• Title, Summary, Keyword: apoptosis

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Paraquat Induces Apoptosis through Cytochrome C Release and ERK Activation

  • Seo, Hong Joo;Choi, Sang Joon;Lee, Jung-Hee
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.503-509
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    • 2014
  • Paraquat has been suggested to induce apoptosis by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, little is known about the mechanism of paraquat-induced apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate that extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) is required for paraquat-induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. Paraquat treatment resulted in activation of ERK, and U0126, inhibitors of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway, prevented apoptosis. Moreover, paraquat-induced apoptosis was associated with cytochrome C release, which could be prevented by treatment with the MEK inhibitors. Taken together, our findings suggest that ERK activation plays an active role in mediating paraquat-induced apoptosis of NIH3T3 cells.

Toosendan Fructus Induces Apoptotic Cell Death in MCF-7 Cell, Via the Inhibition of Bcl-2 Expression (천련자 메탄올 추출물이 Bcl-2 발현 억제를 통해 유방암 세포의 자멸사에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Woo-Kyeong;Kim, Dong-Chul
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.18-33
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: The research is to investigate the effect of TFE on apoptosis of human-derived breast cancer cells, to find out the relationship with apoptosis. Methods: Human-derived breast adenocarcinoma cell line, MCF-7 cells were treated by TFE with various concentration. The inducement effect of TFE on cell apoptosis was observed with MTT assay and the relationship between the treatment and apoptosis was investigated with FACS analysis, TUNEL assay and DNA laddering assay and the change in the protein levels of PARP and caspase-3 activities were also observed. The release of cytochrome-c was observed to find out the pathway of apoptosis induced by TFE. Results: The cell apoptosis was significantly induced in MCF-7 cells treated with TFE in concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. It was verified by FACS analysis, TUNEL assay, DNA laddering assay that cell-death was caused not by necrosis but by apoptosis. The activity of PARP and caspase were increased concentration-dependently. The release of cytocrome-c was decreased in proportion to the concentration of the fruit extract. It therefore demonstrated that mitochondria were involved in apoptosis induced by TFE. The appearance of Bcl-2 protein was decreased concentration-dependently. Conclusion: The treatment by TFE induced apoptosis of human breast adenocarcinoma cell line, MCF-7. It seems likely that cell-death was caused by apoptosis and mitochondria were involved in it. The mechanism of protein change causing apoptosis seems related to the inhibition of Bcl-2 protein, the promotion of inversion from cytochrome-c into cytosol, the activation of caspase and the promotion of PARP cleavage.

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The Effects of Cyclophosphamide on Apoptosis in Murine Lymphoma

  • Yang, Je-Hoon;Bae, Hyung-Joon;Seo, Deuk-Rok;Koh, Phil-Ok;Kwak, Soo-Dong
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.205-210
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    • 2001
  • Whereas apoptosis is a critical mode of cell deletion in normal organism development, apoptotic cells are also observed in tumor therapy. We therefore investigated the expression of apoptotic cells induced as a function of time and dose in murine A-20 lymphoma treated with cyclophosphamide in vivo, by H&E and TUNEL method. The percent of apoptotic cells were scored from tumor section using TUNEL method. The expression of apoptotic positive cell was determined over a 10-day period following treatment of the mice with 200 mg/kg. Apoptosis increased further with time, reaching a peak value between 12~24 hr (scored 6.7$\pm$1.0%~6.1$\pm$0.7%), and then slowly declined to background levels by 10 days after treatment. The dependence of induction of apoptosis on the dose of cyctophosphamide was determined by treatment with 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg at 12 hr after treatment. Apoptosis was dose dependent in that as the dose was increased the percentage of apoptosis increased. However, the increase in apoptosis at the lower dose used (50 mg/kg) was higher on a per unit dose basis than that at the higher dose used (200 mg/kg). This result show that the alkylating agent cyclophosphamide strongly induces apoptosis in murine lymphoma.

