• Title, Summary, Keyword: apoptosis

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Molecular Mechanisms of Apoptosis and Roles in Cancer Development and Treatment

  • Goldar, Samira;Khaniani, Mahmoud Shekari;Derakhshan, Sima Mansoori;Baradaran, Behzad
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.2129-2144
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    • 2015
  • Programmed cell death (PCD) or apoptosis is a mechanism which is crucial for all multicellular organisms to control cell proliferation and maintain tissue homeostasis as well as eliminate harmful or unnecessary cells from an organism. Defects in the physiological mechanisms of apoptosis may contribute to different human diseases like cancer. Identification of the mechanisms of apoptosis and its effector proteins as well as the genes responsible for apoptosis has provided a new opportunity to discover and develop novel agents that can increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to undergo apoptosis or reset their apoptotic threshold. These novel targeted therapies include those targeting anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, p53, the extrinsic pathway, FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, and the caspases. In recent years a number of these novel agents have been assessed in preclinical and clinical trials. In this review, we introduce some of the key regulatory molecules that control the apoptotic pathways, extrinsic and intrinsic death receptors, discuss how defects in apoptotic pathways contribute to cancer, and list several agents being developed to target apoptosis.

Enhancement of TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis by Genistein in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Hep3B Cells: Roles of p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway (인체간암세포에서 genistein의 TRAIL에 의한 apoptosis 유도 상승효과에서 미치는 p38 MAPK signaling pathway의 영향)

  • Jin, Cheng-Yun;Park, Cheol;Park, Sang-Eun;Hong, Sang-Hoon;Choi, Yung-Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.11
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    • pp.1549-1557
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    • 2011
  • Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can selectively induce apoptosis in many types of transformed cells; however, some human hepatocellular carcinoma cells are particularly resistant to the effects of TRAIL. Although genistein, a natural isoflavonoid phytoestrogen, has been shown to have pro-apoptotic activity against human cancer cell lines, little is known about the mechanism of genistein in terms of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In the present study, it was investigated whether or not combined treatment with genistein and TRAIL synergistically induced apoptosis in Hep3B hepatocarcinoma cells. Results indicate that treatment with TRAIL in combination with nontoxic concentrations of genistein sensitized TRAIL-resistant Hep3B cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, which was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Further, the inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation markedly decreased genistein and TRAIL-induced cell viability and apoptosis by enhanced truncation of Bid, increase of pro-apoptotic Bax, decrease of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm. Activation of caspases and degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase induced by the combined treatment was also markedly increased by the inhibition of p38 MAPK, through the mitochondrial amplification step. In conclusion, our data suggest that genistein sensitizes TRAIL-induced-apoptosis via p38 MAPK-dependent pathway.

Induction of p21 and apoptosis by C11 in human hepatocarcinoma cells

  • Kim, Won-Ho;Kang, Kyung-Hwa;Choi, Kyung-Hee
    • Proceedings of the Zoological Society Korea Conference
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    • pp.360-360
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    • 1998
  • C11, a chloride-containing VK3 analog, acts as a mediator of programmed cell death in SK-Hep-1 cell lines, but its molecular mechanisms linked to cell death are not understood. In this study, we investigated the expression of p21 gene and its relationship to apoptosis induced by C11. In SK -hep-1 cells, the addition of C11 resulted in time-dependent growth suppression and DNA fragmentation characteristics of apoptosis. p21 protein was induced during this process, while the protein level of p53 was not changed at the same condition. This apoptotic cell death with p21 induction was also observed in the Hep3B cells lacking functional p53 after treatment of C11. These results suggest that C11-induced apoptosis is associated with up-regulation of p21 protein in p53-independent pathway. Next, in order to confirm whether the p53-independent p21 induction is required for C11-induced apoptosis, we introduced the p21 gene into Hep3B. Overexpression of p21 did not affect the expression of the bcl-2 gene, but DNA fragmentation and PARa cleavage were significantly increased. These data indicate that p21 is involved in C11-induced apoptosis. Although Bcl-2 has been implicated to interfere with an essential signaling molecule involved in the apoptosis pathway, its molecular mechanism and target molecule are poorly understood. To determine the effects of bcl-2 overexpression on apoptosis and to investigate whether BcI-2 interfers with the p53-independent p21 pathway, we transfected the bcl-2 expression vector into SK - Hep-1 cels. Overexpression of Bcl-2 prevented C11-induced apoptosis. Taken together, C11-induced apoptosis is regulated by p52-independent p21 pathway and bcl-2 may inhibit functional activity of p21, therebe may inhibit the C11-induced apoptosis.ptosis.

