• Title, Summary, Keyword: apigenin

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Effects of Apigenin, a Flavonoid, on the Bioavailability of Tamoxifen in Rats (흰쥐에서 아피제닌이 타목시펜의 생체이용률에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yang-Woo;Choi, Jun-Shik
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.54 no.5
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    • pp.370-376
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    • 2010
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of apigenin on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen in rats. Tamoxifen was administered orally (10 mg/kg) or intravenously (2 mg/kg) without or with oral administration of apigenin (0.4, 2.0 or 8.0 mg/kg) to rats. The effect of apigenin on the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and CYP3A4 activity was also evaluated. Apigenin inhibited CYP3A4 enzyme activity with 50% inhibition concentration ($IC_{50}$) of 1.8 ${\mu}M$. In addition, apigenin significantly enhanced the cellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 in MCF-7/ADR cells overexpressing P-gp. The plasma concentrations of tamoxifen were increased significantly by apigenin compared to control. The areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and the peak concentrations ($IC_{max}$) of tamoxifen with apigenin were significantly higher than those of the control group. Consequently, the relative bioavailability (RB%) of tamoxifen with apigenin was 2-3-fold higher than the control, and absolute bioavailability (AB%) of tamoxifen were significantly higher (p<0.05 with co-administration, p<0.01 with pretreatment) than those of the control. The increased bioavailability of tamoxifen in rats with apigenin might be associated with the inhibition of an efflux pump P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4 by apigenin. From these results, dosage regimen of tamoxifen may be need to adjust when concomitantly administered with apigenin.

The Promotive Effects of Antioxidative Apigenin on the Bioavailability of Paclitaxel for Oral Delivery in Rats

  • Choi, Sang-Joon;Choi, Jun-Shik
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.469-476
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    • 2010
  • This study was to investigate the effect of apigenin on the bioavailability of paclitaxel after oral and intravenous administration in rats. The effect of apigenin on P-glycoprotein (P-gp), cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4 activity was evaluated. The pharmacokinetic parameters of paclitaxel were determined in rats after oral (40 mg/kg) or intravenous (5 mg/kg) administration of paclitaxel with apigenin (0.4, 2 and 8 mg/kg) to rats. Apigenin inhibited CYP3A4 activity with 50% inhibition concentration ($IC_{50}$) of 1.8 ${\mu}M$. In addition, apigenin significantly inhibited P-gp activity. Compared to the control group, apigenin significantly increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC, p<0.05 by 2 mg/kg, 59.0% higher; p<0.01 by 8 mg/kg, 87% higher) of oral paclitaxel. Apigenin also significantly (p<0.05 by 2 mg/kg, 37.2% higher; p<0.01 by 8 mg/kg, 59.3% higher) increased the peak plasma concentration ($C_{max}$) of oral paclitaxel. Apigenin significantly increased the terminal half-life ($t_{1/2}$, p<0.05 by 8 mg/kg, 34.5%) of oral paclitaxel. Consequently, the absolute bioavailability (A.B.) of paclitaxel was significantly (p<0.05 by 2 mg/kg, p<0.01 by 8 mg/kg) increased by apigenin compared to that in the control group, and the relative bioavailability (R.B.) of oral paclitaxel was increased by 1.14- to 1.87-fold. The pharmacokinetics of intravenous paclitaxel were not affected by the concurrent use of apigenin in contrast to the oral administration of paclitaxel. Accordingly, the enhanced oral bioavailability by apigenin may be mainly due to increased intestinal absorption caused via P-gp inhibition by apigenin rather than to reduced renal and hepatic elimination of paclitaxel. The increase in the oral bioavailability might be mainly attributed to enhanced absorption in the gastrointestinal tract via the inhibition of P-gp and reduced first-pass metabolism of paclitaxel via the inhibition of the CYP3A subfamily in the small intestine and/or in the liver by apigenin. It appears that the development of oral paclitaxel preparations as a combination therapy is possible, which will be more convenient than the i.v. dosage form.

Role of $K^+$-$Cl^-$-cotransporter in the Apigenin-induced Stimulation of Melanogenesis in B16 Melanoma Cells (B16 흑색종세포에서 아피제닌에 의한 멜라닌 합성 촉진효과에 미치는 칼륨-염소이온수송체의 역할)

