• Title, Summary, Keyword: aphids

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Root Exudation by Aphid Leaf Infestation Recruits Root-Associated Paenibacillus spp. to Lead Plant Insect Susceptibility

  • Kim, Bora;Song, Geun Cheol;Ryu, Choong-Min
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.549-557
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    • 2016
  • Aphids are a large group of hemipteran pests that affect the physiology, growth, and development of plants by using piercing mouthparts to consume fluids from the host. Based an recent data, aphids modulate the microbiomes of plants and thereby affect the overall outcome of the biological interaction. However, in a few reports, aboveground aphids manipulate the metabolism of the host and facilitate infestations by rhizosphere bacteria (rhizobacteria). In this study, we evaluated whether aphids alter the plant resistance that is mediated by the bacterial community of the root system. The rhizobacteria were affected by aphid infestation of pepper, and a large population of gram-positive bacteria was detected. Notably, Paenibacillus spp. were the unique gram-positive bacteria to respond to changes induced by the aphids. Paenibacillus polymyxa E681 was used as a rhizobacterium model to assess the recruitment of bacteria to the rhizosphere by the phloem-sucking of aphids and to test the effect of P. polymyxa on the susceptibility of plants to aphids. The root exudates secreted from peppers infested with aphids increased the growth rate of P. polymyxa E681. The application of P. polymyxa E681 to pepper roots promoted the colonization of aphids within 2 days of inoculation. Collectively, our results suggest that aphid infestation modulated the root exudation, which led to the recruitment of rhizobacteria that manipulated the resistance of peppers to aphids. In this study, new information is provided on how the infestation of insects is facilitated through insect-derived modulation of plant resistance with the attraction of gram-positive rhizobacteria.

Seasonal Occurrence of Aphids and Selection of Insecticides for Controlling Aphids Transmitting Soybean Mosaic Virus (콩모자이크병 전염억제를 위한 진딧물 발생소장과 살충제 선발)

  • 김율호;노재환;김명기;임대준;허일봉
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.353-355
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    • 2000
  • The seasonal occurrence of aphids was investigated in the soybean Held to increase the control efficiency of aphid vectors of Soybean Mosaic Virus. The patterns of aphids occurrence were different according to planting time. There were two peaks in late June and mid-August in aphid population in optimum seeding (May 20), whereas the peak was around mid-June in early seeding(Apr, 20). Acyrthosiphon solani was dominant Species in early seeding, while Aphis glycines was dominant in optimum seeding. In early seeding, SMV incidence increased rapidly between 20 June and 30 June, suggesting that virus spread was strongly correlated with increased colonization of aphids. Imidacloprid WP, benfuracarb EC and acephate WP showed a good effect for the control of aphids without phytotoxicity. In the plot with infurrow treatment of imidachloprid G until 52 days after shooting, aphids were controled effectively. Acephate WP was applied as a foliar spray at V4, V6, or V4/V6 stage and all the treatments were effective on reducing: SMV incidence.

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Soybean Oil-degrading Bacterial Cultures as a Potential for Control of Green Peach Aphids (Myzus persicae)

  • Kim, Seul-Ki;Kim, Seo-Ri;Choi, Min-Seok;Park, Chang-Eon;Kim, Young-Cheol;Kim, Kil-Yong;Whang, Kyung-Sook;Oh, Kyung-Taek;Kim, In-Seon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.1700-1703
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    • 2007
  • Microorganisms capable of degrading crude oil were isolated and grown in soybean oil as a sole carbon source. The microbial cultures were used to control green peach aphids in vitro. Approximately 60% mortality of aphids was observed when the cultures were applied alone onto aphids. To examine the cultures as a pesticide formulation mixture, the cultures were combined with a low dose of the insecticide imidacloprid (one-fourth dose of recommended field-application rate) and applied onto aphids. The cultures enhanced significantly the insecticidal effectiveness of imidacloprid, which was higher than imidacloprid alone applied at the low dose. The isolated microorganisms exhibited high emulsifying index values and decreased surface tension values after being grown in soybean oil media. GC/MS analyses showed that microorganisms degraded soybean oil to fatty acids. The cultures were suggested to play the roles of wetting, spreading, and sticking agents to improve the effectiveness of imidacloprid. This is the first report on the control of aphids by using oil-degrading microbial cultures.

