• Title, Summary, Keyword: antioxidant enzyme expression

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Effect of Myricetin on mRNA Expression of Different Antioxidant Enzymes in B16F10 Murine Melanoma Cells (B16F10 Murine Melanoma Cell에서 Myricetin이 항산화효소의 m-RNA 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Yu Ji Sun;Kim An Keun
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.86-91
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    • 2005
  • Flavonoids are class of polyphenolic compounds widely distributed in the plant kingdom, which display a variety of biological activities, including antiviral, antithrombotic, antiinflammatory, antihistaminic, antioxidant and free-radica 1 scavenging abilities. The antioxidant enzyme (AOE) system plays an important role in the defense against oxidative stress insults. To determine whether flavonoid, myricetin can exert antioxidative effects not only directly by modulating the AOE system but also scavenging free radical, we investigated the influence of the flavonoid myricetin on cell viability, different antioxidant enzyme activities, ROS level and the expression of different antioxidant emzyme in B16F10 murine melanoma cells. Myricetin in a concentration range from 6.25 to $50\;{\mu}M$ decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities, but catalase (CAT) activity was increased. In the myricetin-treated group, ROS levels were decreased dose-dependently. Antioxidant enzyme expression was measured by RT-PCR. Myricetin treatment of B16F10 cells increased catalase expression. Expression levels of copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn SOD) were not affected by exposure of myricetin. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD) and GPx expression levels decreased slightly after myricetin treatment. In conclusion, the antioxidant capacity of myricetin was due to CAT and free-radical scavenging.

Effect of Genistein on Activity and Expression of Antioxidant Enzyme in Hamster ovary cells (Genistein이 햄스터 난소세포의 항산화효소활성과 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Min-Hye;Kim, An-Keun
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.75-82
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    • 2007
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in the metabolic process of oxygen in cells. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in cells systemize the antioxidant enzymes to control the oxidative stress. Genistein is one of the isoflavonoids, and its role in controlling cellular oxidative stress is presently the active issue at question. In this study; we analyzed genistein-induced survival rates of the CHO-K1 cells, activities of antioxidant enzymes, ROS levels, and expression levels of antioxidant enzyme genes in order to investigate the effect of genistein on cellular ROS production and antioxidative systems in CHO-K1 cells. As results, the survival rate of cells was decreased as the dose of genistein increases (12.5${\sim}$200 ${\mu}$M). Genistein increased cellular ROS levels, while it reduced total SOD activities and the expression of CuZnSOD. In conclusion, we suggest that genistein may induce oxidative stress via down-regulation of SOD.

Oxidative stress and the antioxidant enzyme system in the developing brain

  • Shim, So-Yeon;Kim, Han-Suk
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.56 no.3
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    • pp.107-111
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    • 2013
  • Preterm infants are vulnerable to the oxidative stress due to the production of large amounts of free radicals, antioxidant system insufficiency, and immature oligodendroglial cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal role in the development of periventricular leukomalacia. The three most common ROS are superoxide ($O2^{\cdot-}$), hydroxyl radical ($OH^{\cdot}$), and hydrogen peroxide ($H_2O_2$). Under normal physiological conditions, a balance is maintained between the production of ROS and the capacity of the antioxidant enzyme system. However, if this balance breaks down, ROS can exert toxic effects. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase are considered the classical antioxidant enzymes. A recently discovered antioxidant enzyme family, peroxiredoxin (Prdx), is also an important scavenger of free radicals. Prdx1 expression is induced at birth, whereas Prdx2 is constitutively expressed, and Prdx6 expression is consistent with the classical antioxidant enzymes. Several antioxidant substances have been studied as potential therapeutic agents; however, further preclinical and clinical studies are required before allowing clinical application.

Nrf2 Knockout Mice that Lack Control of Drug Metabolizing and Antioxidant Enzyme Genes - Animals Highly Sensitive to Xenobiotic Toxicity