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Apoptosis and Bcl-2 in Astrocytic Tumors (성상교세포종에서 Apoptosis와 Bcl-2 발현)

  • Jang, Yeon Gyoe;Whang, Kum;Hong, Soon-Won
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.485-490
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    • 2000
  • Objective : To study the expression of apoptosis and bcl-2 in the astrocytic tumors. Patients and Methods : A total of thirty-eight astrocytomas(9 cases in low grade astrocytoma, 12 cases in anaplastic astrocytoma and 17 cases in glioblastoma) are included in this study. Immunohistochemical stain for bcl-2 using monoclonal antibody, in situ end labelling technique for apoptosis were used. Results : The malignant group(anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma) showed significantly higher apoptosis positive index(PI) compared to the benign group(low grade astrocytoma)(1.35 vs 0.14). However apoptosis PI and bcl-2 PI were not significantly different among three groups. Correlation between apoptosis PI and bcl-2 PI was not statistically significant(p=0.58). Conclusion : This result suggest that apoptosis PI and bcl-2 PI are not related the degree of malignancy in astrocytic neoplasm, but apoptosis PI in malignant group was higher possibly due to greater DNA damage.

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Effect of Injin Butanol Fraction with Thin Layer Chromatography on Fas-mediated Apoptosis (인진butanol 분획의 TLC추출성분이 Fas-mediated Apoptosis에 미치는 영향)

  • 박용진;김영철;이장훈;우흥정
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.57-69
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    • 2002
  • Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Injin butanol fractions with Thin Layer Chromatography on Fas-mediated Apoptosis. Method: Injin-butanol fraction separated by TLC. MIT assay, cell cycle analysis, Caspase-3 protease assay, DNA fragmentation assay and quantitative RT-PCR were performed to evaluate the effects of TLC extraction of lnjin-butanol fraction on cell viability, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Results: Scopoletin, luteolin, apigenin and unknown powder was isolated by TLC. Fas-mediated apoptosis analysis shows that scopoletin has inhibiting function on apoptosis. Caspase- 3 protease assay analysis shows that scopoletin inhibits activity of caspase-3. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis shows that no activity on caspase-3, but apoptosis inhibition cytokine -Bcl-2- is activated, and apoptosis activating cytokine -Bax- is unactivated. Conclusion: These results show that each fraction of Injin-butanol TLC extraction, especially scopoletin, acts as a protective function on liver cell viability, and inhibitory function on apoptosis. (J Korean Oriental Moo 2002;23(2):57-69)

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Studies on the Regulation of Ovarian Granulosa Cell Apoptosis by Gonadotropins and Nitric Oxide (생식소 자극 호르몬과 Nitric Oxide에 의한 난소 과립세포의 Apoptosis 조절에 대한 연구)

  • 이석자
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.157-164
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    • 1997
  • To study the regulation of porcine follicular cell apostosis by gonadotropin, steroid, and nitric oxide, we analyzed DNA fragmentation, the hallmark of apoptosis, and nitrite production of porcine granulosa cells. Dissected indiidual follicles from ovary were separated in size (small, 2-3 mm; medium, 5-6 mm; large, 7-8 mm) and isolated granulosa cells were classified morpholocally as atretic or nonatretic. Nitrite concentration was measured by mixing follicular fluids with an equal volume of Griess reagent. Follicular nitric oxide (NO) concentration of healthy follicles was higher than that of atretic follicles. Apoptotic DNA fragmentation was suppressed in non-apoptotic granulosa cells. Follicular apoptosis was induced by androgen but prevented by gonadotropin in vitro. Apoptosis was confined to the granulosa cells. But it was not clear whether apoptosis of granulosa cells were isolated, incubated with or without gonadotropin, androgen and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively at $37^{\circ}C$ for 24 hrs. Cultured granulosa cells were used to extract genomic DNA and culture media was asssayed for nitrite concentration. Nitrite production of culture media was increased, while apoptotic DNA fragmentation was suppressed in PMSG, hCG, testosterone+SNP and SNP treated groups. Nitrite concentration in culture media was decreased, but apoptotic DNA fragmentation was induced in testosterone treated group. These data suggest that NO production and apoptosis may be involved of granulosa cell apoptosis induced by testosterone.

