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A Basic Treatise of Korean Mother′s Concern for the Artificial Feeding (인공영양에 대한 한국 어머니들의 반응에 관한 기초조사)

  • 변수자
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.41-51
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    • 1972
  • In this article, the writer attempted to study the followings: (1) mother's knowledge of milk feeding (including method of sterilization, formula and feeding) (2) reasons of artificial feeding (3) how much mothers are concerned about their artificial feeding infants (4) condition of growth and development of artificial feeding infants. As the object of study, 96 mothers with artificial feeding infants, who had consulted dep't of pediatrics of two Hospitals in Seoul (Korea Hospital and Med. College Woo Suk Hospital, Korea Uni.) and well baby clinic of the two Health Centers (Sung Dong and Dongdaemoon), were randomly sampled. The data were treated by the statistic method of chi-square and percentage, and come to the following conclusion. 1. Knowledge of milk feeding Sterilization: 70 percentages of mothers know about the milk sterilization (including bottle, nipple and instrument), but 55 percentages of them do not know the nipple sterilization correctly. Formula: 69 percentages of mothers follow the indicator or in accordance with doctor's directions, but 31 percentages do at their option by reasons that the baby often coughs up the milk, the baby is too small, the baby often has digestive troubles, or the baby grow fleshy heavily etc, except family economic problems. Feeding: only half of mothers know the correct feeding method, especially they do not know how to determine the heat degree of milk and how to bubble up the baby correctly. They just do feeding according to the accepted usages. 2. Reasons of artificial feeding Of the reasons of artificial feeding, 18 percentages were caused by infants and 82 percentages by mothers. Most of the reasons are mainly due to the lack of breast milk and sufficient supply of nourishments rather than mother's deficiency or mother's abnormality. 3. Mother's concern for artificial feeding infants Mothers who are sharply concerned for their artificial feeding baby's growth and development: 63%, mothers who made the baby (artificial feeding infant) routine vaccinated: 81%, mothers who ear anxious about the baby's future personality forming : 68%, mothers who care about the baby's condition of nourishment; 60%, mothers who are anxious about tile selection of baby's food; 54%. 4. The growth and development of artificial feeding infants compared with Korean average infants. The artificial feeding infants are above the Korean average infants in stature by 1.21 centimeters and in weight by 0.3 kilograms. Conclusion: It has been said that there is no better food for infant than the breast milk. However, the artificial feeding has been used for the supplement of nourishments and as substitute food for the breast milk. And this artificial feeding could give the married women the chance to act in society and more opportunity to develop themselves and to work for others at home and other fields. Considering these advantages, artificial feeding should not be exclusive, but preferably should be more improved and inquired positively. And even in artificial feeding, what is most important is that mothers should recognize the requirement and need of artificial feeding clearly and correctly, and they should be accustomed to the correct knowledge and skills of artificial feeding in order to practice it appropriately. In some degree, they should be properly trained in school education process.

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A Survey Of Infant Feeding Practices In Seoul, 1991. (영아의 수유 및 보충식에 대한 조사연구)

