• Title, Summary, Keyword: apoptosis

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Comparative Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Ethanol Extracts and Their Solvent Fractions Obtained from Selected Miscellaneous Cereal Grains (잡곡 유래 에탄올 추출물 및 이의 유기용매 분획들의 항산화 활성 비교평가)

  • Park, Dong Hwa;Lee, Seung Tae;Jun, Do Youn;Lee, Ji Young;Woo, Mi Hee;Kim, Ki Young;Seo, Myung Chul;Ko, Jee Yeon;Woo, Koan Sik;Jung, Tae Wook;Kwak, Do Yeon;Nam, Min Hee;Kim, Young Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.26-38
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    • 2014
  • To examine the antioxidant activities of 11n selected miscellaneous cereal grains (proso millet, yellow glutinous proso millet, hwanggeumchal sorghum, glutinous sorghum, white glutinous sorghum, yellow glutinous foxtail millet, nonglutinous foxtail millet, green glutinous foxtail millet, golden foxtail millet, barnyard millet, and adlay), the free radical-scavenging activities of 80% ethanol extracts of the individual grains were investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) methods. The ethanol extracts of hwanggeumchal sorghum, glutinous sorghum, and barnyard millet grains exhibited more potent free radical-scavenging activities as compared to the other grains. When these three ethanol extracts were sequentially fractionated with n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol, the majority of the antioxidant activities were detected in the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions in which phenolic ingredients were abundant. The ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of hwanggeumchal sorghum and the ethyl acetate fraction of glutinous sorghum showed higher antioxidant activity than that of ${\alpha}$-tocopherol. Both ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) methods demonstrated that these organic solvent fractions could inhibit lipid peroxidation. The ethyl acetate fractions from hwanggeumchal sorghum, glutinous sorghum, and barnyard millet grains could suppress tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-induced apoptotic events, including sub-G1 peaks, ${\Delta}{\Psi}m$ loss, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and cleavage of PARP and lamin B, in human HL-60 cells. These results show that the grains of hwanggeumchal sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench cv. Hwanggeumchalsusu), glutinous sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench cv. Chalsusu), and barnyard millet (Echinochloa esculenta) possess efficient antioxidant activity, which could protect cells from oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity.

Gene Expression Profiling by RNA Sequencing in Mature/Immature Oocytes of Chicken (닭의 성숙/미성숙란에서 RNA Sequencing을 이용한 유전자 발현 양상 고찰)

  • Kang, Kyung-Soo;Jang, Hyun-Jun;Park, Mi Na;Choi, Jung-Woo;Chung, Won-Hyong;Heo, Kang-Nyeong;Choe, Chang-Yong;Kim, Young-Joo;Lee, Si-Woo;Cho, Eun-Seok;Kim, Namshin;Kim, Tae-Hun;Han, Jae-Yong;Lee, Kyung-Tai
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.287-296
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    • 2014
  • Chicken eggs undergo various physiological changes during egg maturation. To study genes associated with the egg maturation in pre-ovulation (immature) and post-ovulation (mature), we compared gene expression patterns between in the immature egg and mature egg using RNA sequencing data. Mature and immature eggs were obtained from a Heuksaek Jaerae-jong of Korean native chicken. Total RNAs obtained from the eggs were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, and the generated sequence reads were mapped to Galgal4 reference sequence assembly using Tuxedo Protocol. From the comparison of the RNA sequencing data, 315 genes were differentially expressed between mature and immature eggs, and 46 genes were only detected in immature egg. Further gene ontology (GO) analysis was performed for the differentially expressed genes using DAVID, showing that 29 and 28 GO terms were independently clustered from mature and immature, respectively. From those clustered GO terms, genes related to germ cell development, sex differentiation and defense response to bacterium were mainly expressed in the immature egg, while genes related to regulation of apoptosis, steroid metabolic process and lipid homeostasis were mainly detected in the mature egg. Our results could contribute to understand egg maturation before and after ovulation, and develop genetic markers for improving egg quality and productivity.