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CSE1L/CAS, a microtubule-associated protein, inhibits taxol (paclitaxel)-induced apoptosis but enhances cancer cell apoptosis induced by various chemotherapeutic drugs

  • Liao, Ching-Fong;Luo, Shue-Fen;Shen, Tzu-Yun;Lin, Chin-Huang;Chien, Jung-Tsun;Du, Shin-Yi;Jiang, Ming-Chung
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.210-216
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    • 2008
  • CSE1L/CAS, a microtubule-associated, cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein, is highly expressed in various cancers. Microtubules are the target of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. We studied the effects of increased or reduced CAS expression on cancer cell apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs including paclitaxel. Our results showed that CAS overexpression enhanced apoptosis induced by doxorubicin, 5-fluorour-acil, cisplatin, and tamoxifen, but inhibited paclitaxel-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. Reductions in CAS produced opposite results. CAS overexpression enhanced p53 accumulation induced by doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, tamoxifen, and etoposide. CAS was associated with $\alpha$-tubulin and $\beta$-tubulin and enhanced the association between $\alpha$-tubulin and $\beta$-tubulin. Paclitaxel can induce G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and microtubule aster formation during apoptosis induction, but CAS overexpression reduced paclitaxel-induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and microtubule aster formation. Our results indicate that CAS may play an important role in regulating the cytotoxicities of chemotherapeutic drugs used in cancer chemotherapy against cancer cells.

The Important Anti-Apoptotic Role and Its Regulation Mechanism of PTTG1 in UV-Induced Apoptosis

  • Lai, Yongqing;Xin, Dianqi;Bai, Junhai;Mao, Zebin;Na, Yanqun
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.966-972
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    • 2007
  • Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG1) is widely detected in many tumors. Increasing evidence reveals that PTTG1 is associated with cell proliferation, cellular transformation and apoptosis. However, the functions of PTTG1, especially its role in DNA damage-induced apoptosis, remain largely unclear. In this report, we used UV irradiation to induce apoptosis in HeLa cells to examine the role of PTTG1 in UV-induced apoptosis by RNAi-mediated knockdown and overexpression of PTTG1. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PTTG1 expression increased and overexpression of PTTG1 decreased the UV-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, UV irradiation decreased PTTG1 mRNA and protein expression. These effects were found to be mediated by JNK pathway. Therefore, PTTG1 had an important anti-apoptotic role in UV-induced apoptosis and this role was mediated by JNK pathway. These results may provide important information for understanding the exact role and the regulation mechanism of PTTG1 in UV-induced apoptosis.

Anti-apoptosis effects by Eimeria tenella infection in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells

  • Lee, Hyun-A;Hong, Sun-Hwa;Chung, Yung-Ho;Kim, Ok-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.105-109
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    • 2012
  • Apoptosis is a host defense mechanism that the cell uses to limit production of infectious pathogens. Although many bacteria, viruses and parasites can induce apoptosis in infected cells, some pathogens usually exhibit the ability to suppress the induction of apoptosis in the infected cells. Sophisticated evasion strategies of obligate intracellular parasites, in particular prevention of host cell apoptosis, are necessary to ensure successful replication. To study the ability of Eimeria tenella in this regard, in vitro experiments were performed applying Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells as host cell. We have demonstrated that productive infection of adherent cell lines by E. tenella resulted in an anti-apototic effect. This phenomenon was confirmed using in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated (TdT) deoxyuridine triphosphates (dUTP)-fluorescein nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay to detect apoptosis. Therefore, E. tenella could complete its cycle of productive infection while inducing anti-apoptosis in the infected cells. This finding might have implications for the pathobiology of E. tenella and other Eimeria species.

MicroRNA let-7c inhibits Bcl-xl expression and regulates ox-LDL-induced endothelial apoptosis

  • Qin, Bing;Xiao, Bo;Liang, Desheng;Li, Ye;Jiang, Ting;Yang, Huan
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.45 no.8
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    • pp.464-469
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    • 2012
  • Endothelial cells (ECs) apoptosis induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is thought to play a critical role in atherosclerosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of genes involved in diverse cell functions, including differentiation, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. MiRNA let-7 family is known to be involved in the regulation of cell apoptosis. However, the function of let-7 in ox-LDL induced ECs apoptosis and atherosclerosis is still unknown. Here, we show that let-7c expression was markedly up-regulated in ox-LDL induced apoptotic human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Let-7c over-expression enhanced apoptosis in ECs whereas inhibition of let-7c could partly alleviate apoptotic cell death mediated by ox-LDL. Searching for how let-7c affected apoptosis, we discovered that antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xl was a direct target of let-7c in ECs. Our data suggest that let-7c contributes to endothelial apoptosis through suppression of Bcl-xl.