• Title, Summary, Keyword: apoptosis

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Anti-apoptosis Engineering

  • Kim, Eun-Jeong;Park, Tai-Hyun
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.76-82
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    • 2003
  • An increased understanding of apoptosis makes anti-apoptosis engineering possible, which is an approach used to inhibit apoptosis for the purpose of therapeutic, or industrial applications in the treatment of the diseases associated with increased apoptosis, or to improve the productivity of animal cell cultures, respectively. Some known anti-apoptosis proteins are the Bcl-2 family, IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis) and Hsps (heat shock proteins), with which anti-apoptosis engineering has progressed. This article reviews anti-apoptosis engineering using known anti-apoptosis compounds, and introduces a 30 K protein, isolated from silkworm hemolymph, as a novel anti-apoptotic protein, that Shows no homology with other known anti-apoptotic proteins. The regulation of apoptosis, using anti-apoptotic proteins and genes originating from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, may provide a new strategy in this field.

A Robust Method for Automatic Segmentation and Recognition of Apoptosis Cell (Apoptosis 세포의 자동화된 분할 및 인식을 위한 강인한 방법)

  • Liu, Hai-Ling;Shin, Young-Suk
    • Journal of KIISE:Computing Practices and Letters
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.464-468
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    • 2009
  • In this paper we propose an image-based approach, which is different from the traditional flow cytometric method to detect shape of apoptosis cells. This method can overcome the defects of cytometry and give precise recognition of apoptosis cells. In this work K-means clustering was used to do the rough segmentation and an active contour model, called 'snake' was used to do the precise edge detection. And then some features were extracted including physical feature, shape descriptor and texture features of the apoptosis cells. Finally a Mahalanobis distance classifier classifies the segmentation images as apoptosis and non-apoptosis cell.

Basic Studies on the Apoptosis Mechanism of Trichoplusia ni Cell Line (Trichoplusia ni 세포의 apoptosis 메커니즘 규명을 위한 기초연구)

  • Lee, Jong-Min;Yang, Jai-Myung;Lee, Youn-Hyung;Chung, In-Sik
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2001
  • To elucidate the apoptosis mechanism of Trichoplusia ni cell, fundamental studies for apoptosis induction and suppression were performed. Hygromycin B, a known inducer of apoptosis, started the inhibition of T. ni cell growth at $200\;{\mu}/ml$ concentration. Furthermore, at $400\;{\mu}/ml$ concentration, DNA fragmentation was detected on day 2 of incubation. Although both dexamethasone and sodium butyrate inhibited T. ni cell growth, DNA fragmentation was not detected by both treatments. Also, when apoptosis induced T. ni cells with $200\;{\mu}/ml$ hygromycin B were treated with caspase inhibitor (Ac-DEVD-CHO), the apoptotsis was suppressed by 36%. In addition, N-acetylcysteine, another apoptosis repressor, also inhibited the apoptosis of T. ni cells. In order to express the anti-apoptosis gene (bcl-2), T. ni cells were transiently transformed with bcl-2 and its expression was confirmed by western blot analysis. These results showed the potential of developing new insect cell lines with suppressed apoptosis.

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The Impact of Autophagy on the Cigarette Smoke Extract-Induced Apoptosis of Bronchial Epithelial Cells

  • Lee, Chang-Hoon;Lee, Kyoung-Hee;Jang, An-Hee;Yoo, Chul-Gyu
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.80 no.1
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    • pp.83-89
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    • 2017
  • Background: Previous studies report that apoptosis and autophagy are involved in the pathogenesis of emphysema, and macroautophagy is one of the processes regulating the apoptosis pathway. However, few studies have evaluated whether chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) contributes to the regulation of apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the impact of autophagy, including both macroautophagy and CMA, on the apoptosis in bronchial epithelial cells. Methods: Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) was injected intratracheally into C57BL/6 mice, and emphysema and apoptosis were evaluated in the lungs. After treatment with CSE, apoptosis, macroautophagy, and CMA were measured in BEAS2-B cells, and the impact of autophagy on the apoptosis was evaluated following knockdown of autophagy-related genes by short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Results: Intratracheal CSE injection resulted in the development of emphysema and an increase in apoptosis in mice. CSE increased the apoptosis in BEAS2-B cells, and also elevated the expression of proteins related to both macroautophagy and CMA in BEAS2-B cells. The knockdown experiment with siRNAs showed that macroautophagy increases apoptosis in BEAS2-B cells, while CMA suppresses apoptosis. Conclusion: The intratracheal injection of CSE induces pulmonary emphysema and an increase in apoptosis in mice. CSE also induces apoptosis, macroautophagy, and CMA of bronchial epithelial cells. Macroautophagy and CMA regulate apoptosis in opposite directions.

