• Title, Summary, Keyword: arbutin

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Investigation on the Safety of Hydroquinone and Preservatives among Whitening Functional Cosmetics Containing Albutin in Korea (국내 유통 알부틴 함유 미백 기능성화장품 중 히드로퀴논 및 살균보존제 안전성 조사)

  • Cho, Joong Hee;Kim, Ji Hyeung;Eom, Sun Ah;Kang, Min Jeong;Han, Young Sun;Hur, Myong Je
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.399-408
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    • 2019
  • Arbutin, which is used as a whitening ingredient, can produce hydroquinone, known as causing skin disease and carcinogen. Preservatives are essential to prevent microbial contamination during long-term storage and use of cosmetics, but safety issues such as toxicity and skin irritation are being raised. This study was conducted to determine hydroquinone and 21 preservatives levels in 40 arbutin-containing whitening functional cosmetics sold on-line and off-line. Result showed that 9 products contained hydroquinone. The concentrations in 7 products were ranged from 0.3 to 0.9 ppm, which were within the maximum allowed amount established by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. However, 2 products were 8.4 and 50.5 ppm and exceeded the allowed amount. Preservatives were detected 20 products. Detected items and ranges were phenoxy ethanol 0.1 ~ 0.7% (N = 15), Methyl paraben 0.19 ~ 0.21% (N = 2), Chlorphenesin 0.13% (N = 1), chlorhexidine 0.006% (N = 1), Propyl paraben 0.06% (N = 1), which were within maximum allowed amount established by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Also, in cases of functional cosmetics the phrase "functional cosmetics" should be expressed on the primary or secondary package of cosmetics by cosmetics act. However, 1 product did not state the phrase as functional cosmetics. This study suggest that preservatives were safely managed. However, hydroquinone in hydroquinone-detected products could be produced by the decomposition of arbutin. Thus, further studies on the decomposition of arbutin are required to improve the quality control of the cosmetics.

Effect of Chitosan Oligosaccharide on Tyrosinase Activity

  • Cho, Nam-Young;Yoon, Mi-Yun;Lee, Ji-Yun;Seo, Moo-Hyun;Kim, Chang-Jong;Sim, Sang-Soo
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.298.1-298
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    • 2002
  • Tyrosinase (monophenol. 3.4-${\beta}$-dihydroxyphenylalanin oxygen oxidoreductase. EC 1.14.18.1 J. which plays a pivotal role in melanogenesis. It is single chain glycoprotein catalyzing the hydroxylation of tyrosine to ${\beta$\mid$$-3.4-dihydroxyphenylalanin (DOPA) and the oxidation of DOPA to DOPA quinone. To investigate whitening effect of chitosan oligosaccharide. we obtained chitosan oligosaccharide [(glucosamine)2-6] by NaNO2 oxidation and measured the effect of chitosan oligosaccharide on tyrosinase activity. Chitosan oligosaccharide dose-dependently inhibited tyrosinase (2 unit) activity and inhibited by 18.8% at dose of 100${\mu}$g/ml. Vitamin C. arbutin and kojic acid that are well known to be inhibitor of melanin production dose-dependently inhibited tyrosinase (2unit) activity. These results suggest that chitosan oligosaccharide may be used as inhibitor of melanin production in melanocyte. which will be further studied.

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The Effects of Bamboo Extract on Human Melanocytes and B16 Melanoma Cells In vitro

  • Cho, Joon-Hwan;Lee, Kim-Moo;Kim, Nam-Soo;Kang, Won-Hyoung
    • Proceedings of the SCSK Conference
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    • pp.133-143
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    • 1999
  • To identify inhibitory effect of Bamboo extract on melanogenesis, the effect was compared with arbutin. ascorbic acid, hydroquinone, and kojic acid on the melanin biosynthesis in Bl6 mouse melailoma cells and cultured hunlan melanocytes. The cell viability of the agent was tested on cultured human melanocytes. We also examined. its free radical scavenging activity on 1,1-dipheny1-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Bamboo extract showed considerable effect against melanin production and did not reduce cell viability at the concentration tested. It also showed potent free radical scavenging activity.

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Synthesis and de-pigmentation effect of phenolic glucoconjugates

  • Kim, Ki-Ho;Kim, Ki-Soo;Lee, Jae-Soeb;Ko, Kang-Il;Lee, Soo-Hee
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.99-109
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    • 2001
  • Novel glucoconjugates phenolic moiety, 3-(methoxycarbonyl)-4-(hydroxyphenyl)-$\beta$-D-glucopyranoside(4), 3-(methoxyacetyl)-4-(hydroxyphenyl)-$\beta$-D-glucopyranoside(7), 4-(hydroxyphenyl)-$\beta$-D-ribofuranoside(11), were synthesized. In order to investigate their depigmentation effect, inhibitory activity against mushroom tyrosinase and inhibitory activity of melanin synthesis in B16 melanoma cell were evaluated in vitro. Compound 11 showed 92.0$\mu\textrm{g}$/㎖ of tyrosinase inhibitory activity whereas compound 4 and 7 showed very low activity not less than 300$\mu\textrm{g}$/㎖. Inhibitory activities of melanin synthesis in B16 melanoma cell of compound 4, 7, and 11 were 8.7, 15.1, and 36.0%, respectively, at the concentration of 100$\mu\textrm{g}$/㎖. Inhibitory activity of compound 11 was much higher than that of arbutin at the same concentration.