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Olibanum-induced Apoptosis Signaling in Human Cervical Carcinoma HeLa Cells (자궁경부암세포(子宮經部癌細胞)(HeLa cell)에서 유향(乳香) 세포고사(細胞枯死) 기전(機轉) 연구(硏究))

  • Park, Kyung-Mi;Kong, Bok-Cheul;Lee, Su-Jung;Choe, Chang-Min;Yoo, Sim-Keun
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.92-106
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    • 2006
  • Purpose : To address the ability of Olibanum to induce cell death, we investigated the effect of olibanum on cell apoptosis. Twenty-four hours later, apoptosis occurred following olibanum exposure in a dose-dependent manner. Methods : We culture HeLa cell which is human metrocarcinoma cell in D-MEM included 10% fetal bovine serum(Hyclone Laboratories) below $37^{\circ}C$, 5% CO2. Then we observed apoptosis of log phage cell which is changed cultivation liquid 24 Hours periodically. Results : The treatment of BAPTA-AM regulated olibanum-induced apoptosis in HeLa human cervical carcinoma cells. The 24 hr-earlier -thapsigargin-pretreated cell showed the resistance against olibanum-induced apoptosis and the Ru360-mitochondrial uniporter-inhibited olibanum-induced apoptosis, too. It means that olibanum leads to the accumulation of calcium and the resultant apoptosis in HeLa cells. Immunoblotting data also shows that the expression of GRP78, ER stress marker protein, was induced by the olibanum. Bcl-2, anti-apototic protein, was decreased and that the expression of Bax, pro-apoptotic protein, was increased by the addition of olibanum. Interestingly, the olibanum increased the activity of caspase-8 as well as calpain cysteine pretense in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells. Calpain inhibitor-calpastatin as well as caspase-8C/A expression abrogated olibanum-induced apoptosis in the carcinoma cells. The inhibition of caspase-8 regulated olibanum-induced calpain activation but the inhibition of calpain did not have any effect on the caspase-8 activation in HeLa human cervical carcinoma cells. Conclusion : We conclude that olibanum induces the accumulation of calcium and the resultant apoptosis in which caspase-8 and calpain are involved.

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Anti-tumor Activity and Apoptosis-regulation Mechanisms of Bufalin in Various Cancers: New Hope for Cancer Patients

  • Yin, Pei-Hao;Liu, Xuan;Qiu, Yan-Yan;Cai, Jian-Feng;Qin, Jian-Min;Zhu, Hui-Rong;Li, Qi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.5339-5343
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    • 2012
  • The induction of apoptosis in target cells is a key mechanism for most anti-tumor therapies. Bufalin is a cardiotonic steroid that has the potential to induce differentiation and apoptosis of tumor cells. Research on bufalin has so far mainly involved leukemia, prostate cancer, gastric cancer and liver cancer, and has been confined to in vitro studies. The bufadienolides bufalin and cinobufagin have been shown to induce apoptosis in a wide spectrum of cancer cell. The present article reviews the anticancer effects of bufalin. It induces apoptosis of lung cancer cells via the PI3K/Akt pathway and also suppressed the proliferation of human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line in a time and dose dependent manner. Bufalin, bufotalin and gamabufotalin, key bufadienolides, significantly sensitize human breast cancer cells with differing ER-alpha status to apoptosis induction by the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). In addition, bufadienolides induce prostate cancer cell apoptosis more significantly than that in breast epithelial cell lines. Similar effects have been observed with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but the detailed molecular mechanisms of inducing apoptosis in this case are still unclear. Bufalin exerts profound effects on leukemia therapy in vitro. Results of multiple studies indicate that bufalin has marked anti-tumor activities through its ability to induce apoptosis. Large-scale randomized, double-blind, placebo or positive drug parallel controlled studies are now required to confirm the efficacy and apoptosis-inducing potential of bufalin in various cancers in the cliniucal setting.