  • 김효진;박영숙
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.377-398
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    • 1993
  • A survey of infant practices was conducted to provide information on which to base planned nursing interventions. The subjects were a convenience sample of 168 mothers visiting out - patients departments of five general hospitals and one public health center in Seoul for immunizations or treatment for common colds for their infants from two to 12 months of age. Data collection was carried out from July 8th to September 30th, 1991 using a questionnaire of 84 questions, 31 on the type of feeding, 22 on supplementary feeding and 21 on demographic infer mation. The results are summarized as follows : 1) The type of feeding was primarily artificial feed-ing (63.1%), followed by mixed feeding (22%) and breast feeding (14.9%) of the 59 mothers expecting during pregnancy to breast feed, 54. 2% changed artificial feeding and 30.5% went on to breast feed as they had expected. For mothers expecting to continue breast feeding over seven months. only one infant was being breast fed for over seven months. 2) For the 106 mothers using artificial feeding, 70. 8% hed attempted breast feeding, 64% of them for less than a month. Breast milk had been suppressed by for medication (38.7%) : 34.9% had used no specia] means. 3) The major reasons for replacing breast feeding with artificial feeding were the infants' demand for more milk (47.2% ) and insufficient supply of breast milk (49.3%). 4) Most mixed feeding was started at the age of one to three months (59.5%). Only 34.4% gave an artificial feeding after breast feeding : most (46%) alternated breast feeding with artificial feeding. On the whole, the motive for mixed feeding was the lack of breast milk (70.3%). 5) Many mothers (81.8%) were adding vitamin or mineral supplements to artificial milk and 51.5% were adding something to faciliate digestion. As for the method of sterilizing milk bottles and nipples, 56% had sterilized them together in boiling water from the beginning : 27% were just washing the bottles after boiling only once initially when measuring artificial milk powder, 31. 5% of the mothers over filled the measuring spoon rather than to the level. 6) The mother's occupation was related to her way of feeding. Mothers at home full time did more breast feeding than mothers employed outside the home. (x²=5.72, p=〈0.05). 7) Most mothers began supplementary food, from three to four months (48.8%) : 11.2% began later than seven months. Supplementary food was given between milk feedings by 67.2% of the mothers : 19.2% gave it before a milk feeding. Some mothers(26.4%) made their own supplementary food : 19.2% used ready - made supplementary food products for convenience. Recommendations for nursing interventions included : 1. Prenatal education about the advantages of breast feeding and breast care, and home visits after delivery for counselling related to breast feeding. Correct preparation of artificial feeding methods need to be taught in both pre & postnatal periods. In addition, specific education about supplementary feeding needed. 2. Further research is indicated about the Perceived lack of supply of breast milk and about the effectiveness of nursing interventions to Promote breast feeding.

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A Study on Mother's Feeding Practice in a Urban Apartment Area (일부도시(一部都市) 아파트지역(地域) 어머니의 수유(授乳)에 관(關)한 조사연구(調査硏究))

  • Lee, Sung-Shoe
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.167-177
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    • 1982
  • This study was undertaken to observe relationships between patterns of feeding, supplementary-feeding and various maternal, family, and socioeconomic charactereistics in Hae Cheog Apartment area in Cheongdam-dong, Kangnamku, Seoul on July 2 to 12 in 1982. The results were based on a questionnaire from 179 mothers who have the last-born child under two years old. Results were as follows: 1) In socio-demographic characteristics, most of mothers were 25 to 30 years old and 52.0% of index children were under 6 months old. About 56.0% of families were the salaries and 47.0% of them earn over 500,000 won a month. 40.8% of mothers were college graduates and 81.6% of mothers had no occupation. 2) 89.4% of mothers received prenatal care in pregnancy of the index children and mothers who have delivered the child in medical institute were 88.3%. Mothers who recieved education of breast care and feeding technique through prenatal care were 22.4%, 31.8% respectively. 3) In the feeding method, 44.1% of mothers took the breast feeding, 24.0% of them chose the artificial feeding, and 20.7% of them chose the mixed feeding. Mothers who changed the-method from breast feeding to artificial feeding were 10.6% and only 0.6% of mothers changed from artificial feeding to breast feeding. 4) According to the questionnaire, 37 mothers have already finished lactation (no relation with. the beginning of weaning food). In breast feeding, one mother has lactated for $4{\sim}6$ months, one has lactated for $7{\sim}9$ months, four have lactated for $10{\sim}12$ months, and seven have. continued the lactation over 12 months. In artificial and mixed feeding, as the same phenomenon, most of mothers have lactated for more than 12 months. 5) The reasons for feeding method were as follows: In breast feeding, 64.6% of them took the method because they thought the breast milk nutrious, in artificial feeding, 34.9% of them chose it because they had occupation and in the mixed feeding, 67.6% of mothers took the method because of lack of their breast milk. In the case of changing the method from breast feeding to artificial feeding, 42.1% of them answered that they had to change the method because of lack of breast milk. 6) In most of cases, the 4th month was the proper period to begin the weaning food and 32.5% of breast feeding children and 27.6% of artificial feeding children began the weaning food in 4th month. After 4th month, there was no difference between breast feeding and artificial feeding in the beginning of weaning food. 7) In the matter of menstruation, 29.8% of mothers who had breast feeding started their menstruations in 3 months and the rest of them delayed until 12 months. 40% of mothers who had artificial feeding began to menstruate after 2 months and all the rest started within 5 months. 8) The birth interval between the index child and next new child (would-be-born): In breast feeding, the interval of $18{\sim}24$ months had a majority as 50.0%, and in the artificial feeding, the interval of over 24 months marked 66.7% of them. It was analyzed that the birth interval of artificial feeding was wider than that of breast feeding. 9) In the desirable number of children, the mothers who had breast feeding wanted two sons and two daughters as proper children. Those who want two children in disregard of the sex (son or daughter) were 89.3% of breast feeding, and 80.0% of artificial feeding respectively. Mothers who had breast feeding wanted two children rather than one child. 10) In the family planning practice, the rate of practice were 41.9% in breast feeding, and 58.1% in artificial feeding respectively. In the case of breast feeding, the using rate of family planning practice in men was higher than in women.

