• Title, Summary, Keyword: apitoxin

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Comparative effects of Apitoxin(Bee Venom) & Regular Acupuncture therapy on the knee joint arthritis induced by carrageenin solution in rats (침자(鍼刺) 및 봉독요법(蜂毒療法)이 Carrageenin으로 유발(誘發)된 흰쥐의 슬관절(膝關節) 염증성(炎症性) 부종(浮腫)에 미치는 효능(效能)에 대(對)한 비교(比較) 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Kap-Sung
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.379-402
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    • 1995
  • This study was performed to investigate the comparative effects of Apitoxin(0.1% bee venom 0.1cc) & Acupuncture therapy on the knee joint arthritis induced by 0.1% carrageenin solution at Rt. knee joint in rats. After carrageenin injection, the apitoxin was injected for two times (Experimental group I : 1 & 24hours later, Experimental group II : 48 & 72hours later) into the corresponding loci to Rt. $ST_{35}$(Group 3) & $EX-LE_4$(group 4) of the human body in rats. Acupuncture therapy was done same as above. And then the comparative effects of apitoxin and acupuncture therapy on the knee joint arthritis were estimated by the WBC count, RBC count, hemoglobin level, hematocrit level and ASO titer in serum. The results were summerized as follows : 1. The effects of apitoxin & acupuncture on WBC count showed remarkable decrease at group 3 & group 4 as compared with the control group in both experimental group I & experimental group II. There were not any statistical difference from apitoxin and acupuncture therapy by Duncan's multiple range test. 2. The effect of apitoxin on RBC count showed noticeable decrease at group 3 & group 4 as compared with the control group in both experimental group I & experimental group II. The acupuncture was not showed decrease at group 3 & group 4 as compared with the control group in both experimental group I & experimental group II. There were not any statistical difference from apitoxin and acupuncture therapy by Duncan's multiple range test. 3. The effects of apitoxin & acupuncture on hemoglobin level showed noticeable decrease at group 3 & group 4 as compared with the control group in both experimental group I & experimental group II. There were not any statistical difference from apitoxin and acupuncture therapy by Duncan's multiple range test. 4. The effect of apitoxin on hematocrit level showed noticeable decrease at group 3 & group 4 as compared with the control group in both experimental group I & experimental group II. The acupuncture was not showed decrease at group 3 & group 4 as compared with the control group in both experimental group I & experimental group II. There were not any statistical difference from apitoxin and acupuncture therapy by Duncan's multiple range test. 5. The effect of apitoxin on ASO titer showed noticeable decrease at group 3 & group 4 as compared with the control group only in experimental group I. The apitoxin & acupuncture showed decrease at group 3 & group 4 as compared with the control group in experimental group II. There were significantly statistical difference from apitoxin and acupuncture therapy by Duncan's multiple range test. The effect of apitoxin showed slightly decrease as compared with the acupuncture therapy by Duncan's multiple range test.

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Therapeutic Effect of Aquapuncture with Bee-Venom for Canine Pyoderma

  • Jun, Hyung-Kyou;Kim, Sang-Hun;Kim, Cristopher-Mun-Ho;Cho, Sung-Whan;Jun, Moo-Hyung;You, Myung-Jo;Kim, Duck-Hwan
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.471-475
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    • 2008
  • The present study was performed to elucidate the therapeutic effect by aquapuncture with bee-venom (apitoxin) for treatment of canine pyoderma. The total 8 dogs with pyoderma were divided into 2 groups as control (antibiotics group: 4 dogs) and experimental groups (apitoxin group: 4 dogs). Antibiotics group was treated with bathing and antibiotics, while apitoxin group was treated with bathing and aquapuncture with apitoxin at Fei Shu (BL13), Wei Zhong (BL40), Da Zhui (GV14), Zu San Li (ST36), He Gu (LI04), Qu Chi (LI11), and San Yin Jiao (SP06). Based on the results of changes in clinical symptoms, total leukocyte counts, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios and histopathological findings, antibiotics and apitoxin groups were all effective for treatment of canine pyoderma, and significant differences were not detected between the groups. It was suggested that apitoxin might be used as an alternative method to antibiotics for treatment of canine pyoderma.

