• Title, Summary, Keyword: apoptosis

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Activating Transcription Factor 3 is a Molecular Target for Apoptotic Effect of Silymarin in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

  • Eo, Hyun Ji;Park, Gwang Hun;Jeong, Jin Boo
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.281-288
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    • 2016
  • Apoptosis has been regarded as a therapeutic target because apoptosis is typically disturbed in human cancer. Silymarin found in the seeds of the milk thistle (Silybum marianum) has been reported to exert anti-cancer properties through apoptosis. This study was performed to investigate the molecular target for silymarin-mediated apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. Silymarin reduced the cell viability and induced an apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. ATF3 overexpression increased PARP cleavage by silymarin. Increased ATF3 expression in both protein and mRNA was observed in silymarin-treated cells. In addition, silymarin increased the luciferase activity of ATF3 promoter. Inhibition of JNK and IκK-α blocked silymarin-mediated ATF3 expression. The results suggest that silymarin induces apoptosis through JNK and IκKα-dependent ATF3 expression in human colorectal cancer cells.

Effect of Acacetin on the Apoptosis Induction of HeLa Cells (Acacetin의 HeLa 세포 Apoptosis 유도 효과)

  • Han, Su Jung;Kim, An Keun
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.59 no.1
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    • pp.17-22
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    • 2015
  • In this study, we examined the effect of acacetin on the apoptosis induction of HeLa human cervical cancer cells. The results showed that acacetin inhibited the cell viability and induced apoptosis, leading to PARP cleavage and activation of caspase-9, -3, and -7. Moreover, acacetin-induced apoptosis was attenuated by a broad caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk. Also, acacetin resulted in a loss of mitochondria membrane potential. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the induction of apoptosis by acacetin in HeLa cells is associated with caspase activation via the mitochondria pathway.

Application of Cumulus Cells as Factors to Predict the Outcome of IVF-ET (체외수정시술의 결과를 예측할 수 있는 인자로서 난구세포의 활용에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Kwang-Dae;Kim, Ki-Hyung;Na, Yong-Jin;Lee, Kyu-Sup
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.419-432
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    • 1999
  • Objective: To establish the evaluation system of the quality of oocytes on the basis of the incidence of cumulus cells apoptosis, to investigate the relationships beween the incidence of cumulus cells and the outcomes of IVF-ET. Method: Thirth-four cycles undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF-ET with tubal infertility (23 cycles) or unexplained infertility (11 cycles) were included in this study. Cumulus cell masses surrounding mature oocyte and co-culture of embryos with autologous cumulus cells during IVF-ET process. The incidence of apoptosis in cumulus cells was assessed by apoptosis detection kit fluorescein. The effect of co-culture using cumulus cells and the incidence of cumulus cells apoptosis. Results: The results were as follows: 1. The incidence of apoptosis in cumulus cells markedly increased in patients aged 40 or over, while the fertilization rate was greatly decreased in those age group. 2. Apoptosis in cumulus cells was found in both the fertilized oocytes and unfertilized oocytes, but the incidence of apoptosis was higher in unfertilized oocytes. 3. There is no clear correlation between apoptosis in cumulus cells and the number of oocytes retrieved. However, the incidence of apoptosis was increased when the number of oocytes retrieved was 5 and fewer in comparison with $6{\sim}10$. 4. Embryo grade was significantly affected by the incidence of apoptosis in cumulus cells. 5. Pregnancy rate of IVF-ET per cycle was 29.4%, and the pregnant group had the higher fertilization rate and a significantly lower incidence of apoptosis in cumulus cells compared with the nonpregnant group. 6. When cumulus cells were used as helper cells in the co-culture of the embryo, in vitro activity of cumulus cells based on morphological change and proliferation did not influence the quality of embryo, but was closely associated with the implantation rate and pregnancy rate, which was enhanced when morphological changes and proliferation of cumulus cells was more active. 7. This difference in the outcome of IVF-ET according to in vitro activity of cumulus cells used for co-cultue was not associated with the incidence of apoptosis in cumulus cells; but rather had likely relations with the different secretion pattern of protein, which may be an embryo trophic factor by cumulus cells. Conclusion: These results suggest that the incidence of apoptosis in cumulus cells can be used in predicting oocyte qualities and the outcomes of IVF-ET. And the effect of co-culture largely depends on the in vitro activity of cumulus cells as well.