  • Lee, Yong-Soo
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.500-506
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    • 2008
  • Apigenin, a natural flavonoid found in a variety of vegetables and fruits, has been shown to possess many biological functions. In this study we found that apigenin stimulated melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner in B16 murine melanoma cells. Since in our previous study $K^+$-$Cl^-$-cotransport (KCC) has been shown to mediate the mechanism of action of apigenin in neuronal cells, we further investigated the role of KCC in the melanogenesis-stimulating effect of apigenin in B16 cells. At nontoxic concentrations apigenin induced $Cl^-$-dependent $K^+$ efflux, a hallmark of KCC activity, which was markedly prevented by a specific KCC inhibitor R-(+)-[(2-n-butyl-6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentyl-2,3-dihydro-1-oxo-1H-inden-5-yl)oxy]acetic acid (DIOA). These results indicate that KCC is functionally present, and activated by apigenin in the B16 cells. In addition, the apigenin-induced stimulation of melanogenesis was also significantly inhibited by DIOA. NEthylmaleimide (NEM), a known KCC activator, induced $Cl^-$ efflux and stimulated melanogenesis in a concentration-dependent fashion. Both effects of NEM were significantly inhibited by DIOA. Taken together, these results suggest that apigenin can modulate melanogenesis through the activation of a membrane ion transporter, KCC in B16 cells. These results further suggest that apigenin may be a good candidate in the therapeutic strategy for hypopigmentation disorders, such as vitiligo.

Involvement of Early Growth Response Gene 1 (EGR-1) in Growth Suppression of the Human Colonic Tumor Cells By Apigenin and Its Derivative Isovitexin (Apigenin과 대사물 isovitexin에 의한 인체 대장암세포의 세포활성 억제효과에 있어서의 EGR-1의 역할 연구)

  • Moon, Yu-Seok;Cui, Lei-Guang;Yang, Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.110-115
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    • 2007
  • It has been previously described that transcription factor early growth response gene product 1 (EGR-1) functions as a tumor suppressor gene. This study was conducted to demonstrate that EGR-1 induction by phytochemical apigenin and its derivative isovitexin can mediate the growth suppression of the intestinal epithelial tumor cells. Apigenin and isovitexin induced EGR-1 gene expression both in the dose and time-dependent manners. Moreover the induction was relatively late around 9-12 hr after treatment of HCT-116 cells, while several anti-inflammatory agent such as NSAIDS and catechins elicit the ECR-1 gene expression at much earlier time about 1-3 hr after treatment. In terms of signal transduction, ERK1/2 was critical for apigenin-induced EGR-1 gene expression and its promoter activation. When EGR-1 gene expression was blocked with EGR-1 small interference RNA, the cytotoxicity of apigenin in the human epithelial cells was attenuated, suggesting the involvement of EGR-1 in the anti-tumoric activity of apigenin. To link the EGR-1 induction to EGR-1-regulated gene products in colon cancer, NSAID-Activated Gene 1 (NAG-1) was demonstrated to be elevated by apigenin and isovitexin at 24-48 hr after treatment. Taken together, apigenin-activated ERK1/2 mediated EGR-1 gene induction, which was associated with suppression of the cellular viability by apigenin compound.

Apigenin Derivatives of Paulownia coreana Uyeki Leaves

  • Si, Chuan-Ling;Kim, Jin-Kyu;Kwon, Dong-Joo;Bae, Young-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.83-87
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    • 2006
  • The leaves of Paulownia coreana Uyeki were extracted with acetone-$H_2O$ (7:3, v/v), concentrated under reduced pressure and fractionated successively with n-hexane, methylene chloride and ethyl acetate, leaving residual water soluble fraction. A portion of the resulting aqueous soluble powder was chromatographed on a Sephadex LH-20 column using aqueous methanol and ethanol-hexane as washing solvents. Three apigenin derivatives were isolated and identified as apigenin-7-O-${\beta}$-D-glucpyranoside, apigenin-7-O-${\beta}$-D-glucuronopyranoside and apigenin-7-O-[${\beta}$-D-glucuronopyranosyl($1{\rightarrow}2$)-O-${\beta}$-D-glucuronopyranoside] by spectroscopic methods including NMR and FAB-MS.

Role of NADPH Oxidase-mediated Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species in the Apigenin-induced Melanogenesis in B16 Melanoma Cells (B16 흑색종세포에서 아피제닌에 의한 멜라닌 합성에 미치는 NADPH 산화효소-유래 활성산소종의 역할)

  • Lee, Yong-Soo
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.55 no.6
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    • pp.485-491
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    • 2011
  • Previously, we have reported that apigenin, a natural flavonoid found in a variety of vegetables and fruits, stimulated melanogenesis through the activation of $K^+-Cl^-$-cotransport (KCC) in B16 melanoma cells. In this study we investigated the possible involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mechanism of apigenin-induced melanogenesis in B16 cells. Apigenin elevated intracellular ROS level in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with various inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, diphenylene iodonium (DPI), apocynin (Apo) and neopterine (NP) significantly inhibited both the generation of ROS and melanogenesis induced by apigenin. In addition these inhibitors profoundly inhibited apigenin-induced $Cl^-$-dependent $K^+$ efflux, a hallmark of KCC activity. However, the apigenin-induced ROS generation was not significantly affected by treatment with a specific KCC inhibitor R-(+)-[(2-n-butyl-6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentyl-2,3-dihydro-1-oxo-1H-inden-5-yl)oxy]acetic acid (DIOA). These results indicate that the ROS production may be a upstream regulator of the apigenin-induced KCC stimulation, and in turn, melanogenesis in the B16 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS production may play an important role in the apigenin-induced melanogenesis in B16 cells. These results further suggest that NADPH oxidase may be a good target for the management of hyperpigmentation disorders.