The Analgesic Effects of Apitoxin and its Mechanism via JOR and Measuring Expression of mRNA in Phospholipase and TPH using RT-PCR (Jaw Opening Reflex 및 RT-PCR을 이용한 봉독의 진통효과)

  • Cho, Kwang-Ho;Lee, Jae-Dong;Park, Dong-Suk;Ahn, Byoung-Choul
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.35-51
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study is to prove the analgesic effects of apitoxin and its mechanism via jaw-opening reflex(JOR) and measuring expression of mRNA in Phospholipase and Tryptophan hydroxylase(TPH) using RT-PCR. The experiments were carried out on Sprague-Dawley rats(300-400g) and mastocytoma(P-185 HTR) for JOR and RT-PCR, respectively. Rats anesthetized with thiopental sodium (80mg/kg) were used in the Tooth Pulp stimulation induced JOR. The amplitude of a digastric electromyogram (dEMG) was recorded during the stimulation at an intensity of 1.5 times the threshold for JOR. Apitoxin used in this experiment was diluted with normal saline by 1:1000. Apitoxin was injected intravenously into the test group while normal saline to the control group. However, it was injected directly into the cell of mastocytoma. We referred to base sequence registered in Genbank in designing primers for RT-PCR. The results were as follows; (1)Compared with control group, analgesic effect started to show right after Sprague-Dawely rats were treated with apitoxin($71.50{\pm}8.08$) and lasted for 50 minutes. (2)As a result of the experiment of RT-PCR, we witnessed significant changes in the degree of expression of phospholipase or rate-limiting enzyme of biosynthesis of prostaglandins with $10{\mu}g/ml$ apitoxin.($31.74{\pm}18.98%$, P<0.05) (3)As a result of the experiment of RT-PCR, we witnessed significant changes in the degree of expression of TPH or rate-limiting enzyme in biosynthesis of serotonin with $10{\mu}g/ml$ apitoxin.($131.37{\pm}16.87%$, P<0.05). These results suggest that $10{\mu}g/ml$ apitoxin have the most analgesic effects. This study showed that apitoxin has analgesic effects and held good for 50 minutes. The injection of apitoxin has brought out changes in the degree of expression of phospholipase and TPH. These results strongly suggest that analgesic mechanism by apitoxin is closely related to prostaglandins and serotonin.

Therapeutic Effect of Injection-Acupuncture with Bee-Venom (Apitoxin) in Cases of Canine Otitis Externa

  • Kim, Sang-Hun;Jun, Hyung-Kyou;Kim, Suk;You, Myung-Jo;Jun, Moo-Hyung;Kim, Duck-Hwan
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.159-164
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out to determine the therapeutic effect of injection-acupuncture (AP) with bee-venom (apitoxin) in cases of canine otitis externa (COE). Fifteen dogs with naturally-acquired otitis externa were used in this study. The dogs were divided into the following antibiotics group (control group), apitoxin group (experimental group A) and apitoxin combined with antibiotics group (experimental group B). All groups were treated by ear cleaning with normal saline once on day 1. The control group was treated with susceptible antibiotics, and experimental group A was given injection-AP with apitoxin $(100{\mu}g/head)$ at TH17 (Yi Feng), SI19 (Ting Gong), GB03 (Shang Guan) and TH03 (Zhong Zhu) bilaterally. Experimental group B was treated with susceptible antibiotics and injection-AP with apitoxin at the same acupoints as experimental group A. All the groups were treated 3 times/week for 2 weeks. The identity of the causative agents, the changes in the clinical signs, otoscopic findings, bacterial count in the auricular discharges, and total WBC counts and neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) ratio in the peripheral blood were investigated in all groups. In bacterial isolation, Staphylococcus spp. combined with Streptococcus spp. was detected higher than other agents. The bacterial cell count in experimental group A was significantly decreased at 2 weeks (p<0.01), and those in experimental group B was significantly decreased at 1 week (p<0.01) and 2 weeks (p<0.01) compared by those of control group, respectively. The changes of clinical score in experimental group B were significantly decreased at 2 weeks (p<0.01) compared by those of control group, but, those of experimental group A was similar to those of control group. The changes of total WBC counts and neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) ratio were no significant difference found. In conclusion, injection-AP with apitoxin is an effective treatment for COE and might be an alternative method for treating COE.

Efficacy of apitoxin for the treatment of otitis externa in dogs

  • Kim, Sang-Hun;Kim, Suk;Jun, Hyung-Kyou;Kim, Duck-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.173-177
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    • 2009
  • This study examined the efficacy of apitoxin for the treatment of otitis externa in dogs. Ten dogs with otitis externa were allocated randomly to two groups. The control group was treated with the susceptible antibiotics and the experimental group was injected with apitoxin into the tragus subcutaneously. There were no significant differences in the clinical scores, blood WBC counts and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios between the control and experimental groups. By 2 weeks, the bacterial cell counts were significantly lower in the experimental group than the control (p < 0.05). No adverse reactions were observed in any of the dogs during the study. This suggests that a topical injection of apitoxin is an effective treatment for otitis externa in dogs.