Effects of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Fruit Extract on Ultraviolet-induced Apoptosis of Skin Fibroblasts (UV조사에 의해 유도된 피부섬유아세포의 세포사에 미치는 Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) 열매추출물의 영향)

  • Hwang, In Sik;Koh, Eun Kyoung;Kim, Ji Eun;Lee, Young Ju;Kwak, Moon Hwa;Go, Jun;Sung, Ji Eun;Song, Sung Hwa;Hwang, Dae Youn
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.467-475
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    • 2014
  • Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is a well-known and rich source of biologically active compounds, such as flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids, vitamins, tannins, and oleic acid. The effects of sea buckthorn fruit extract (SBFE) on ultraviolet (UV)-induced cell death was investigated in SK-MEL-2 cells cotreated with UV and a low concentration (LoC), medium concentration (MeC), or high concentration (HiC) of SBFE. Cell viability gradually decreased in accordance with an increase in the UV dose. The cell viability of the UV+SBFE cotreated cells increased significantly compared to that of UV+vehicle-treated cells during the application of an appropriate UV radiation dose (400 mJ). In addition, the number of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), propidium iodine (PI)-, and annexin V-stained apoptotic cells was higher in the UV+vehicle-treated cells than in the UV untreated cells. The decrease of apoptotic cell numbers varied in each treated group, but it was most significant in the SBFE-treated group. The number of PI-stained cells dramatically decreased in accordance with the concentration of SBFE, and the maximum decrease was detected in the UV+HiC-treated group. In addition, Bax expression increased and Bcl-2 expression decreased in the SBFE-treated group compared with the UV-only treated group. The level of caspase-3 remained constant in all the groups. These results suggest that SBFE may contribute to a recovery from UV-induced cell death through the regulation of apoptotic protein expression and that it may have potential therapeutic utility in ameliorating UV-induced skin ageing.

Chemical Composition and Antiproliferative Activity of Supercritical Extract of Immature Citrus Peel in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells (미성숙 감귤 과피 초임계 추출물의 성분 분석과 자궁암세포 성장억제효능)

  • Moon, Jeong Yong;Song, YeonWoo;Hyun, Ho Bong;KimCho, Somi
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.8836-8843
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    • 2015
  • This study was performed to investigate the antiproliferative activities of supercritical extracts from phalsak(Citrus hassaku Hort ex Tanaka) and yeagam(Citrus iyo Hort. ex Tanaka) against human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells and the chemical compositions of the extracts. The anticancer properties of supercritical extracts were demonstrated using the MTT assay and Hoechst 33342 staining and the compositional analyses were conducted by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). The peel extracts of both species exhibited similar antiproliferative effect. The antiproliferative activity of the flesh extracts was not detected up to $400{\mu}g/mL$, whereas peel extracts of phalsak and yeagam reduced cell viability with 87.16% and 92.95% at $400{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. There was a dramatic increase of the apoptotic body formation in the cell treated with peel extracts while no apoptotic body formation detected in the cell treated with flesh extracts at 100, $200{\mu}g/mL$. By GC-MS analysis, 27 and 31 kinds of compounds identified in flesh and peel of phalsak, while 27 and 29 kinds of compounds were identified in flesh and peel of yeagam, respectively. 1,1,4,4-Tetramethyl-2-tetralone(20.86%), alloimperatorin(8.15%), limonene(11.23%), and auraptene(7.29%) were major in peel of phalsak, whereas limonene(22.19%), linalool(11.23%), and ${\gamma}$-sitosterol(9.12%) were major in peel of yeagam.

Hepatoprotective and Anticancer Activities of Allomyrina dichotoma Larvae (장수풍뎅이 유충의 간보호 효능 및 항암활성)

  • Lee, Ji-Eun;Jo, Da-Eun;Lee, An-Jung;Park, Hye-Kyung;Youn, Kumju;Yun, Eun-Young;Hwang, Jae-Sam;Jun, Mira;Kang, Byoung Heon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.307-316
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    • 2015
  • Beetle larvae have been used as a traditional medicine to treat various human liver diseases. To prove the liver protective function of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL), we induced liver damage by the intraperitoneal injection of a hepatotoxic reagent, diethylnitrosamine (DEN), to C3H/HeN male mice and orally administered freeze-dried ADL powder. ADL powder lessened DEN-induced hepatotoxicity considering the reduced signs of acute and chronic hepatotoxicities, such as the ALP level in the blood serum, TUNEL-positive hepatocytes, ductural reactions, steatotic hepatocytes, and collagen deposition of the Masson’s trichrome staining. In addition to hepatoprotection, the anti-cancer activity of ADL has been examined. The ADL powder was extracted with ethanol and then fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, and water by a solvent partition technique. The ethyl acetate fraction showed cytotoxicity to various cancer cells through induction of apoptosis and necrosis, as well as the perturbed metabolism of the cancer cell to trigger autophagy. Collectively, ADL contains bioactive substances that can protect hepatocytes from toxic chemicals and trigger cell death in cancer cells. Thus, further purification and analyses of ADL fractions could lead to the identification of novel bioactive compounds.

