim, Jae Yol;Chung, Man Ki;Joo, Young Hoon;Cha, Wonjae;Choi, Seung Ho;Hong, Hyun Jun;Lee, Sang Hyuk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Laryngology, Phoniatrics and Logopedics
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.87-93
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    • 2018
  • Background and Objectives : Laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD) is relatively common disease. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) has both mucolytic and antioxidant effect, also may be beneficial in inflammatory airway diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of inhaled NAC therapy in LPRD. Materials and Method : We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 525 LPRD patients at 12 medical centers. Finally 401 patients subjected to inhaled NAC therapy for 2 months were enrolled in the study. We analyzed the change of Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) and Reflux Finding Score (RFS) after use of NAC for 4 weeks and 8 weeks in addition to the patient's compliance of the treatment. Results : The RSI score significantly decreased from $19.87{\pm}6.34$ to $12.78{\pm}6.93$ after 4 weeks and to $10.65{\pm}7.47$ after 8 weeks. The RFS score also significantly decreased from $9.29{\pm}3.4$ to $7.17{\pm}3.41$ after 4 weeks and to $6.1{\pm}3.73$ after 8 weeks (p<0.05). During the treatment periods, 42 patients (10.4%) reported to have 80 episodes of discomfort. Throat discomfort (33%) and nausea (28%) were most common complaints, but the duration of discomfort was usually less than 4 weeks. Conclusion : Inhaled NAC treatment is highly effective for the reduction of both subjective and objective findings in LPRD patients. This study will provide the evidence of new treatment option for patients with LPRD. However, further studies will be needs to assess the real effect of inhaled NAC therapy as a standard treatment regimen of LPRD.

Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Perilla frutescens var. acuta Extract and Its Fraction and Their Component Analyses (자소엽 추출물의 항균 및 항산화 효과와 성분분석)

  • Jeong, Hyo Jin;Xuan, Song Hua;Song, Ba Reum;Lee, Sang Lae;Lee, Yun Ju;Park, Soo Nam
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.716-725
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    • 2018
  • In this study, antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of Perilla frutescens var. acuta were investigated with 50% ethanol and the ethyl acetate fraction and also the components were analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the ethyl acetate fraction for both Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were $78{\mu}g/mL$, indicating high antimicrobial effects. The free radical scavenging activity ($FSC_{50}$) and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity ($OSC_{50}$) in $Fe^{3+}-EDTA/H_2O_2$ system values of the ethyl acetate fraction were $25.90{\mu}g/mL$ and $1.40{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. After the cell damage induced by $400mJ/cm^2$ UVB irradiation, the cytoprotective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of P. frutescens var. acuta showed the concentration dependent manner ranging from 2.0 to $16.0{\mu}g/mL$. The intracellular ROS inhibitory activity in HaCaT cells decreased to 28.6% and 40.7% for the 50% ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction, respectively at the concentration of $32{\mu}g/mL$. Components of rosmarinic acid, luteolin, apigenin, caffeic acid and ethyl caffeate were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction. These results suggest that the extract and fraction of P. frutescens var. acuta may be applied to the field of cosmetics as a natural material that protects the skin from an external environment by having antimicrobial and antioxidative activities.

Anti-obesity effect of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid on high-fat diet mouse (고지방식이 마우스에서 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid의 항비만 효과)

  • Kang, Jin Yong;Park, Seon Kyeong;Kim, Jong Min;Park, Su Bin;Yoo, Seul Ki;Han, Hye Ju;Kim, Dae Ok;Heo, Ho Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.81-89
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    • 2019
  • This study was performed to confirm the influence of chlorogenic acid (CGA) and 3,5-dicaffeyolquinic acid (3,5-diCQA) intake on problems caused by high-fat diet. CGA was more effective in suppressing weight gain than 3,5-diCQA. In contrast, 3,5-diCQA was more effective in improving glucose tolerance than CGA. In the biopsy, it was confirmed that CGA inhibited visceral fat and liver fat accumulation. 3,5-diCQA also inhibited visceral fat accumulation, but 3,5-diCQA increased liver fat accumulation. The liver fat accumulation induced oxidative stress, but 3,5-diCQA reduced oxidative damage through its antioxidant activity. The increased liver fat accumulation was because a 3,5-diCQA greatly increased Akt phosphorylation and decreased AMPK phosphorylation in the liver. Consequently, CGA was effective in alleviating the problems caused by high-fat diets, while maintaining normal balance. 3,5-diCQA also showed a positive effect on problems caused by high-fat diets, but it increased liver fat accumulation and thereby had negative consequences.