Apigenin Sensitizes Huh-7 Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells to TRAIL-induced Apoptosis

  • Kim, Eun-Young;Kim, An-Keun
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.62-67
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    • 2012
  • TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising agent for management of cancer because of its selective cytotoxicity to cancer cells. However, some cancer cells have resistance to TRAIL. Accordingly, novel treatment strategies are required to overcome TRAIL resistance. Here, we examined the synergistic apoptotic effect of apigenin in combination with TRAIL in Huh-7 cells. We found that combined treatment of TRAIL and apigenin markedly inhibited Huh-7 cell growth compared to either agent alone by inducing apoptosis. Combined treatment with apigenin and TRAIL induced chromatin condensation and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). In addition, enhanced apoptosis by TRAIL/apigenin combination was quantified by annexin V/PI flow cytometry analysis. Western blot analysis suggested that apigenin sensitizes cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by activating both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathway-related caspases. The augmented apoptotic effect by TRAIL/apigenin combination was accompanied by triggering mitochondria-dependent signaling pathway, as indicated by Bax/Bcl-2 ratio up-regulation. Our results demonstrate that combination of TRAIL and apigenin facilitates apoptosis in Huh-7 cells.

Apigenin causes necroptosis by inducing ROS accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ATP depletion in malignant mesothelioma cells

  • Lee, Yoon-Jin;Park, Kwan-Sik;Nam, Hae-Seon;Cho, Moon-Kyun;Lee, Sang-Han
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.493-502
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    • 2020
  • Apigenin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, is known to exhibit significant anticancer activity. This study was designed to determine the effects of apigenin on two malignant mesothelioma cell lines, MSTO-211H and H2452, and to explore the underlying mechanism(s). Apigenin significantly inhibited cell viability with a concomitant increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and ATP depletion, resulting in apoptosis and necroptosis in monolayer cell culture. Apigenin upregulated DNA damage response proteins, including the DNA double strand break marker phospho (p)-histone H2A.X. and caused a transition delay at the G2/M phase of cell cycle. Western blot analysis showed that apigenin treatment upregulated protein levels of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, p-MLKL, and p-RIP3 along with an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. ATP supplementation restored cell viability and levels of DNA damage-, apoptosisand necroptosis-related proteins that apigenin caused. In addition, N-acetylcysteine reduced ROS production and improved ΔΨm loss and cell death that were caused by apigenin. In a 3D spheroid culture model, ROS-dependent necroptosis was found to be a mechanism involved in the anti-cancer activity of apigenin against malignant mesothelioma cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that apigenin can induce ROS-dependent necroptotic cell death due to ATP depletion through mitochondrial dysfunction. This study provides us a possible mechanism underlying why apigenin could be used as a therapeutic candidate for treating malignant mesothelioma.

Flavonoids of Elscholtzia cristata

  • Lee, Yang-Hee;Won, Won-Sick;Park, Chung-Hee
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.247-249
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    • 1988
  • Apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside and linarin were isolated from Elscholtzia cristata (Labiatae).

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Involvement of K+-Cl--Cotransport in the Apigenin-Induced Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species in IMR-32 Human Neuroblastoma Cells

  • Kim, Min-Hoo;Jeong, Choon-Sik;Yoon, Hye-Ran;Kim, Gun-Hee;Lee, Yong-Soo
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.137-142
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    • 2006
  • Apigenin, a natural flavonoid found in a variety of vegetables and fruits, has been shown to possess many biological functions. In this study we investigated the role of apigenin in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the modulation of activity of $K^+-Cl^-$-cotransport (KCC) in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Apigenin induced $Cl^-$-dependent $K^+$ efflux, a hallmark of KCC activity, which was markedly prevented by different kinds of KCC inhibitors (calyculin-A, genistein and $BaCl_2$). These results indicate that KCC is functionally present, and activated by apigenin in the IMR-32 cells. Treatment with apigenin also induced a sustained increase in the level of intracellular ROS. The KCC inhibitors also significantly inhibited the apigenin-induced ROS generation. Taken together, these results suggest that apigenin can modulate ROS generation through the activation of a membrane ion transporter, KCC. These results further suggest that the alteration of KCC activity may play a role in the mechanism of degenerative diseases and/or carcinogenesis in neuronal tissues through the regulation of ROS production.