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Effect of Proapoptotic Bcl-2 on Naringenin-induced Apoptosis in Human Leukemia U937 Cells (Naringenin에 의한 인체혈구암세포의 apoptosis 유발에 미치는 pro-apoptotic Bcl-2의 영향)

  • Park, Cheol;Jin, Cheng-Yun;Choi, Tae Hyun;Hong, Su Hyun;Choi, Yung Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.9
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    • pp.1118-1125
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    • 2013
  • Naringenin, a naturally occurring citrus flavonone, is a potentially valuable candidate for cancer chemotherapy. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for its anticancer activity are largely unknown. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for naringenin-induced apoptosis in human leukemic U937 cells. We found that naringenin markedly inhibited the growth of U937 cells by decreasing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis, which was associated with the activation of caspases. A pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, significantly inhibited naringenin-induced U937 cell apoptosis, indicating that caspases are key regulators of apoptosis in response to naringenin in U937 cells. Although the levels of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and proapoptotic Bax proteins remained unchanged in naringenin-treated U937 cells, Bcl-2 overexpression attenuated naringenin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, combined treatment with naringenin and HA14-1, a small-molecule Bcl-2 inhibitor, effectively increased the apoptosis through enhancement of XIAP down-regulation, Bid cleavage, and caspase activation, suggesting that the synergistic effect was at least partially mediated through the death receptor-mediated apoptosis pathway.

Inhibition of PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway Enhances Cordycepin-Induced Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer Cells (인체위암 세포에서 PI3K/AKT 신호 전달계 차단에 의한 동충하초 유래 Cordycepin의 Apoptosis 유발 효과 증진)

  • Lee, Hye Hyeon;Jeong, Jin-Woo;Choi, Yung Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.835-842
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    • 2016
  • The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway plays a crucial role in cancer occurrence by promoting cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, on the chemosensitivity of gastric cancer cells to cordycepin, a predominant functional component of the fungus Cordyceps militaris, in AGS human gastric cancer cells and investigated possible underlying cellular mechanisms. Our results revealed that cordycepin inhibited viability of AGS cells in a concentration-dependent manner and induced apoptosis, as determined by apoptotic cell morphologies and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis associated with attenuated activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Treatment with cordycepin in combination with a subtoxic concentration of LY294002 enhanced cordycepin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptotic potentials in AGS cells. Sensitization of LY294002 to cordycepin-induced apoptosis was accompanied by activation of caspases (caspases-3, -8, and -9) and was concomitant with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Moreover, LY294002 up-regulated pro-apoptotic Bax and enhanced truncation of Bid in cordycepin-treated AGS cells, which was connected with increased loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway could augment cordycepin-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells by up-regulating caspase activity through mitochondrial dysfunction.

Effects of Artemisia Capillaris Fructus on Fas-FasL-induced Apoptosis in Hepatocye (인진호(茵蔯蒿)가 Fas-FasL 매개형 간세포 Apoptosis에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyeong-Hwan;An, Joong-Hwan;Kim, Jong-Dae;Kim, Cheorl-Ho;Kim, Seon-Kang
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.353-360
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    • 2001
  • Objectives: Recently, it was known that the major cause of hepatitis is apoptosis reaction mediated by Fas-FasL. Since Artemisia Capillaris Fructus has long been applied to cure the jaundice in oriental medicine. Therefore, this study was carried out to examine the effect of fractions of Artemisia Capillaris Fructus on Fas-FasL-mediated apoptosis in hepatocytes. Methods: This study employed propidium iodide negative cell count assay and some the other biochemical assays. Results : This study confirms that hepatitis has been occured by apoptosis mediated by Fas-FasL in cultured hepatocyte and fractions of Artemisia Capillaris Fructus restrain apoptosis induced Fas-FasL. Conclusions : Water-extracted fraction, methanol extracts, ether-soluble fraction, and buthanol-soluble fractions of Artemisia Capillaris Fructus restrain Fas-FasL-mediated apoptosis in hepatocyte. Silica gel chromatograph of Buthanol-soluble fraction of Artemisia Capillaris Fructus restrain Fas-FasL-mediated apoptosis in hepatocyte. Artemisia Capillaris Fructus could be applied to cure hepatitis.

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Inhibitory Effect of Lemon Oil on Apoptosis in Astrocytes (신경교(神經膠) 성상세포(星狀細胞)에서 레몬오일에 의한 세포자멸사(細胞自滅死)의 억제효과(抑制效果))

  • Kim, Jun-Han;Kim, Tae-Heon
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.37-46
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    • 2000
  • We investigated the effects of lemon pure essential oils on the heat shock-induced apoptosis in human astrocyte cell line CCF-STTG1. In previous studies, hear shock has been reported to induce the apoptosis or programmed cell death through the activation of caspase-3. Treatment of CCF-STTG1 cells with heat shock markedly induced apoptotic cell death as determined by flow cytometry. Interestingly, pretreatment of CCF-STTG1 cells with lemon pure essential oils inhibited the heat shock-induced apoptosis. Lemon also inhibited the heat shock-induced apoptosis in primary cultured rat astrocytes. To determine whether lemon inhibits the heat shock-induced activation of these apoptotic proteases, activation of CPP32 was assessed by Western blotting. Consistent with flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation and giemsa staining, heat shock-induced activation of CPP32 was blocked by lemon pure essential oil. PARP, cysteine protease substrates were fragmented as a consequence of apoptosis by heat shock. Lemon oil inhibited the PARP fragmentation. This essential oil also inhibited the heat shock-induced activation of caspase-3. These results suggest that lemon pure essential oils may modulate the apoptosis through the activation of the ICE-like caspases.