Therapeutic Effect of Bee-Venom and Dexamethasone in Dogs with Facial Nerve Paralysis (개 안면신경마비에 대한 봉독과 덱사메타손의 치료효과)

  • Jun, Hyung-Kyou;Oh, Hyun-Uk;Han, Ji-Won;Lee, Hyun-Hwa;Jeong, Seong-Mok;Choi, Seok-Hwa;Kim, Cristopher Mun-Ho;Kim, Duck-Hwan
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.503-508
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    • 2007
  • Although canine facial nerve paralysis(FNP) occurs similarly in humans, there is no properly recognized therapy using Western medicine for idiopathic causes. To elucidate therapeutic measures by acupuncture(AP) on canine FNP, we examined the therapeutic effect of injection-AP on the artificially induced canine FNP. Twelve dogs on artificially induced canine FNP were divided into a control group(4 dogs), an experimental dexamethasone-treated group(dexamethasone group, 4 dogs) and an experimental bee venom-treated group(apitoxin group, 4 dogs). Saline (1 ml) was intramuscularly injected into the head muscle after the induction of FNP in the control group. On the other hand, injection-AP with dexamethasone was performed on such acupoints as LI04, LI20, ST02, ST07, TH17, SI18, GB03 and GB34, twice per week after induction of FNP in the dexamethasone group. In addition, injection-AP with $100{\mu}g$ of apitoxin was performed on the same acupoints as the dexamethasone group twice per week after the induction of FNP in the apitoxin group, respectively. The changes of the clinical symptoms of FNP with each treatment during the experimental period were recorded by using clinical scores, respectively. The changes of serum creatine kinase(CK) activities along with each treatment were determined using an autoanalyzer. The significant differences of clinical scores were detected on day 14(p<0.05) in the apitoxin and dexamethasone groups, compared with those in the control group, respectively. However, significant difference was not detected between the apitoxin and dexamethasone groups. Significant differences of serum CK activities were detected on day 7(p<0.05) and day 14(p<0.05) in the dexamethasone and apitoxin groups, compared with those in the control group, respectively. However, significant difference was not detected between the dexamethasone and apitoxin groups. In condition, injection-APs with apitoxin and dexamethasone were all effective for treatment of canine FNP and the therapeutic effect by injection-AP with apitoxin was similar to that of injection-AP with dexamethasone.

Bee-Venom Acupuncture Treatment of Hip Osteoarthritis in a Dog (개에서 둔부 골관절염의 봉침 치료)

  • Kim Tae-Hwa;Kim Byung-Young;Kim Won-Bae;Kim Kwang-Shik;Liu Jianzhu;Kim Duck-Hwan;Rogers Phil A.M.
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.190-193
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    • 2006
  • Two weeks of therapy with intra-articular hyaluronic acid and oral caprofen failed to improve the clinical signs of hip osteoarthritis radiologically confirmed in a dog. Then, over the period of 30 days (7 sessions at 5-day intervals), bee- venom acupuncture (BV-AP, injection of bee venom at acupoints, also called apitoxin-aquapuncture) plus Trigger Point (TP) therapy was used. Five acupoints on the affected right limb were injected each time: GB30(as local point), plus ST35, GB33, BL40 and LIV08 (as distant points). The injection mixture (0.2 ml/point; total 1 ml/session) was saline + apitoxin + 2% lidocaine, so that the injected solution contained $100{\mu}g$ apitoxin diluted in 0.2% lidocaine-saline solution/ml. The total dose of apitoxin used was, therefore, $100{\mu}g/session$, divided over the 5 acupoints. One TP in the middle of the right quadriceps muscle was injected with 2% lidocaine (0.2 ml/point) each time. BV-AP improved the clinical signs rapidly; lameness and ataxia were disappear after 7 sessions (30 days); the right hind limb muscular atrophy was much improved and the hip radiograph was almost normal two weeks after 7 sessions (44 days). The present patient was a case with canine hip osteoarthritis which showed favorable therapeutic response by BV-AP plus TP therapy.

