• Title, Summary, Keyword: atherogenic diet

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Effects of cranberry powder on biomarkers of oxidative stress and glucose control in db/db mice

  • Kim, Mi Joung;Chung, Jee-Young;Kim, Jung Hee;Kwak, Ho-Kyung
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.7 no.6
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    • pp.430-438
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    • 2013
  • Increased oxidative stress in obese diabetes may have causal effects on diabetic complications, including dyslipidemia. Lipopolysccharides (LPS) along with an atherogenic diet have been found to increase oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Cranberry has been recognized as having beneficial effects on diseases related to oxidative stress. Therefore, we employed obese diabetic animals treated with an atherogenic diet and LPS, with the aim of examining the effects of cranberry powder (CP) on diabetic related metabolic conditions, including lipid profiles, serum insulin and glucose, and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Forty C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice were divided into the following five groups: normal diet + saline, atherogenic diet + saline, atherogenic diet + LPS, atherogenic diet + 5% CP + LPS, and atherogenic diet + 10% CP + LPS. Consumption of an atherogenic diet resulted in elevation of serum total cholesterol and atherogenic index (AI) and reduction of high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. However, with 10% CP, the increase in mean HDL-cholesterol level was close to that of the group with a normal diet, whereas AI was maintained at a higher level than that of the group with a normal diet. LPS induced elevated serum insulin level was lowered by greater than 60% with CP (P < 0.05), and mean serum glucose level was reduced by approximately 19% with 5% CP (P > 0.05). Mean activity of liver cytosolic glutathione peroxidase was significantly increased by LPS injection, however it was reduced back to the value without LPS when the diet was fortified with 10% CP (P < 0.05). In groups with CP, a reduction in mean levels of serum protein carbonyl tended to occur in a dose dependent manner. Particularly with 10% CP, a reduction of approximately 89% was observed (P > 0.05). Overall results suggest that fortification of the atherogenic diet with CP may have potential health benefits for obese diabetes with high oxidative stress, by modulation of physical conditions, including some biomarkers of oxidative stress.

Antioxidant Effects of Cranberry Powder in Lipopolysaccharide Treated Hypercholesterolemic Rats

  • Kim, Mi Joung;Kim, Jung Hee;Kwak, Ho-Kyung
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.75-81
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of cranberry power on antioxidant defense system in rats fed an atherogenic diet and injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following 5 groups: normal diet+saline (NS), atherogenic diet+saline (AS), atherogenic diet+LPS (AL), atherogenic diet with 5% cranberry powder+LPS (AL-C5), and atherogenic diet with 10% cranberry powder+LPS (AL-C10). Total antioxidant status measured by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) was significantly reduced by LPS injection (24%) and was restored by the cranberry powder treatment (P<0.05). In addition, the mean level of plasma total phenolics was significantly decreased by LPS injection (P<0.05) and tended to be increased when cranberry powder was incorporated in to the diet. Activity of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) tended to be lowered by LPS injection and declined further in cranberry powder fortified groups. Overall results indicate that dietary cranberry powder may provide appropriate antioxidants to counter the diminished antioxidant status induced by exposing hypercholesterolemic rats to LPS.

Effects of freeze-dried cranberry powder on serum lipids and inflammatory markers in lipopolysaccharide treated rats fed an atherogenic diet

  • Kim, Mi-Joung;Ohn, Jeong;Kim, Jung-Hee;Kwak, Ho-Kyung
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.5 no.5
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    • pp.404-411
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    • 2011
  • This study investigated the effects of freeze-dried cranberry powder on anti-inflammation and lipid profiles of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rats fed an atherogenic diet for 6 weeks. Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats (6-weeks-old) were equally divided into the following five groups: 1) normal diet group+saline (NC); 2) atherogenic diet+saline (HFC); 3) atherogenic diet+LPS (HL); 4) atherogenic diet with 5% cranberry power+LPS (C5); 5) atherogenic diet with 10% cranberry power+LPS (C10). LPS (0.5 mg/kg) was injected into the abdominal cavities of rats 18 hours prior to sacrifice. At the end of the experimental period, we measured serum lipid profiles as well as levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), nitric oxide (NO), and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$), interleukin (IL)-1${\beta}$, IL-6, and IL-10 as an anti-inflammatory cytokine. The mean serum high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level in C5 rats was significantly higher than that in NC and HL rats (P<0.05). The mean serum levels of CRP and IL-1${\beta}$ were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the cranberry powder groups compared to those in HL rats. Additionally, mean serum IL-6 levels tended to be lower in the cranberry groups than that in the HL group, whereas serum IL-10 and NO showed 29% and 88% higher mean values in the C5 group and 49% and 24% higher in the C10 group than those in the HL group, respectively. These results suggest that freeze-dried cranberry powder may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases by modifying serum lipids and the early inflammatory response.