The Heat Shock Protein 27 (Hsp27) Operates Predominantly by Blocking the Mitochondrial-Independent/Extrinsic Pathway of Cellular Apoptosis

  • Tan, Cheau Yih;Ban, Hongseok;Kim, Young-Hee;Lee, Sang-Kyung
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.533-538
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    • 2009
  • Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a molecular chaperone protein which regulates cell apoptosis by interacting directly with the caspase activation components in the apoptotic pathways. With the assistance of the Tat protein transduction domain we directly delivered the Hsp27 into the myocardial cell line, H9c2 and demonstrate that this protein can reverse hypoxia-induced apoptosis of cells. In order to characterize the contribution of Hsp27 in blocking the two major apoptotic pathways operational within cells, we exposed H9c2 cells to staurosporine and cobalt chloride, agents that induce mitochondria-dependent (intrinsic) and -independent (extrinsic) pathways of apoptosis in cells respectively. The Tat-Hsp27 fusion protein showed a greater propensity to inhibit the effect induced by the cobalt chloride treatment. These data suggest that the Hsp27 predominantly exerts its protective effect by interfering with the components of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis.

NF-${\kappa}B$ Inhibitor Suppresses Hypoxia-induced Apoptosis of Mouse Pancreatic ${\beta}$-cell Line MIN6

  • Koh, Hyun Sook;Kim, Jae Young
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.14-24
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    • 2014
  • Hypoxia is one of the main reasons for islet apoptosis after transplantation as well as during isolation. In this study, we attempted to determine the potential usefulness of NF-${\kappa}B$ inhibitor for suppression of hypoxia-induced ${\beta}$-cell apoptosis as well as the relationship between IP-10 induction and ${\beta}$-cell apoptosis in hypoxia. To accomplish this, we cultured the mouse pancreatic ${\beta}$-cell line MIN6 in hypoxia (1% $O_2$). Among several examined chemokines, only IP-10 mRNA expression was induced under hypoxia, and this induced IP-10 expression was due to NF-${\kappa}B$ activity. Since a previous study suggested that IP-10 mediates ${\beta}$-cell apoptosis, we measured hypoxia-induced IP-10 protein and examined the effect of anti-IP-10 neutralizing Ab on hypoxia-induced ${\beta}$-cell apoptosis. However, IP-10 protein was not detected, and anti-IP-10 neutralizing Ab did not rescue hypoxia-induced MIN6 apoptosis, indicating that there is no relationship between hypoxia-induced IP-10 mRNA expression and hypoxia-induced ${\beta}$-cell apoptosis. Since it was still not clear if NF-${\kappa}B$ functions as an apoptotic or anti-apoptotic mediator in hypoxia-induced ${\beta}$-cell apoptosis, we examined possible involvement of NF-${\kappa}B$ in hypoxia-induced ${\beta}$-cell apoptosis. Treatment with 1 ${\mu}M$ NF-${\kappa}B$ inhibitor suppressed hypoxiainduced apoptosis by more than 50%, while 10 ${\mu}M$ AP-1 or 4 ${\mu}M$ NF-AT inhibitor did not, indicating involvement of NF-${\kappa}B$ in hypoxia-induced ${\beta}$-cell apoptosis. Overall, these results suggest that IP-10 is not involved in hypoxia-induced ${\beta}$-cell apoptosis, and that NF-${\kappa}B$ inhibitor can be useful for ameliorating hypoxia-induced ${\beta}$-cell apoptosis.