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A Survey on Reproductive Disorders of Dairy Cattes (유우(乳牛)의 번식장해(繁殖障害) 조사(調査))

  • Kim, Sun-Hwan;Kim, Ki-Gu;Ko, Suk-Gweon;Kim, Kyeong-Ju
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.7 no.1_2
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 1980
  • The status of artificial insemination was surveyed by investigating 20796 heads of adult dairy cattle out of 30464 heads at 1649 dairy farms located Seoul and Gyung-Gi and Chung-Cheong province area, and the results are as follows: 1. There were 286 small farms feeding less than 5 heads occupying 17.3% of total farm number, and 1083 medium sized dairy farms feeding between $6{\sim}20$ heads occupying 65.64% and also 280 large dairy farms feeding more than 21 heads occupying 17.06% of total. 2. Population of cow aging from 2 to 6 years were 87.26% and among 20907 heads of dairy cattles which had calved previously 13196 heads had histories of one to four calving 90.40%. 3. The successful conception rate with first A. I. occupied only 53.43% and 92.4% after third A. I. service. The average A. I. frequency for successful conception per/head was 1.8 times. 4. The breeding status was pregnancy 61.72%, uncertain pregnancy 19.39%, and as physiological vacancy 12.48% and reproductive disorders 10.62%. 5. Among 1264 heads of reproductive disorders 856 heads were clue to ovarian diseases and occupied 68.98% of total disorders and uterus diseases 10.64% and repeat breeders occupied 17.64%.

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Breast Feeding Attitudes and Correlates of Intention of Breast Feeding of Mothers (모유수유 결정 관련요인에 관한 연구)

  • Shin Hee Sun;Jeon Mi Yang
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.35-44
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the knowledge and attitude of breast feeding and to explore the predictive variables for the intention of breast feeding of mothers. One hundred and thirty-five mothers who delivered at the D University hospital during the period of May to June in 1996 comprised the sample. Data were collected by questionnaire methods before discharge at the hospital. Data were analyzed using percent, 1-test, and logistic regression. The results were as follows : 1. During their pregnancy, majority of mothers (74.8%) got the breast feeding information. Information sources were book (34.5%), family and relatives(32.4%), mass media(24.3%), and professionals such as nurses and doctors (8.8% ). The frequently reported sources of most encouragement for breast feeding were mother in law(20.7%) and baby's father (11.1% ). 2. The mean score of the items of Knowledge and Attitude toward Breast Feeding Scale were 42.56 (SD=5.47) and 39.07(SD=5.15) , representing positive attitude toward breast feeding. The correlation between knowledge and attitude score was significant(r 〓.54, p<.001). Knowledge of breast feeding were significantly different between breast feeding intention group (including partial breast feeding) and artificial feeding intention group(t=2.79, p<.01) 3. Logistic regression analysis revealed that feeding method in the hospital, delivery type, knowledge toward breast feeding, disease related to pregnancy, complication related to delivery, and educational level of mother were predictives of the intention of breast feeding. 4. The most frequently rated reasons for the plan for mixed feeding were concern about insufficient milk (37.9%) and work(27.6%), The major reasons for plan for artificial milk feeding were having premature baby(25.9%) and maternal health problems including infection(14.8% ) and drug use due to chronic illness (14.8%). From the result of the study, it is recommended to develop supportive nursing intervention strategy to promote breast-feeding intention and practice. The intervention could be more effective to begin early in pregnancy and include teaching for breast feeding skills as well as information provision for positive attitude formation.