Protective Effect of Aqueous Extracts of Styela Clava Tunic Against Apoptosis of HepG2 Cells Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide (미더덕껍질의 유수추출물이 과산화수소에 의해 유발된 HepG2간암세포의 세포사멸에 미치는 보호 효과)

  • Koh, Eun Kyoung;Lee, Young Ju;Kim, Ji Eun;Kwak, Moon Hwa;Go, Jun;Son, Hong Joo;Lee, Hee Seob;Jung, Young Jin;Hwang, Dae Youn
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.595-602
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    • 2014
  • Styela Clava tunic (SCT) has found some applications in many areas of medical treatment including as an anti-inflammatory compound, a wound healing film, in guided bone regeneration, and as a food additive. The protective effect of SCT aqueous extract (AE-SCT) on cell death induced by $H_2O_2$ treatment was investigated by measuring the changes in cell viability in HepG2 cells after AE-SCT treatment. High concentrations of antioxidant compounds including flavonoids (3.3 mg/g) and phenolics (32.3 mg/g) were detected in AE-SCT but no significant cytotoxicity was observed in HepG2 cells treated with AE-SCT. The viability of HepG2 cells was also not changed by treatment with different concentrations of AE-SCT after $H_2O_2$ treatment. However, cell viability was significantly increased in cells treated with three different concentrations of AE-SCT before $H_2O_2$ treatment. The greatest increase in cell viability was observed in the group treated with $50{\mu}g/ml$ AE-SCT, when compared with vehicle-treated group. FACS and DAPI staining analysis indicated that the decrease in number of dead cells was dependent on the concentration of AE-SCT. Alterations in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio after $H_2O_2$ treatment were significantly restored by treatment with different concentrations of AE-SCT. These results indicate that AE-SCT, which contains high levels of antioxidants, may protect cells against death induced by $H_2O_2$ treatment.

Nutritional Composition and Cytoprotective Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Drumstick-tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.)의 주요 영양성분 및 추출물의 신경세포 보호 효과)

  • Jin, Su Il;Kim, Hyeon Ju;Jeong, Ji Hee;Jin, Dong Eun;Choi, Sung-Gil;Heo, Ho Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.609-615
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    • 2014
  • The cytoprotective effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick tree) on neuronal cells was investigated to confirm the physiological benefits associated with this natural food resource. First, the drumstick tree extract was chemically analyzed to determine inherent nutritional constituents. Calcium and potassium were identified as the major mineral constituents, and palmitic acid (C16:0, 16.33%) and gadoleic acid (C20:01, 66.34%) were detected as the major fatty acids. Moreover, drumstick tree extract contained 94.78 mg/100 g vitamin E and 112.61 mg/100 g niacin. PC12 cells were used to study the cytoprotective effects of drumstick tree extract. Intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species was significantly reduced when $H_2O_2$ treated-neuronal cells were cultured in a medium containing the methanolic extract of drumstick tree, compared to cells treated with only $H_2O_2$. Cell viability assay using MTT showed that the extract protected cells against $H_2O_2$-induced neurotoxicity and inhibited LDH leakage from the cell membrane. Caspase assay showed that the extract exerted cytoprotective effect against apoptosis. Consequently, these data suggest that drumstick tree is a useful natural resource with positive effects on human health.

hCG-induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Leads to Activation of the IRE1/XBP1 Pathway in Mouse Leydig Tumor Cells (mLTC-1) (mLTC-1 세포에 hCG 처리에 의해 유도된 소포체 스트레스가 IRE1/XBP1 경로의 활성화 유발)