The Protective Effects of N-Acetyl-L-cysteine on Cadmium-induced Cell Apoptosis in Rat Testis

  • Kim, Ji-Sun;Soh, Jaemog
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.417-425
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    • 2019
  • Cadmium (Cd) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn cause the apoptosis of various cell types including developing germ cells in rodent testis. Ascorbic acids (AA), one of the ROS scavengers, had been reported to protect against Cd-induced apoptosis. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), another ROS scavenger, is known to remove ROS and alleviate the Cd-induced apoptosis in various cell types. In this study we tried to elucidate how NAC affected on Cd-induced cell apoptosis in rat testis. Rats were administered with NAC before and after Cd treatment and then testicular cell apoptosis was examined. NAC treatment resulted in the reduction of Cd-induced chromosomal DNA fragmentation in agarose gel electrophoresis. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay showed that treatment of NAC reduced the Cd-induced apoptosis of germ cells. The administration of NAC showed that the translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to nucleus was prevented, which indicated that the mechanism of Cd-induced testicular apoptosis is mediated through the release of AIF in caspase-independent manner. Taken together, the NAC may remove Cd-induced ROS and protect ROS-induced cell apoptosis in rat testis.

Recent Issue of Apoptosis Researches in Animals (최근의 appoptosis 연구)

  • 권오유;김원식
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.66-72
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    • 1997
  • The term of apoptosis, programmed cell death, was firstly coined to distinguish with necrosis, pathologic cell death, by Kerr in 1972. Although various pathogenic factors are able to occur apoptosis, ti is essential process for normal development and physiology in the animals. Recently in the field of medicine, apoptosis researeh is especially focused in serveral Kind of pathopoiesis problems including cancer, immunodeficiency associated HIV and other virus, autommunity, alzheimer and congenital anormality. The information obtained from the animal model system for apoptosis should be directly applicable to both life science for understanding of development and medicine for practical the rapy. To know the common mechanism of apoptosis, it is prerequisite that the genes and factors responsible for apoptosis should be defined and characterized on the molecular level. The study of apoptosis should contribute largely to biology inculuding cell physiology and development, and both basic and clinical medicine to understand cause of diseases for therapy as well as congenital defect.

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Regulation of Caspase Activity During Apoptosis Induced by Baicalein in HL60 Human Leukemia Cell Line

  • Byun, Boo-Hyeong;Kim, Bu-Yeo
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.1305-1309
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    • 2008
  • Baicalein, one of the major flavonoid in Scutellaria baicalensis, has been known for its effects on proliferation and apoptosis of many tumor cell lines. Most biological effects of baicalein are thought to be from its antioxidant and prooxidant activities. In this report, baicalein was found to induce apoptosis in HL60 human promyelocytic leukemia cell line. Baicalein treatment induced DNA fragmentation and typical morphological features of apoptosis. To elucidate the mechanism of baicalein-induced apoptosis, the activities of the members of caspase family were measured. Interestingly caspase 2, 3, and 6 were significantly activated whereas caspase 1, 8, and 9 were not activated, suggesting selective involvement of specific caspases. Further, treatment with caspase inhibitors also supports the involvement of caspase 2 in apoptosis process. Although it has been reported that baicalein can induce apoptosis through many caspase pathways, the present study indicates that caspase 2 not caspase 9 pathway may be the important step in apoptosis on HL60 cell line.

Induction of Apoptosis by Ursolic Acid in F9 Teratocarcinoma Cells (F9 기형암종세포에서 Ursolic acid의 apoptosis 유도기작)

  • 강창모;백진현;김규원
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 1998
  • The apoptosis-inducing activity of ursolic acid (UA) was examined in mouse F9 teratocarcinoma cells on the bases of biochemical and morphological characteeristics. UA, pentacyclic trierpene acid, exhibits antitumor activities including inhibition of skin tumorigenesis, induction of tumor cell differentiation and antitumor promotion. Treatment with UA showed that the decrease of cell viability was dose-dependent. UA also induced genomic DNA fragmetation, a hallmark of apoptosis, indicating that the mechanism of UA-induced F9 cell death was through apoptosis. When the morphology of the F9 cells was examined by electron microscopy, the cells treated with UA showed the charcteristic morphological features of apoptosis such as chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. DNA fragmentations by UA were inhibired by cycloheximide, which suggest that de novo protein synthesis was required for DNA fragmentation by UA. Inaddition, the expression of c-jun was increased, but those of c-myc and laminin B1 were decreased during apoptosis induced by UA in F9 cells. These results suggest that UA causes an apoptosis in F9 cells. Further, the increased expression of c-jun may be involved in the UA-induced apoptosis of f9 cells.

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