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Inhibitory Effects of Crude Polysaccharide of Water Extract of Art on Melanin Biosynthesis (인진쑥 물추출물의 조다당제에 의한 Melanin 생성억제 효과)

  • 천현자;안병용;한종현;우원홍
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.701-707
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    • 2001
  • Melanogenesis is a physiological process resulting in the synthesis of melanin pigment. We investigated the inhibitory effect of crude polysaccharide of water extract of Artemisia iwayomgi Kitamura (AI) on melanin biosystheies in B16/F10 melanoma cells. Crude polysaccharide of water extract of Artemisia iwayomgi Kitamura significantly inhibited tyrosinase activity and melanin contents with or without $\alpha$-MSH in vivo. Melanin contents and tyrosinase activity were decreased in a dose-dependent manner,These results show that crude polysaccharide of water extract of Artemisia iwayomgi Kitamura could be developed as skin whitening components of cosmetics.

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Evaluation of skin sensitzation to skin whitening agents by local lymph node assay in Balb/c mice

  • Lee, Jong-Kwon;Park, Seung-Hee;Park, Jae-Hyun;Kim, Hyung-Soo;Chung, Seung-Tae;Juno H. Eom;Seo, Gi-Ho;Byun, Jung-A;Oh, Hye-Young
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.80-80
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    • 2003
  • The use of skin whitening agents have been recently increased in various kinds of cosmetic products, although there were reports that whitening agents might cause allergic contact dermatitis. A murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) has been developed as an alternative to guinea pigs for contact sensitization potential. This study was carried out to investigate the skin sensitization potential of three whitening agents, kojic acid, arbutin, azelaic acid, by LLNA using a non-radioistopic endpoint.(omitted)

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Inhibitory Effects of Aqueous Extracts from Nardostachys chinensis on ${\alpha}$-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone-induced Melanogenesis in B16F10 Cells

  • Lee, Soo-Jin;Choi, Yung-Hyun;Choi, Byung-Tae
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.233-236
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    • 2006
  • For the purpose of the development of skin-whitening or therapeutic agents against hyperpigmentation, aqueous extract from Nardostachys chinensis (AENC) was evaluated for melanogenesis inhibitory activity in B16F10 melanoma cell. The treatment with AENC at the 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml level significantly inhibits the biosynthesis of melanin compared with untreated control. The tyrosinase activity also significantly decreased in AENC-treated cells at the 0.2 and 0.5 mg/ml level and inhibitory effects were more efficient than commercial arbutin at 0.1 mg/ml. The Western analyses confirmed the significantly decreased expression of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-2 by AENC treatment. These results indicate that AENC may contribute to the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis through regulating the expression as well as activity of tyrosinase and AENC may be useful as a new candidate in the design of new skinwhitening or therapeutic agents.

Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extracts and Phenolic Compounds in Asian Pear at Different Stages of Maturity

  • Zhang, Xian;Koo, Ja-Heon;Eun, Jong-Bang
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.44-50
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    • 2006
  • Contents of phenolic compounds in peel, flesh, and core of three Asian pear cultivars, Hosui, Niitaka, and Chuwhangbae, were determined at different stages of maturity. Antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of peels at various fruit maturity stages were also evaluated. Total phenolic content decreased with maturity. Arbutin, chlorogenic acid, and epicatechin were major phenolic compounds in young fruits. Catechin, 4-hydroxymethyl benzoic acid, and caffeic acid were detected in peel and core of immature and mature pears. 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities of methanol extracts were 16.30 and $15.73\;{\mu}g$ in peel of immature Hosui and Chuwhangbae pears, respectively, and $11.59\;{\mu}g$ in mature Niitaka pears, which was significantly higher than those of other maturity stage in the same cultivar. Inhibitory activities on lipid oxidation of methanol extracts of three cultivars at all maturity stages were similar to that of ${\alpha}$-tocopherol.

4-Hydroxy-2'-Nitrodiphenyl Ether Analogues as Novel Tyrosinase Inhibitors

  • Sapkota, Kiran;Lee, Eun-Young;Yang, Jae-Ho;Kwon, Young-Joo;Choi, Jong-Won;Na, Young-Hwa
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.1319-1325
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    • 2010
  • Tyrosinase ubiquitously existing from microorganisms to animals and plants is known to be the most critical and rate limiting enzyme during melanin biosynthesis. In order to develop new tyrosinase inhibitor we have synthesized 14 diphenyl ether compounds possessing hydroxyl, bromo, and nitro groups in the structure. Among the compounds prepared, 18 and 19 have shown much stronger inhibition of tyrosinase monophenolase function than arbutin used as a positive control. Both compounds 18 and 19 possess para-hydroxyphenyl moiety in their structure, which might reinforce the importance of p-hydroxyphenyl group in the tyrosinase inhibitory process. In the DPPH radical scavenging activity test, none of the compounds even 18 and 19 showed significant antioxidant activity. The results suggest that elaborate adjustment of diphenyl ether analogues with proper substituents have potential to be developed as new skin whitening agents working on the tyrosinase function.

The effect of Elastase inhibition and Tyrosinase by Rheum undulatum Stokes extracts (대황(大黃)의 Elastase 활성 억제와 Tyrosinase 억제연구)

  • Lee, Jong-Chul;Kim, Kyung-Jun
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.36-46
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    • 2009
  • Objective : Recently, the demands for the effective and safe depigmentating and anti-aging agents of the skin have increased due to the medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic reasons. The aim of this study is to search new materials from the traditional herbal medicines which inhibit the aging process of skin in vitro. Methods : herbal medicines(80% ethanol or water extracts) were screened for their inhibitory activities against elastase. Results : Rheum undulatum (final concentrstion 1 mg/ml) appeared over 30% of inhibition of elastase activity. so we are investigated anti wrinkle effects of Rheum undulatum look through MMP-1 inhibition activity. also Extracts of Rheum undulatum showed higher anti tyrosinase activity than arbutin (final concentration 1 mg/ml). Conclusion : These results suggest that herbal medicines could be strong potential sources of inhibition of anti-aging and whitening effects for the skin.

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