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A study of nest-site characteristics and feeding behavior on Tree sparrows bred in urban artificial structures (도심내 인공구조물에서 번식하는 참새의 둥지위치 특성과 먹이급이행동 분석)

  • Jeong, Seul-Gi;Lee, Who-Seung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.97-110
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    • 2020
  • This study conducted observations at 72 traffic lights and road signs in Sejong-si, Korea from March to June 2019 in order to analyze nest-site, nest-site characteristics and feeding behavior in Tree sparrow (Passeer montanus) in urban. Feeding behavior during breeding season in 2019 was investigated at 10 Town representing traffic facilities installed on the road located in the center of the city and 10 Riverside Geumgang river's riverside road. We fitted both general linear model and regression model to our field data and estimated the spatial variation of initial date of the first feeding (i.e., being date of breeding) and the total number of caterpillar fed by parents per hour. Our results showed that the frequency of nest building on artificial structures, such as traffic lights, was about 26% higher and about 8 days earlier in the riverside. In particular, the first feeding was significantly faster when the nearest distance between nest to green field as foraging site was shorter whereas there was no significant effect of the number of nest within 50 meters on the first feeding. Number of caterpillars fed by parents was higher in the Riverside than in the Urban, and especially the number in the second brood was sharply decreased in the Urban. As we estimated average amount of caterpillars per hour to 446 traffic safety facilities in Sejong-si, it was estimated that Tree sparrows fed 18,742.8 caterpillars per hour during the breeding season. In this study, we showed that characteristics of nests built in artificial structures and feeding behavior in order to analyze effects of environmental condition in urban on life-history traits during the breeding season. Finally, we discussed the conservation of birds in urban and pest control effects.

Effect of Light, Temperature and Nitrogen Fertilization and Damaged Leaf on the Feeding of Chestnut Brown Chafer, Adoretus tenuimaculatus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) (밤나무에 대한 온도, 광 및 질소시비 조건과 기존 피해 잎이 주둥무늬차색풍뎅이(Adoretus tenuimaculatus) 성충의 유인에 미치는 영향)

  • 이동운;추호렬;이상명;이영한
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.159-170
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    • 1999
  • Preference of chestnut brown chafer (CBC), Adoretus tenuimaculatus was examined from chestnut leaves which were treated with different light condition, temperature and nitrogen fertilization. More CBC was attracted to leaves which grown at $30^{\circ}C$ than grown at $20^{\circ}C$,$ 25^{\circ}C$ and in the field. When attracted number of CBC was compared among full sunlight-grown, cloth shaded-grown and dark-grown plants, 4.0 in full sunlight grown and 5.0 in dark-grown plants. Amount of nitrogen fertilizer did not influence CBC feeding. The attractiveness of undamaged leaves with non-feeding beetles, leaves with feeding damaged, and leaves with artificial damaged was compared in replicated laboratory trials by placing the treatments in the petri-dish and counted the number of beetles that landed on the plants after 6 hr treatment. The highest number of beetles was attracted to chestnut leaf with feeding damaged ($7.7\pm$0.6) than undamaged leaf with non-feeding beetles ($5.3\pm$0.6) and artificial damaged ($4.3\pm$0.6). Managnese content in the leaves of chestnut grown in shade cloth-grown condition was higher than that in the leaves of chestnut that had been exposed to full sunlight condition and dark condition, and feeding damaged leaf.

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Inheritance of Feeding Response of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, to MP-O Artificial Diet. (MP-O 인공사료에 대한 누에의 섭식상과 유전현상)

  • 황재삼;강현아
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.115-118
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    • 1994
  • Differences of feeding response of 280 silkworm genetic stocks and 71 breeding lines to MP-O artificial diet and the mode of the inheritance were investigated. Feeding response to MP-O diet varied markedly between the silkworm varieties, and the non-normally distributed curve for the response was observed. From the genetic analysis, the high feeding response to MP-O diet was recessive to the low feeding response. Therefore it is considered that the high feeding response of the newly hatched silkwrom larvae to MP-O diet is controlled by a recessive gene.