Role of Dual Oxidase 2 in Reactive Oxygen Species Production Induced by Airborne Particulate Matter PM10 in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes (인간 표피 각질형성세포에서 대기 미립자 물질 PM10에 의해 유도되는 반응성 산소종의 생성에서 Dual oxidase 2의 역할)

  • Seok, Jin Kyung;Choi, Min A;Ha, Jae Won;Boo, Yong Chool
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.57-67
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    • 2019
  • Particulate matters with a diameter of < $10{\mu}m$ (PM10) exert oxidative stress and inflammatory events in various organs. The purpose of this study was to examine the molecular mechanism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by PM10 in the human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs). When cultured HEKs were exposed to PM10, ROS production was induced and it was inhibited by apocynin, an antioxidant. The mRNA expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX) family was analyzed in order to examine their role in PM10-induced ROS production. PM10 increased the mRNA expression of NOX1, NOX2, dual oxidase (DUOX) 1 and DUOX2. HEKs expressed DUOX1 and DUOX2 at higher levels compared to other NOXs. The mRNA expression of dual oxidase maturation factors, DUOXA1 and DUOXA2, was also increased by PM10. We examined whether these calcium-dependent enzymes, DUOX1 and DUOX2, mediate the PM10-induced ROS production. A selective intracellular calcium chelator, BAPTA-AM, attenuated ROS production induced by PM10 or calcium ionophore A23187. The small intereference RNA (siRNA)-mediated down-regulation of DUOX2, but not DUOX1, attenuated the ROS production induced by PM10. PM10 increased the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin $(IL)-1{\beta}$, IL-6, IL-8 and interferon $(IFN)-{\gamma}$. SiRNA-mediated down-regulation of DUOX2 suppressed the PM10-induced expression of $IFN-{\gamma}$ but not other cytokines. This study suggests that DUOX2 plays a crucial role in ROS production and inflammatory response in PM10-exposed keratinocytes.

Effect of Heat-Killed Enterococcus faecalis, EF-2001 on C2C12 Myoblast Damage Induced by Oxidative Stress and Muscle Volume Decreased by Sciatic Denervation in C57BL/6 Mice (산화스트레스에 의해 유도된 C2C12 근세포 손상과, 신경절제에 의해 근감소가 유도된 C57BL/6 마우스에서 열처리 사균체 엔테로코커스 패칼리스 EF-2001의 효과)

  • Chang, Sang-Jin;Lee, Myung-Hun;Kim, Wan-Joong;Chae, Yuri;Iwasa, Masahiro;Han, Kwon-Il;Kim, Wan-Jae;Kim, Tack-Joong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.215-222
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    • 2019
  • Muscle dysfunction may arise from skeletal muscle atrophy caused by aging, injury, oxidative stress, and hereditary disease. Powdered heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis (EF-2001) has anti-allergy, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor effects. However, its antioxidant and anti-atrophy effects are poorly characterized. In this study, we examined the effects of EF-2001 on muscle atrophy. To determine the protective effect of EF-2001 on oxidative stress, C2C12 myoblasts were treated with $H_2O_2$ to induce oxidative stress. This induced cell damage, which was reduced by treatment with EF-2001. The mechanism of EF-2001's effect was examined in response to oxidative stress. Treatment with EF-2001 reversed the expression of HSP70 and SOD1 proteins. Also, mRNA levels of Atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF1 increased under oxidative stress conditions but decreased following EF-2001 treatment. To evaluate muscle volume, two and three dimensional models of the muscles were analyzed using micro-CT. As expected, muscle volume decreased after sciatic denervation and recovered after oral administration of EF-2001. Therefore, EF-2001 is a candidate for the treatment of muscular atrophy, and future discovery of the additional effects of EF-2001 may yield further applications as a functional food with useful activities in various fields.