Quercetin-induced apoptosis ameliorates vascular smooth muscle cell senescence through AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway

  • Kim, Seul Gi;Sung, Jin Young;Kim, Jae-Ryong;Choi, Hyoung Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.69-79
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    • 2020
  • Aging is one of the risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. During the progression of cellular senescence, cells enter a state of irreversible growth arrest and display resistance to apoptosis. As a flavonoid, quercetin induces apoptosis in various cells. Accordingly, we investigated the relationship between quercetin-induced apoptosis and the inhibition of cellular senescence, and determined the mechanism of oxidative stress-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence. In cultured VSMCs, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) dose-dependently induced senescence, which was associated with increased numbers of senescence-associated β-galactosidase-positive cells, decreased expression of SMP30, and activation of p53-p21 and p16 pathways. Along with senescence, expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was observed to increase and the levels of proteins related to the apoptosis pathway were observed to decrease. Quercetin induced apoptosis through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. This action led to the alleviation of oxidative stress-induced VSMC senescence. Furthermore, the inhibition of AMPK activation with compound C and siRNA inhibited apoptosis and aggravated VSMC senescence by reversing p53-p21 and p16 pathways. These results suggest that senescent VSMCs are resistant to apoptosis and quercetin-induced apoptosis attenuated the oxidative stress-induced senescence through activation of AMPK. Therefore, induction of apoptosis by polyphenols such as quercetin may be worthy of attention for its anti-aging effects.

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON MISTLETOE EXTRACT-INDUCED APOPTOSIS IN ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA (구강편평세포암종에서 미슬토 추출물의 Apoptosis 유도 효과에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Heo, Gyun-Haeng;Lee, Jae-Hoon;Kim, Chul-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.13-23
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    • 2005
  • This study was performed to investigate mistletoe extract-induced apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. In vivo study, HN22 cells were xenografted in nude mice. After tumor was experimentally induced, mistletoe extract was directly injected on the tumor mass. The specimens were evaluated using light and transmission electron microscopes. In vitro study, HN22 cells were cultured and exposed to mistletoe extract. The cells were evaluated using transmissin electron microscope. To evaluate apoptotic cells, flow cytometric analysis was done. The results were obtained as follows: 1. Light microscopic view of tumor mass showed necrosis at 2-4 weeks. 2. Transmission electron micrographs of tumor mass showed apoptosis and necrosis. 3. In TEM view of cell lines, necrosis and apoptosis were shown with mistletoe extract at $300{\mu}g/ml$, apoptosis was shown with mistletoe extract at $100{\mu}g/ml$. 4. In flow cytometric analysis, early and late apoptosis was shown when using caspase-3Ab and annexin-V, but no significant change was noted when using mebstain and Apo2.7 Ab. In this study, mistletoe extract induced necrosis and apoptosis in the tumor mass was induced by HN22 cells, early and late apoptosis in vitro study. Mistletoe extract was likely to induce cell death in oral squamous cell carcinoma through apoptosis.

Changes in Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Activities During Acidification-induced Apoptosis in CHO Cells