Population Dynamics Pattern of Green Peach Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) and Its Predator Complex in a Potato System

  • Ro, Tae-Ho;Garrell E. Long
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.217-222
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    • 1998
  • Green peach aphid, Myzus persicae(Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae), interacts with many predatory insects in potato fields during the summer. The concept of the predator complex associated with green peach aphids was applied to explain the interactions between the aphid and its predators. The predator power of the predator complex was determined by two factors: the number of predators and the relative feeding capacity. The dynamics of the green peach aphid population was expressed by the number of individuals while the predator power was used to characterize the predator complex. Cumulative degree-days for green peach aphids were used as a time scale to analyze phonology and dynamics patterns of the aphid and its predator complex. The patterns of population changes in aphids were similar during the period of study(1993-1995) although the highest density of aphids fluctuated significantly from year to year. However, the predator power appeared more stable than the green peach aphid population over the three year period. The results indicated that the predator complex plays an important role to suppress the aphid populations during the latter part of the season and that the applications of control measures for green peach aphids in between the initiation and the peak timing of aphid populations are critical to minimize the damage on potatoes.

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Seasonsal occurrence of aphids (Aulacorthum Solani K., Aphis glycines M.) and effects of some insecticides on aphids with infurrow treatment in soybean (콩에 발생되는 진딧물류의 발생소장과 약제의 파구처리에 의한 진딧물 방제효과)

  • Hwang Chang Yeon;Uhm K. B.;Choi K. M.
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.112-116
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    • 1981
  • This study was conducted to investigate the seasonal occurrence of aphids and to evaluate their efficacy in the field for the control of some aphids on soybean when Carbofuran, Disulfoton and Ortran were applied infurrow at the planting time in 1976. Foxglove aphid (Aulacorthum solani) and soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) were dominat species in soybean field and there were two peaks in the year. The patterns of occurence of aphids were different between in field and yellow-pan. Carbofuran and Disulfoton showed a good effect for the control of aphids but Ortran was less effective.

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A Survey of the Aphids in Sulchon Area (I) (감자바이러스 매개진딧물 밀도조사(I))

  • Yoon Soon Ki;Choi Seong Sik
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.43-48
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    • 1970
  • To investigate provincial seed Potato Production farms, a Preliminary survey on the local population of the aphids was made in Sulchon alphine area, Mooju-Goon, Chollapuk-Bo where the climatic conditions were almost same as those of Taegwanryong Kangwon-Do, where Alpine Experimental station is located. This area stands from 650 to 900 metres above the sea level and divided three location of A. B, C, by altitude. A stands at 900 metres above the sea level. B at 750 metres and C at 650 metres. A and B divided three points: Al, A2, A3, and Bl, B2, B3- and divided four points-Cl, C2, C3, C4- at the distance of 300 metres apart each other. The traps were operated from July 21 to October 31, 1969. Otherwise, the traps established at Suwon (inland) and Taegwanryong where Alpine Experimental Station. A total of some 70 species including five virus vector species were identified. The Numbers of species at 10 locations, Suwon and Taegwanryong are as follows; Al-34, A2-38, A3-29, B1-25, B2-26, B3-29, C1-27, C2-14, C3-32, C4-37, species (Table 1), Suwon-49 species (including 5 virus vectors species), Taegwanryong-22 species (including 4 virus vector species). The aphids are shown in Table 1 and the Vectors are as follows: 1. Aphis gossypii Glover 2. Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) 3. Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) 4. Myzus persicae(Sulzer) 5. Phorodon humuli (Schrank) Numbers of vectors versus total aphid at each locations, including inland (Suwon) and alpine area (Taegwanryong) where Alpine Experimental Station are as Fig. 1. Of a total 8,902 aphids, 6,400 $(80\%)$ were Tetraneura sp. The number of aphids devoid of the number of Tetraneura sp. are as follows; (Numbers means mean of each locations) A; 215. B; 115, C; 176 and Suwon; 2,952, Taegwanryong; 247. Densities of aphids at the locations is lower :han those at Suwon and Taegwanryong. And density of vectors at the locations, at ranged from 11 to 37, is love. than those at inland (Suwon; 197) and alpine area (Taegwanryong; 90). Thus, this area is suitable for seed potato production as Multiplication field.

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The Asian Ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, as Biological Control Agents: I. Predacious Behavior and Feeding Ability (생물적 방제인자로서의 무당벌레(Harmonia axyridis): I. 포식행동과 포식력)

  • 서미자;윤영남
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.59-71
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    • 2000
  • The Asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, might be distinguished in biological control agents for the several aphid species in the greenhouses as well as in the fields. Therefore, feeding behavior and predacious capability characteristics were observed. When ladybirds are searching for aphids as their preys, they use the maxillary palpus as contact reception. Otherwise, most of aphids escape from walking or chewing ladybird to other place (mainly move to near-by leaf, or fall down to the under-leaf or ground) instead of plant sucking. Consumed time of ladybirds for searching and feeding prey were significantly different and dependent on their development stage. The ladybird adults ate about 120 green peach aphids and 257 cotton aphids per day. The 3rd instar of ladybirds ate 2,420 and 2,750 eggs of greenhouse whitefly on the cucumber and tomato leaf, respectively, as well. However, ladybird instars taken greenhouse whitefly eggs could not continuously develope to adult, on the other hand, ladybirds taken aphids were normal condition.