Treatment by Injection-Acupuncture with Apitoxin and Apitoxin Combined by Chinese Herbal Medicine in Patients with Canine Bind Limb Paralysis : Case Report (후지마비견(後肢痲痺犬)에 대한 봉독(蜂毒) 약침(藥鍼) 및 봉독(蜂毒) 약침(藥鍼)과 한약제(漢藥劑)의 병용치료(倂用治療) : 증례보고(症例報告))

  • Jun, Hyung-Kyou;Park, Se-Kun;Kim, Duck-Hwan;Kim, Mun-Ho;Hsu, Chin-Yuan;Hsu, Chin-Ling;Liao, Jim-Cai;Chueh, Hao-Jen;Cheng, Han-Wen
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.225-228
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    • 2007
  • The therapy by injection-acupuncture (AP) with bee-venom (apitoxin) and injection-AP with apitoxin combined by administration of Chinese herbal medicine was applied in 2 cases with canine intervertebral disc disease (IVDD). Case 1 was diagnosed as thoraco-lumbar IVDD (T11-T12, T12-T13, L3-L4 and L4-L5) and case 2 was diagnosed as IVDD at T10-T11 and T12-T13, respectively Injection-AP with apitoxin($Apitoxinc{(R)}$, total $200{\mu}g$ of apitoxin, 0.1 ml/acupoint) plus physical exercise (walking with gocart, TID/day) and aquatherapy (swimming treatment, BID/week) were given to each patient. The used acupoints were GV20 (Bai Hui), GB30 (Huan Tiao), ST36 (Zu San Li), GB34 (Yang Ling Quan), ST40 (Feng Long), ST41 (Jie Xi) and BL40 (Wei Zhong), the lesions, and trigger points. In addition, Chinese herbal medicine (Koda Pharmaceutical Co., Taiwan) including Zheng Gu Zi Jin Dan (正骨紫金丹 : 1 g), Shiuh Duann(續斷 : 0.2 g), Du Zhong(杜仲 : 0.2 g), Mo Yao(沒藥 : 0.2 g), Ru Xian(乳香 : 0.2 g) and Pyrite(自然銅 : 0.2 g) were orallly mdeicated BID for 0\9days in case 2. Walking was possible after session 11 for 4 weeks in case 1 and after session 6 for 2 weeks in case 2, respectively.

Effects of Aqua-acupuncture(Cortex Ulmi Pumilae, Ramulus Cinnamomum, Radix Achyranthis, Apitoxin, Calculus Bovis·Fel Ursi·Moschus compound) in Mice with Lipopolysaccharide Induced Arthritis (유백피(楡白皮), 계지(桂枝), 우슬(牛膝), 봉독(蜂毒) 및 우황(牛黃)·웅담(熊膽)·사향(麝香)복잡제제 약침(藥鍼)이 mouse의 LPS유발(誘發) 관절염(關節炎)의 혈액학적(血液學的) 변화(變化)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Do, Won-Seok;Kim, Kyung-Ho;Kim, KaP-sUNG
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.157-169
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    • 2001
  • Objective : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects on WBC counts and each differential of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes in whole blood sample of each experimental Aqua-acupuncture treated mice groups PCortex Ulmi Pumilae(CU), Ramulus Cinnamomum(RC), Radix Achyranthes(RA), Apitoxin(BV), Calculus Bovis Fel Ursi Moschus compound(BUM). Materials & Method : All the BALB/c mice used in this study were bred and maintained in our pathogen-free mouse facility and were 6 weeks of age at the start of the experiment. The experimental model of arthritis was induced by injecting 300${\mu}g$/kg LPS to all mice knee joint. The each of Aqua-acupuncture(Cortex Ulmi Pumilae, Ramulus Cinnamomum, Radix Achyranthes, Apitoxin, Calculus Bovis Fel Ursi Moschus compound) was injected into GB34(陽陵泉) of mice groups every other day for 6 times. And the WBC counts and each differential of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes were measured at the 3rd, 7th and 14th day after LPS injection. Results : 1. The WBC counts were significantly decreased compared with the control(CON) group in every Aqua-acupuncture groups at all days. And at the 14th day, BV & BUM groups were more significantly decreased than RA group. 2. The Neutrophil's ratio was significantty increased compared with the CON group in CU & RC groups at the 3rd day and RC group was more significant than CU group. But at the 7th and 14th day, every Aqua-acupuncture groups were significantly increased compared with the CON group and at the 7th day, RC group was more significant than RA, BV & BUM groups and at the 14th day, RC, BV & BUM groups were more significant than RA group. 3. The Lymphocyte's ratio was significantly decreased compared with the CON group in RC group at the 3rd day. At the 7th day, CU, RC & BV groups were significantly decreased compared with the CON group. At the 14th day, every Aqua-acupuncture groups were significantly decreased compared with the CON group and RC group was more significant than RA group, 4. The Monocyte's ratio was significantly decreased compared with the CON group in every Aqua-acupuncture groups at the 7th day. At the 14th day, BV & BUM groups were significantly decreased compared with the CON group. Conclusion : According to the above results, it was concluded that CU & RC groups were more effective at the early period of this experiment, and at the latter period, BV & BUM groups were more effective than others. RA group was less effctive than others.

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