  • Enomoto, Akiko;Itoh, Ken;Harada, Takanori;Yamamoto, Masayuki
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.17
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    • pp.299-304
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    • 2001
  • Xenobiotics and their reactive intermediates bind to cellular macromolecules and/or generate oxidative stress. which provoke deleterious effects on the cell function. Induction of xenobiotic-biotrans-forming enzymes and antioxidant molecules is an important defense mechanism against such insults. A group of genes involved in the defense mechanism. e.g. genes encoding glutathione S-transferases. NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-GT) and ${\gamma}$-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GGCS). have a common regulatory sequence, Antioxidant or Electrophile Responsive Element (ARE/EpRE). Recently. Nrf2. discovered as a homologue of erythroid transcription factor p45 NF-E2, was shown to bind ARE/EpRE and induce the expression of these defense genes. Mice that lack Nrf2 show low basal levels of expression and/or impaired induction of these genes. which makes the animals highly sensitive to xenobiotic toxicity. Indeed. we show here that nrf2-deficient mice had a higher mortality than did the wild-type mice when exposed to acetaminophen (APAP). Detailed analyses of APAP hepatotoxicity in the nrf2 knockout mice indicate that a large amount of reactive APAP metabolites was generated in the livers due to the impaired basal expression of two detoxifying enzyme genes, UDP-GT (Ugt1a6) and GGCS. while the cytochrome P450 content was unchanged. Thus. the studies using the nrf2 knockout mice clearly demonstrate significance of the expression of Nrf2-regulated enzymes in protection against xenobiotic toxicity.

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Effect of Myricetin Combined with Taurine on Antioxidant Enzyme System in B16F10 Cell (Myricetin과 Taruine의 병용 투여가 B16F10 세포의 항산화 효소계에 미치는 영향)

  • Yu, Ji-Sun;Kim, An-Keun
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.58-63
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    • 2006
  • The antioxidant enzyme (AOE) system plays an important role in the defense against oxidative stress damage. To determine whether myricetin or myricetin/taurine can exert antioxidative effects not only by modulating the AOE system directly but also by scavenging free radical, we investigated the influence of the myricetin and taurine on cell viability ROS level, activities of different antioxidant enzyme, and the expression of different antioxidant enzyme. As results, the cell viability showed inhibition of the proliferation with treatment of 'myricetin' or 'myricetin with taruine', respectively, with dose-dependent manner. Compared to control, the treatment of 'myricetin' decreased activities and gene expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). However, combined treatment of 'myricetin with taurine' increased activities and gene expressions of the SOD, GPx, and catalase (CAT). In addition, the combined treatment of 'myricetin with taurine' somewhat decreased ROS levels, compared to the treatment of 'myricetin'. In conclusion, our study provides that the combined treatment of different antioxidants can enhance antioxidant effects.

Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne.) on Azoxymethane-induced Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci in F344 Rats

  • Son, In Suk;Lee, Jeong Soon;Lee, Ju Yeon;Kwon, Chong Suk
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.82-88
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    • 2014
  • Yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne.) has long been used as a health food and oriental folk medicine because of its nutritional fortification, tonic, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, antitussive, and expectorant effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are known to be implicated in a range of diseases, may be important progenitors of carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effect of yam on antioxidant status and inflammatory conditions during azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis in male F344 rats. We measured the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), hemolysate antioxidant enzyme activities, colonic mucosal antioxidant enzyme gene expression, and colonic mucosal inflammatory mediator gene expression. The feeding of yam prior to carcinogenesis significantly inhibited AOM-induced colonic ACF formation. In yam-administered rats, erythrocyte levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase were increased and colonic mucosal gene expression of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), Mn-SOD, and GPx were up-regulated compared to the AOM group. Colonic mucosal gene expression of inflammatory mediators (i.e., nuclear factor kappaB, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-1beta) was suppressed by the yam-supplemented diet. These results suggest that yam could be very useful for the prevention of colon cancer, as they enhance the antioxidant defense system and modulate inflammatory mediators.

Changes in Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Physiological Responses to Cadmium and Tributyltin Exposure in the Ark Shell, Scapharca Broughtonii

  • An, Myung-In;An, Kwang-Wook;Choi, Cheol-Young
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.273-282
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    • 2009
  • Cadmium (Cd) and tributyltin (TBT) are common contaminants of marine and freshwater ecosystems, and can induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS can, in turn, cause oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated time-related effects of Cd (0.05 and 0.1 ppm) and TBT (5 and 10 ppb) treatment on antioxidant enzyme activity, i.e., the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the gills and digestive glands of the ark shell, Scapharca broughtonii. In addition, hydrogen peroxide ($H_2O_2$) concentrations, lysozyme activity, and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) levels were measured in the hemolymph. We found that Cd and TBT treatment significantly increased antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activity in the digestive glands and gills in a time-dependent manner. In response to the Cd and TBT treatments, antioxidant enzymes mRNA expression and activity increased up to day 5 in the digestive glands and then decreased by day 7. In the gills, antioxidant enzymes mRNA expression and activity increased up to day 3 and then decreased by day 5. Likewise, $H_2O_2$ concentrations significantly increased up to day 5 and then decreased by day 7. Finally, lysozyme activity decreased during the experimental period, whereas GOT and GPT levels were significantly increased in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes play an important role in decreasing ROS levels and oxidative stress in ark shells exposed to Cd and TBT.