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Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor protects dendritic cells from anticancer drug-induced apoptosis (수지상세포에서 GM-CSF의 항암제유도 세포사멸 방지효과에 관한 연구)

  • Joo, Hong-Gu
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.607-613
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    • 2003
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) play an essential role in a variety of immune reactions involving $CD4^+$ T cells and have been used to enhance tumor-specific immune responses. Immunosuppression in patients with cancer includes the downregulation of function and number of DCs. Although DCs have been studied, the apoptosis of Des induced by anticancer drugs for chemotherapy remains largely uncharacterized. This study demonstrated that GM-CSF protects DCs from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or mitomycin C-induced apoptosis. After 6 - 10 days culture, DCs were characterized by specific surface marker, CD11c and MHC class II. MTT assay revealed that GM-CSF significantly enhanced the viability of DCs treated with 5-FU or mitomycin C. The percentage of dead cells of DCs was determined by cell size using FACScan and GM-CSF was clearly effective. However, GM-CSF did not increase the expression of MHC class II on viable DCs gated, suggesting that GM-CSF may differentially regulate critical factors involved in the function of DCs. For the quantitative analysis of apoptosis, annexin V-FITC staining was performed. 5-FU induced the apoptosis of DCs and GM-CSF significantly protects DCs from 5-FU-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the results in this study that GM-CSF has an anti-apoptosis effect on DCs may provide patients with cancer with clinical benefits to overcome the immunosuppression induced by the decrease of number and functional insufficiency of DCs.

Redox Regulation of Apoptosis before and after Cytochrome C Release

  • Chen, Quan;Crosby, Meredith;Almasan, Alex
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2003
  • Programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is one of the most studied areas of modern biology. Apoptosis is a genetically regulated process, which plays an essential role in the development and homeostasis of higher organisms. Mitochondria, known to play a central role in regulating cellular metabolism, was found to be critical for regulating apoptosis induced under both physiological and pathological conditions. Mitochondria are a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) but they can also serve as its target during the apoptosis process. Release of apoptogenic factors from mitochondria, the best known of which is cytochrome c, leads to assembly of a large apoptosis-inducing complex called the apoptosome. Cysteine pretenses (called caspases) are recruited to this complex and, following their activation by proteolytic cleavage, activate other caspases, which in turn target for specific cleavage a large number of cellular proteins. The redox regulation of apoptosis during and after cytochrome c release is an area of intense investigation. This review summarizes what is known about the biological role of ROS and its targets in apoptosis with an emphasis on its intricate connections to mitochondria and the basic components of cell death.

Parasite Infiltration and Apoptosis in Spleen upon Toxoplasma gondii Infection

  • Lee, Su-Hwa;Chu, Ki-Back;Quan, Fu-Shi
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.57 no.5
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    • pp.537-541
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    • 2019
  • Toxoplasma gondii infection induces parasite infiltration and apoptosis in the spleen. However, dose-dependent parasite infiltration, apoptosis, body weight alternations and survival in mice remain largely unknown. In this study, mice were intraperitoneally infected with 10, 30 or 100 tachyzoites of T. gondii, respectively. Parasite infiltration and apoptosis in the spleen were analyzed on days 3, 7, and 9 post-infection by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Significantly higher levels of T. gondii infiltration and apoptosis in the spleen were found in 30 and 100 tachyzoites infected mice compared to 10 tachyzoites infected mice on days 7 and 9 post-infection. Although 30 and 100 tachyzoites infected mice showed significant body weight loss compared to 10 tachyzoites infected mice, all of the 100, 30, and 10 tachyzoites infected mice died by days 12, 15, and 17, each respectively. Interestingly, T. gondii infiltration in 10 tachyzoites infected mice were limited to capsule area of the spleen on day 9 post-infection. Several areas of parasite infiltrations were found in the 30 tachyzoites infected mice, where noticeable levels of splenic capsule de-adhesion occurred. These results indicated that parasite infiltration and apoptosis in the spleen, as well as body weight loss (survival) are closely correlated with infection dosage. The level of T. gondii infiltration and apoptosis in the spleen and splenic de-adhesion were dependent on the parasite dose.