Effects of cranberry powder on serum lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in rats fed an atherogenic diet

  • Kim, Mi-Joung;Jung, Ha-Na;Kim, Ki-Nam;Kwak, Ho-Kyung
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.158-164
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    • 2008
  • This study investigated that the antioxidative effect of freeze-dried cranberry powder against protein and lipid oxidation and ameliorative effect of serum lipid profile in rat fed atherogenic diet. Six weeks old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following four groups: normal diet group with 5% com oil(control), atherogenic diet group with 5% com oil, 10% lard, 1% cholesterol, and 0.5% sodium cholate(HFC), atherogenic plus 2% cranberry powder diet group(HFC+C2), and atherogenic plus 5% cranberry powder diet group(HFC+C5), and respective diet and water were fed daily for 6 weeks. After the experimental period, the serum lipid profile, such as total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride, ferric reducing ability of plasma(FRAP), plasma phenolics content, superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity, serum protein carbonyl and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances(TBARS) levels were examined. Total phenolic compound and total flavonoid levels in freeze-dried cranberry powder were 9.94 mg/g and 8.12 mg/g, respectively. Serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly different for cranberry powder treatment, but serum HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased in HFC+C5 group compared with HFC group. Plasma FRAP value tended to be increased by cranberry powder treatment though there was no significant difference. Plasma total phenol concentrations and SOD activities were not significantly different among all groups. Serum protein carbonyl and TBARS levels were significantly decreased in HFC+C5 group compared with HFC group. Overall results suggested that freeze-dried cranberry powder might have the serum lipid improving effect, as well as anti oxidative effect demonstrated by its protective effect against protein and lipid oxidation.

Functions of Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-3 in Transgenic Mice Fed a High-Fat, High-Cholesterol Diet

  • An, So Jung;Jung, Un Ju;Choi, Myung-Sook;Chae, Chan Kyu;Oh, Goo Taek;Park, Yong Bok
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.405-413
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    • 2013
  • Monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3), a chemokine that is in a superfamily of structurally related small chemotactic cytokines involved in leukocyte trafficking, is regarded as a key factor in atherogenesis. In this study, we examined the changes in atherogenic parameters including hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative balance in MCP- 3-overexpressing transgenic mice (MCP-3 mice) under atherogenic conditions. To induce an extreme atherogenic condition, mice were fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet for 12 weeks. The body weight and food intake were not changed by MCP-3 overexpression in the aorta. On a HFHC diet, the MCP-3 mice had higher plasma levels of total cholesterol and a higher atherogenic index compared with wild-type mice, although there were no differences in the plasma HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Furthermore, an increase in lipid accumulation was observed in the aortas as well as the livers of the HFHC diet-fed MCP-3 mice compared with wild-type mice. The activities of antioxidant enzymes increased in the livers of the HFHC diet-fed MCP-3 mice, whereas supplementation with antioxidants, naringin and hesperidin, reversed the activities of the hepatic antioxidant enzymes in HFHC diet-fed MCP-3 mice, indicating that there might be more oxidative damage to the tissues in the HFHC diet-fed MCP-3 mice leading to progression towards atherosclerosis and hepatic steatosis. Microarray analyses of the aorta revealed atherosclerosis-, PPARs-, lipoprotein receptor, and apolipoprotein-related genes that were affected by the HFHC diet in MCP-3 mice. These findings suggest that aortic MCP-3 overexpression may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and hepatic steatosis under atherogenic conditions.