  • Park, Sun-Ji;Kim, Tae-Shin;Lee, Dong-Seok
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.10
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    • pp.1039-1045
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    • 2014
  • This study analyzed whether human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) induces ER stress via the IRE/XBP1 pathway in mouse Leydig tumor (mLTC-1) cells. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the unfolding protein response (UPR) plays an important role in the expression of steroidogenic enzymes by modulating the ATF6 pathway, as well as ER stress-mediated apoptosis in hCG-stimulated Leydig cells. Although UPR signaling has been reported to regulate the IRE1/XBP1 pathway, it is not known whether hCG-induced ER stress in Leydig cells can activate the pathway. To investigate the activation of the IRE1/XBP1 pathway in mLTC-1 cells after hCG treatment, we performed a Western blot analysis to detect the phospho-IRE1 protein and an RT-PCR analysis to validate splicing of XBP1 mRNA. We used ER stress-activated indicator (ERAI) constructs for monitoring the activity of IRE1 and then analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The expression levels of the phospho-IRE1 protein markedly increased in response to the hCG treatment. In the mLTC-1 cells transfected with an F-XBP1-venus/F-$XBP1{\Delta}DBD$-venus construct, the hCG treatment led to the appearance of green fluorescent cells and detectable fluorescence in the nucleus and cytosol, respectively. In addition, splicing of XBP1 mRNA significantly increased after the hCG treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that hCG-induced ER stress leads to activation of the IRE1/XBP pathway in Leydig cells.

Cytotoxic Effects of Tenebrio molitor Larval Extracts against Hepatocellular Carcinoma (갈색거저리 유충 추출물의 간암세포에 대한 세포독성 효능)

  • Lee, Ji-Eun;Lee, An-Jung;Jo, Da-Eun;Cho, Ju Hyeong;Youn, Kumju;Yun, Eun-Young;Hwang, Jae-Sam;Jun, Mira;Kang, Byoung Heon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.200-207
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    • 2015
  • Various natural products or their derivatives, mostly originating from plants, fungi, and bacteria, have been exploited as therapeutic drugs to treat various human diseases. In addition to previously explored organisms, research on natural compounds has now expanded into unexamined living organisms in order to identify novel bioactive substances. Here, we determined whether or not the larval form of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor, a species of darkling beetle, contains cytotoxic substances that exclusively affect cancer cell viability. Ethanol extract and its solvent partitioned fractions, hexane and ethyl acetate fractions, showed anticancer effects against various human cancer cells derived from the prostate (PC3 and 22Rv1), cervix (HeLa), liver (PLC/PRF5, HepG2, Hep3B, and SK-HEP-1), colon (HCT116), lung (NCI-H460), breast (MDA-MB231), and ovary (SKOV3). Cell death induced by the fractions was a mix of apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. The hexane fraction was administered intraperitoneally to nude mice bearing a hepatocellular carcinoma SK-HEP-1 and showed inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. Therefore, we concluded that worm extracts contain cytotoxic substances, which can be enriched by proper fractionation protocols, and further separation and purification could lead to the identification of novel molecules to treat human cancers.

Effects of Various Chitosan Oligomer Molecular Weight Levels on the Disorders of Lipid Metabolism and Immune-related Factors in Rats Treated 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (다이옥신계 TCDD(2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin)에 노출된 흰쥐의 지질대사 및 면역관련 인자에 대하여 키토산 올리고머의 분자량별 섭취효과)

  • Lee, Joon-Ho;Hwang, Seok-Youn;Lim, Beong-Ou;Lee, Yeon-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.471-479
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of various levels of chitosan oligomer (CO) molecular weight on the disorders of lipid metabolism and immune-related factors induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), that is a endocrine disrupter, using adult male rats (SD) for 3 weeks. These 40 animals were divided into five groups. Three kinds of CO were used by molecular weight (MW) (less than 1000, 1000~3000, and 5000~10000) and added 4% to basal diets respectively. TCDD (40 ${\mu}g$/kg B.W) was intraperitoneally injected into rats at the beginning of the experiment. The relative weights of the livers were increased in all rats treated with TCDD, and the brain and testis weights were increased in all CO diet groups, compared to the control and TCDD groups. The levels of white blood cells (WBC) and red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin, hematocrits (HCT), and platelets were significantly lowered by treating TCDD. By the way, RBC and HCT tended to recover by CO diets. The elevation of serum total and HDL cholesterol levels induced by TCDD treatment was significantly reduced by CO (5000~10000 MW) diets. The apparent increasing of the total lipid, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of rat livers induced by TCDD was tended to be suppressed in those fed CO diets. Especially, diets with less than 1000 MW significantly diminished liver triglycerides. The levels of serum immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgG1 and IgM were significantly high in rats fed CO (5000~10000 MW) diets. The decreasing levels of IgE by treatment with TCDD tended to recover all the CO diet groups to the level of control group. In histochemical observation, the fat droplets and apoptosis of liver due to TCDD treatment were markedly alleviated in all CO diet groups. These results indicated that CO, though not regular according to molecular weight, can exert improving effects on lipid accumulation, hepatocytic disorders, abnormal blood cells, and some immunoglobulins induced by TCDD.