Protopanaxatriol Ginsenoside Rh1 Upregulates Phase II Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression in Rat Primary Astrocytes: Involvement of MAP Kinases and Nrf2/ARE Signaling

  • Jung, Ji-Sun;Lee, Sang-Yoon;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Hee-Sun
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.33-39
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    • 2016
  • Oxidative stress activates several intracellular signaling cascades that may have deleterious effects on neuronal cell survival. Thus, controlling oxidative stress has been suggested as an important strategy for prevention and/or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we found that ginsenoside Rh1 inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species generation and subsequent cell death in rat primary astrocytes. Rh1 increased the expression of phase II antioxidant enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, superoxide dismutase-2, and catalase, that are under the control of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathways. Further mechanistic studies showed that Rh1 increased the nuclear translocation and DNA binding of Nrf2 and c-Jun to the antioxidant response element (ARE), and increased the ARE-mediated transcription activities in rat primary astrocytes. Analysis of signaling pathways revealed that MAP kinases are important in HO-1 expression, and act by modulating ARE-mediated transcriptional activity. Therefore, the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes by Rh1 may provide preventive therapeutic potential for various neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with oxidative stress.

The Stimulatory Effect of Garnoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus on the Antioxidant Enzyme Catalase

  • Park, Jin-Seu;Lee, Byung-Ryong;Jin, Li Hua;Kim, Choong-Kwon;Choi, Kyung-Soon;Bahn, Jae-Hoon;Lee, Kil-Soo;Kwon, Hyeok-Yil;Chang, Hyun-Woo;Baek, Nam-In;Lee, Hwang-Eunjoo;Kang, Jung-Hoon;Cho, Sung-Woo;Choi, Soo-Young
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.144-149
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    • 2001
  • Antioxidant enzymes, scavengers of the reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI), are involved in numerous defense systems in cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the hot-water extracts of two medicinally potent mushrooms (Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus) on the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes in vitro and in vivo. The mushroom extracts stimulated the catalase activity in a dose-dependent manner in vitro, whereas the other antioxidant enzymes (such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) were unaffected by the extracts. The catalytic activity of catalase in the liver and brain was significantly increased after the oral treatment of the mushroom extracts (2.5 g/kg) to ICR mice for 2 months. Western blot analysis of the liver and brain tissues revealed that the expression level of catalase in the mice, treated with both mushroom extracts, was significantly increased compared to that of the control mice. However, the level of the SOD expression in the mice treated with the natural product extracts was unchanged under the same experimental conditions. Although the mechanisms for the stimulatory effect of the catalase expression by these extracts remains unclear, these results suggest that the ingredients of the Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus extracts act as an activator of catalase, and regulate the expression of catalase at the translational or transcriptional level.

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Effect of Sopyung-tang Extract on Insulin Secretion and Gene Expression in RIN-m5F Cells (소평탕(消平湯)이 RIN-m5F 세포에서 인슐린 분비 및 유전자 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Youn, Sung-Sik;Cho, Chung-Sik
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.25-39
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    • 2010
  • Background : At high glucose levels in $\beta$-cells, cell viability and insulin secretion are decreased by glucotoxicity. Sopyung-tang(SPT) had an effect on blood glucose level decrease and antioxidant enzyme activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Objectives : This study performed a series of experiment to verify the effects of SPT extract on the cell viability, antioxidant enzyme activities, insulin secretion and insulin mRNA expression at hyperglycemic states of RIN-m5F. Methods : After treatment at various concentrations of SPT added to the RIN-m5F cells, cell viability by MTT assay, free radical-scavenging activity, SOD activity and insulin secretion were measured. Additionally, insulin-related gene expression was measured using real-time RT-PCR. Results : Compared to the control group, SPT extract showed considerable effects on RIN-m5F cell viability, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, insulin secretion and insulin-related gene expression. Conclusions : This study showed that SPT extract has an effect on $\beta$-cell cell viability, insulin secretion and insulin-related gene expression. Thus, SPT extract may be used for treatment of diabetes and its complications. Further mechanism studies of SPT seem to be necessary on the glucotoxicity and oxidative stress.