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Studies on tile Resources for the Artificial Diet and Feeding Response of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori (가잠의 인공사료자원과 섭식성에 관한 연구)

  • 김주읍
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.11-36
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    • 1982
  • Forty-nine plant species as additives to silkworm artificial diet and 5 species as cellulose sources for artificial diet were screened for their economic values as feed-resources for the silkworm. Feeding response to artificial diet was tested on 82 silkworm strains. The effect of rearing conditions on feeding response and enzyme activities in the silkworm was investigated. The results were summarized as follows. 1. Seven species out of 49, Vigna sinensis ENDL, Ipomoea vatatas Lamarck, Cyperus anuricus Var. Laxus, Alnus japonica Stendel, Trifolium repens L, Prunus serrulata Lindley. Var, Glycine max L increased feeding response, compared with the basic formula of artificial diet. 2. The economic values of Vigna sinensis ENDL, Ipomoea vatatas Lamarck, Cyperus anuricus Var. Laxus, Ainus japonica Stendel, Cassia tera L, Erigeron canedensis L as feed-resources for artificiale diet were recognized, through feeding experiment during the entire larval stage. 3. Mulberry cellulose showed the best results in rearing and cocoon characteristics. 4. The extent of feeding response varied according to strains and varieties. Varieties in japanese strains showed higher feeding response than those in chinese and european varieties, with considerable variations among a varieties in strains. 5. The begining of 4th instar seems to be a proper time to convert from mulberry to artificial diet, or artificial diet to mulberry, however the middle of 3rd instar seems acceptable. 6. The optimum temperature for artificial diet rearing is 30$^{\circ}C$ during the period of 1st-3rd instar and 28$^{\circ}C$ for 4th-5th instar. 7. Electrophoretic isozyme patterns of esterase and acid phosphatase on agarose gel, as affected by strain. rearing temperature and feed-resources, were observed as follow. (1) Isozyme patterns of mid-gut esterase varied, depending on instar. One or two more isozyme bands were observed in the larvae than feed on the mulberry fed for the artificial diet. (2) A strain, chinese-15 with a higher feeding response, had 1∼2 more bands than chinese-60 with a lower feeding response. (3) Five bands of mid-gut esterase in 3rd and 4th instar larvae reared at 28$^{\circ}C$. and 4 for 3rd instar and 6∼7 for 4th instar larvae at 35$^{\circ}C$ were observed. (4) No similar esterase bands could be found among mid-gut, blood and silkgland. There are five esterase bands in the midgut, one in blood and three in silkgland. (5) There was rather small digerence in acid phosphatase types of mid-gut and blood according to varieties and rearing temperature. No active band was shown in silkgland. In midgut, there was one acid phosphatase band at 3rd instar, two at 4th instar and three at 5th instar. In blood, one active band at 3rd or 4th instar and three bands at 5th inster wire detected.

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NUMERICAL MODELLING OF SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN CONNECTION WITH ARTIFICIAL GRAIN FEEDING ACTIVITIES IN THE RIVER RHINE

  • Duc Bui Minh;Wenka Thomas
    • Water Engineering Research
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.17-30
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    • 2005
  • The bed evolution of the stretch of the River Rhine between km-812.5 and km-821.5 is characterised by general bed degradation as a result of the river training works and dredging activities of the last two centuries. The degradation of the river bed affects the water levels, and so the navigation conditions. To combat the erosion of the river bed with the aim to keep up the shipping traffic and to avoid the ecological system damages due to water level reductions, sand-gravel-mixtures were added to the river (so called artificial grain feeding activities). This paper presents the results of an application of a graded sediment transport model in order to study morpholodynamical characteristics due to artificial grain feeding activities in the river stretch. The finite element code TELEMAC2D was used for flow calculation by solving the 2D shallow water equation on non-structured grids. The sediment transport module SISYPHE has been developed for graded sediment transport using a multiple layer model. The needs to apply such graded sediment transport approaches to study morphological processes in the domain are discussed. The calculations have been carried out for the case of middle water flow and different size-fraction distributions. The results show that the grain feeding process could be well simulated by the model.

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