Effects of Green Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] Extract on Lipid Metabolism in F1B Golden Syrian Hamsters Fed with the Atherogenic Diet (녹차[Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] 추출물의 투여가 동맥경화 유발식이를 급여한 F1B Golden Syrian hamster의 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Eun-Kyung;Han, Dae-Seok;Kim, In-Ho;Lee, Chang-Ho;Kim, Young-Eon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.181-188
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    • 2007
  • This study examined the effects of green tea extract supplementation (500 or 1,000 mg/kg b.w. per day) in conjunction with an atherogenic diet (10% coconut oil (w/w), 0.1% cholesterol) on plasma lipid composition, regression of pre-existing foam cells, and on the mRNA levels of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase and LDL receptor. Compared to groups fed only with the atherogenic diet, the addition of green tea extract to atherogenic diet-fed groups significantly down-regulated plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol levels, dose-dependently. Supplementation of 1,000 mg/kg b.w. of green tea extract with the atherogenic diet induced significant up-regulation of both HMG-CoA reductase and LDL receptor messenger RNA levels in liver as compared to the group receiving green tea extract supplementation at 500 mg/kg b.w. The F1B hamsters fed the atherogenic diet had greater foam cell accumulation compared to those fed a normal diet, or the atherogenic diet supplemented with green tea extract. Regression of fatty streak lesions was achieved by atherosclerosis in fat- and cholesterol-fed hamsters and this effect was associated with down-regulation of plasma cholesterol and up-regulation of hepatic LDL receptor expression.

The Effects of Dietary Supplements Included Green Tea, Buckwheat and Grape Leaf Extract on Lipid Metabolism and on Regression of Fatty Streak Lesions in F1B Golden Syrian Hamsters Fed the Atherogenic Diet (녹차, 메밀 및 포도잎 추출물 첨가식이가 동맥경화유발식이를 급여한 F1B Golden Syrian 햄스터의 지질대사와 대동맥의 지방 축적에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Young-Eon;Kwon, Eun-Kyung;Oh, Se-Wook;Han, Dae-Seok;Kim, In-Ho;Lee, Chang-Ho;Lee, Ho-Joon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.962-969
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    • 2005
  • Effects of 5 and 10% dietary supplement tablets containing green tea, buckwheat, and grape leaf extracts on atherosclerosis, and plasma and hepatic lipid compositions in hamsters fed antherogenic diet [modified AIN-76A containing 10% coconut oil (w/w), 0.05% cholesterol] were examined. Compared to atherogenic diet only groups, addition of supplement to atherogenic diet-fed group significantly down-regulated triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in plasma and liver. F1B hamsters fed atherogenic diet had greater foam cell accumulation compared to control and those fed atherogenic diet with addition of supplement. Lipid metabolisms of plasma and liver increased with addition of supplement dose-dependently, whereas aortic lipid accumulation decreased. These results indicate tablets supplemented with green tea, buckwheat, and grape leaf extracts have potential to prevent cardiovascular diseases in golden Syrian hamsters.

The Effect of Dietary Fat Levels and Protein Source in Early Life on the Cholesterol and Lipid Metabolism in Adult Rats (흰쥐에서 태아 및 유아기에 섭취한 지방량과 단백질 급원의 변화가 성장후에 Cholesterol 및 지방대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Wha-Young;Park, Hyun-Suh
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.136-145
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    • 1981
  • This study was designed to observe the effects of both control and atherogenic diets on the cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) in serum and liver of adult rats fed diets supplying two levels of dietary fat and two different sources of dietary protein in early life. For the first experimental period, the rats were assigned into the four diet groups: High fat, casein (HC); High fat, gluten (HG); Low fat, casein (LC): Low fat, gluten (LG). Each group was subdivided into control and atherogenic groups for the second experimental period. Cholesterol and TG were determined in serum and liver after 7 hr fasting. The body weight gain was greater in the rats of the casein groups than those of the gluten groups tut not influenced by the level of the dietary fat. The difference in body weight from the quality of dietary protein in the first period was not disappeared even after the second period. After the first period, higher serum cholesterol was observed in the rats fed either casein or high fat diets. With the second experimental diet, rats fed atherogenic diet showed higher serum cholesterol concentration but lower serum TG levels compared to those fed control diet, regardless the diets fed in the first period. Serum cholesterol level of the rats of both groups which had been fed high fat diets in early life was increased compared to those of the low fat diet groups. This effect was more pronounced with the atherogenic diet groups than control groups. However, no differences were found in serum cholesterol levels resulted from the different types of dietary protein fed in the first period. Serum TG concentration was not influenced by the quality of protein and level of fat in the diet but seemed to be mere affected by the amount of carbohyrates in the diet. Liver cholesterol per unit weight was greater in the gluten diet groups than in the casein groups but total cholesterol was higher in casein fed rats. There were no differences in liver TG among the groups.