  • Kim, Jin-Young;Jeong, Dae-Won;Roh, Sang-Ho;Min, Byung-Moo
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.85-90
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    • 2005
  • Homeostatic pH is very important for various cellular processes, including metabolism, survival, and death. An imbalanced-pH might induce cellular acidosis, which is involved in many abnormal events such as apoptosis and malignancy. One of several factors contributing to the onset of metabolic acidosis is the production of lactate and protons by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in anaerobic glycolysis. LDH is an important enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of pyruvate to lactate. This study sought to examine whether decreases in extracellular pH induce apoptosis of CHO cells, and to elucidate the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in acidification-induced apoptosis. To test apoptotic signaling by acidification we used CHO dhfr cells that were sensitive to acidification, and CHO/anti-LDH cells that are resistant to acidification-induced apoptosis and have reduced LDH activity by stable LDH antisense mRNA expression. In the present study, cellular lactic acid-induced acidification and the role of MAPKs signaling in acidification-induced apoptosis were investigated. Acidification, which is caused by $HCO{_3}^-$-free conditions, induced apoptosis and MAPKs (ERK, JNK, and p38) activation. However, MAPKs were slightly activated in acidic conditions in the CHO/anti-LDH cells, indicating that lactic acid-induced acidification induces activation of MAPKs. Treatment with a p38 inhibitor, PD169316, increased acidification-induced apoptosis but apoptosis was not affected by inhibitors for ERK (U0126) or JNK (SP600125). Thus, these data support the hypothesis that activation of the p38 MAPK during acidification-induced apoptosis contributes to cell survival.

MicroRNAs regulate granulosa cells apoptosis and follicular development - A review

  • Gong, Zhuandi;Yang, Juan;Bai, Shengju;Wei, Suocheng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.11
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    • pp.1714-1724
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    • 2020
  • Objective: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the most abundant small RNAs. Approximately 2,000 annotated miRNAs genes have been found to be differentially expressed in ovarian follicles during the follicular development (FD). Many miRNAs exert their regulatory effects on the apoptosis of follicular granulosa cells (FGCs) and FD. However, accurate roles and mechanism of miRNAs regulating apoptosis of FGCs remain undetermined. Methods: In this review, we summarized the regulatory role of each miRNA or miRNA cluster on FGCs apoptosis and FD on the bases of 41 academic articles retrieved from PubMed and web of science and other databases. Results: Total of 30 miRNAs and 4 miRNAs clusters in 41 articles were reviewed and summarized in the present article. Twenty nine documents indicated explicitly that 24 miRNAs and miRNAs clusters in 29 articles promoted or induced FGCs apoptosis through their distinctive target genes. The remaining 10 miRNAs and miRNAs of 12 articles inhibited FGCs apoptosis. MiRNAs exerted modulation actions by at least 77 signal pathways during FGCs apoptosis and FD. Conclusion: We concluded that miRNAs or miRNAs clusters could modulate the apoptosis of GCs (including follicular GCs, mural GCs and cumulus cells) by targeting their specific genes. A great majority of miRNAs show a promoting role on apoptosis of FGCs in mammals. But the accurate mechanism of miRNAs and miRNA clusters has not been well understood. It is necessary to ascertain clearly the role and mechanism of each miRNA or miRNA cluster in the future. Understanding precise functions and mechanisms of miRNAs in FGCs apoptosis and FD will be beneficial in developing new diagnostic and treatment strategies for treating infertility and ovarian diseases in humans and animals.

Anti-Apoptosis Engineering Using a Gene of Bombyx mori

  • Kim, Eun-Jeong;Park, Tae-Hyeon
    • 한국생물공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.62-65
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    • 2002
  • We have previously shown that the addition of silkworm hemolymph to a culture medium increases the longevity of insect and mammalian cells by inhibiting apoptosis. This indicates that the component which inhibits apoptosis is contained in the silkworm hemolymph, The apoptosis-inhibiting component was isolated from silkwonn hemolymph and characterized in our previous study. A database search using the N-terminal amino acid sequence of this component as a template resulted in a 95% homology with a low molecular weight lipoprotein, the so called ’30K protein' of unknown function. In this study, the 30K protein gene was expressed in mammalian and insect cells to confirm the apoptosis-inhibiting effect. The overexpression of 30K protein in mammalian cell inhibited the staurosporin-induced apoptosis by the prevention of the activation of caspase 3. Using an Autographa californicanuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) system, the 30K protein was overexpressed also in insect cells. The expression of the 30K protein increased the longevity of baculovirus-infected insect cells by inhibiting apoptosis. These results suggest that the 30K protein is a novel anti-apoptotic protein.

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