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Yearly Fluctuation of Migrated Aphids and PLRV Transmission Rate at Daegwallyeong Highland Region in Korea (대관령지역의 연도별 진딧물 비래 및 PLRV 보독률 변동)

  • Kwon, Min;Park, Chun-Soo;Ham, Young-Il;Lee, Seung-Hwan
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.247-253
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    • 2002
  • Based on accumulated data during 1977-2001, seasonal fluctuations of migrated aphids at Daegwallyeong highlands were analyzed. In addition, rates of PLRV transmission by migrated aphids were investigated by inoculation on indicator plant, Physazis floridana, and ELISA in 2000-2001, and the change of PLRV transmission rates by aphids was compared with that of 1989-1991. The average migrated aphid population densities in 1976-1980, 1991-1995, and 1996-2000 were 575.2, 2959.4 and 2281.6, respectively, showing gradual increase in recent years. The average peak time of aphid migration was from early to mid June during 1977-2001, showing any significant differences over the years. The dominant species, however, changed slowly; before mid 1980s M. persicae flied dominantly, but after mid 1980s Aphis gossypii did. Hahm et al. (1991) reported that PLRV transmission rate of migrated aphids during 1989-1991 was 6.7-10.0%. In 2000-2001, however, migrated aphids at Daegwallyeong highland showed 10.1-11.0%. Although present PLRV transmission rate was slightly higher than that of 10 years ago, taking increased population densities and diversity of migrated aphids into account, there was no significant change of PLRV transmission rate over the years.

Laboratory and Field Evaluations of Entomopathogenic Lecanicillium attenuatum CNU-23 for Control of Green Peach Aphid (Myzus persicae)

  • Kim, Hyang-Yeon;Lee, Hyang-Burm;Kim, Young-Cheol;Kim, In-Seon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.12
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    • pp.1915-1918
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    • 2008
  • An entomopathogenic fungus was isolated from an infected aphid. The isolate conformed most closely to Lecanicillium attenuatum CBS 402.78 (AJ292434) based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of its 18S rDNA, and thus was designated L. attenuatum CNU-23. Laboratory and field evaluations of CNU-23 blastospores were carried out for the control of green peach aphids. The laboratory evaluations of CNU-23 revealed an aphid mortality of about 80% with an estimated $LT_{50}$ of 3.72 days after the application of CNU-23 at $1{\times}10^6$ blastospores/ml. Meanwhile, the field evaluations of CNU-23 performed on greenhouse pepper plants during the rainy season showed an aphid mortality ranging from 72% to 97%. Significant sporulation was observed in the aphids treated with CNU-23. Therefore, the results suggest that L. attenuatum CNU-23 can be used as a biocontrol agent for green peach aphids on greenhouse pepper plants.

Studies on the Aphid Transmission of Some Cruciferous Viruses (십자화과식물 바이러스의 진딧물 매개에 관한 연구)

  • Lee Jai Youl;Paik Woon Hah
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.93-100
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    • 1977
  • This is the fist report on detailed aphid transnsmission studies of cruciferous virus in Korea, and experiments aimed to get basic informations for control of vectors. Aphid transmission of turnip mosaic virus prevalent on radish in the field was studied. Results obtained were as follows: 1. Myzus persicae, Lipaphis erysimi, Aphis gossypii and Aphis craccivora were found to transmit turnip mosaic virus. 2. The proper time for turnip mosaic virus transmission by Myzus persicae was 1 hour of fasting, 3 minutes for acquisition, and 1 minute for inoculation: Lipaphis erysimi was 2 hours for fasting, 5 minutes for acquisition, and 3 miuutes for inoculation: while Aphis gossypii needed 1hour for fasting, and 3 minutes for each of the acquisition and inoculation periods. 3. There was Po great difference in probing patterns between nonfasted and fasted aphids for 2 hours. All the fasted aphids began feeding after 4 minutes, 4. When Myzus persicae were transferred artificially at 1-2 minute intervals, the number of probes with aphids fasted for 2 hours was much greater than that of nonfasted aphids. Aphids fasted for 2 hours mainly transmitted the virus before 4 minutes, with an acquisition feeing period of less than 3 minutes

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