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Observation of Inflammatory Marker Levels in Sprague-Dawley Rats with Youngyopaedoc-san-related Anti-atherogenic Effect (연교패독산(連翹敗毒散) 복용 후 항동맥경화 효과가 나타난 백서에서 염증 지표 관찰)

  • Yoon, Da-Rae;Hong, Sung-In;Noh, Hyun-In;Yi, Seo-Ra;Lee, In-Hee;Lew, Jae-Hwan
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.86-95
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with high fat diet, and atherogenic changes were seen in the aorta. However, when Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a high fat diet and administered Youngyopaedoc-san together, these atherogenic changes were rarely seen. This study was aimed to find the inflammatory marker level changes in Sprague-Dawley rats with Youngyopaedoc-san-related anti-atherogenic effect. Methods: The extract from Youngyopaedoc-san was made by the pharmacy department of Kyung-hee Oriental Medical Hospital. The animals were divided into five groups: normal diet, high fat diet, high fat diet with Youngyopaedoc-san, high fat diet with Vytorin, and high fat diet with Youngyopaedoc-san and Vytorin. A light microscopic image of a cross section taken from the aorta of the Sprague-Dawley rat was analyzed. We compared inflammatory marker levels among the five groups. Results: The complex of Youngyopaedoc-san and Vytorin has more anti-atherogenic effects in the aorta of Sprague-Dawley rats fed with high fat diet than Vytorin alone. Youngyopaedoc-san has inhibitory effect on the increase of IFN-${\gamma}$ and IL-2 levels. The difference on eosinophil levels of each group was statistically significant, but the eosinophil level of each group was within normal limits, so the difference on eosinophil levels was not clinically significant. Conclusions: Youngyopaedoc-san-related anti-atherogenic effect could be a result of inhibitory mechanism on IFN-${\gamma}$ and IL-2.

Effect of Cordyceps Militaris on Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed Cholesterol Diet (동충하초(Cordyceps Militaris)가 고콜레스테롤혈증 흰쥐의 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 고진복;최미애
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.265-270
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    • 2001
  • The effects of Cordyceps militaris on the weight gain, the food intake, the food efficient ratio, and the lipid concentrations of serum, liver, pancreas, heart and aorta in male rats fed cholesterol diet were studied. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were received 4 types of diets for 4 weeks, respectively : a normal diet(without cholesterol), a control diet(hypercholesterolemic diet), a hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 3% fruiting body of Cordyceps militaris(CF), a hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 3% mycelium of Cordyceps militaris(CM). The body weight gain of rats fed the control diet were significantly increased compared to those of the rats fed diets with CF or CM. But, the hepatic and pancreatic weights of rats fed diets with CF or CM were heavier than those of rats fed the normal diet. In serum of rats fed the CM diet, the concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and the atherogenic index were significantly lower than those of rats fed the control diet. Also, serum HDL-cholesterol concentration and HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio were significantly lower in rats fed the control, CF or CM diets than those in rats fed the normal diet. Whereas, the hepatic concentrations of the total lipid, the total cholesterol and the triglyceride were significantly higher in rats fed 3 hypercholesterolemic diets than those in the rats fed normal diet. The heart and pancreatic concentrations of total cholesterol were the highest in the rats fed diet with the CR among rats fed experimental diets. In conclusion, the CM feeding decreased the concentrations of the cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol and the atherogenic index in the serum of the rats. But the CF or CM feeding could not decrease the hepatic concentrations of the total lipid, cholesterol, triglyceride in the rats fed hypercholesterolemic diets. (Korean J Nutrition 34(3) : 265∼270, 2001)

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