• Title, Summary, Keyword: attractor

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The Effects of Feedback Loops on the Network Robustness by using a Random Boolean Network Model (랜덤 불리언 네트워크 모델을 이용한 되먹임 루프가 네트워크 강건성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Yung-Keun
    • Journal of KIISE:Computer Systems and Theory
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.138-146
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    • 2010
  • It is well known that many biological networks are very robust against various types of perturbations, but we still do not know the mechanism of robustness. In this paper, we find that there exist a number of feedback loops in a real biological network compared to randomly generated networks. Moreover, we investigate how the topological property affects network robustness. To this end, we properly define the notion of robustness based on a Boolean network model. Through extensive simulations, we show that the Boolean networks create a nearly constant number of fixed-point attractors, while they create a smaller number of limit-cycle attractors as they contain a larger number of feedback loops. In addition, we elucidate that a considerably large basin of a fixed-point attractor is generated in the networks with a large number of feedback loops. All these results imply that the existence of a large number of feedback loops in biological networks can be a critical factor for their robust behaviors.

Detecting Chaotic Motions of a Piecewise-Linear System in the Noisy Fields by Mean Poincare Maps (평균 포인케어맵을 이용한 Noisy Field에서의 chaos거동의 검출방법)

  • 마호성
    • Computational Structural Engineering
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.239-249
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    • 1997
  • The method to distinguish chaotic attractors in the perturbed response behaviors of a piecewise-linear system under combined regular and external randomness is provided and examined. In the noisy fields such as the ocean environment, excitation forces induced by wind, waves and currents contain a finite degree of randomness. Under external random perturbations, the system responses are disturbed, and consequently chaotic signatures in the response attractors are not distinguishable, but rather look just random-like. Mean Poincare map can be utilized to identify such chaotic responses veiled due to the random noise by averaging the noise effect out of the perturbed responses. In this study, the procedure to create mean Poincare map combined with the direct numerical simulations is provided and examined. It is found that mean Poincare maps can successfully distinguish chaotic attractors under stochastic excitations, and also can give the information of limit value of noise intensity with which the chaos signature in system responses vanishes.

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The Architectural Characteristics of Piazza Navona, Rome and its Ecological Function and Role in Urban Environments (로마 나보나 광장의 건축적 특성과 도시 생태적 기능 및 역할)

  • Kwon, Gyoung Nam
    • KIEAE Journal
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.83-94
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: A city is regarded as an organic living thing that generates, changes, and fades away in relationship with many components of city. Therefore, a city has its own identity based on its historical trace. Among these elements composing a city, it is a square that makes a city more active and dynamic. Piazza Navona in Rome, Italy has played its role as significant core in the city and has distinctive function from other squares in urban ecological environments. In this study, the distinguishing function and role of Piazza Navona will be defined. Another purpose of study is to figure out what factors of Piazza Navona attracts a lot of diverse people and activities. Method: First, general understanding of function, type, and history of piazza; Second, the historical background of Piazza Navona; Third, site analysis related to surrounding environments; Fourth, architectural characteristic of Piazza Navona in terms of plan and elevation; Fifth, comparing with other representative squares in Rome such as Piazza San Pietro, Piazza del Popolo, and Piazza del Campidoglio in aspects of urban function. Result: Piazza Navona provides both citizen and visitors with an inviting place to embrace all kinds of activities including assembly, annual festival, and daily events. Its functions in the urban environments also involve a tourist attractor as landmark, place for social and cultural interaction, market, and place for meeting and leisure. It is attributed to following factors; historical background as the city center since the first century AD; its location in the center of Rome; enough size and flexibility to accommodate many people and various events; open space enclosed by surrounding buildings; historical baroque structures and sculptures of fountains; synergy effect with commercial and other tourist attractors around Piazza Navona; and comfortable accessibility.

Measures of Underlying Inflation and Evaluation of Inflation Targeting with Global Crisis in Korea (글로벌 금융위기와 물가안정목표제 평가: 근원인플레이션을 중심으로)

  • Park, Won-Am
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.1-32
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    • 2010
  • The global financial crisis has exerted enormous impacts on the attainment of inflation target in Korea. The annual average CPI inflation was 3.3% during the targeting period of 2007-2009 and the target was $3.0{\pm}0.5%$. Thus Korea has succeeded in keeping annual average CPI inflation just below the upper limit of the 2007-2009 target under the global crisis. This paper intends to evaluate the performance of the inflation targeting system in Korea. First, it estimates the conventional call rate reaction equation under the global crisis and finds that the policy interest rates never reacted to expected inflation, output gap, and won/dollar exchange rate, as expected by theory. Second, it identifies the shock of global financial crisis into core and non-core, applying the structural VAR model. The core shock was defined to have no (medium- to) long-run impact on real output. The core shock was identified to have the character of the demand shock, since it has the positive impact on the inflation and output in the short run. The structural core inflation due to core shock was an attractor of headline inflation, not vice versa. Therefore, the structural core inflation that reflects the demand-side shock would be the better intermediate target for the final headline inflation target than the official core inflation that excludes the volatile inflation of agricultural and oil-related products. During the inflation targeting period of 2007-2009, the structural core inflation was more volatile than the official core inflation, because the global crisis has very large negative impacts on the domestic demand as well as the prices of agricultural and oil-related products. This paper shows that the negative core shock during the fourth quarter of 2008 was larger than that in the financial crisis in 1998. But the core shock turned into positive very quickly in 2009, as the Korean economy recovered very quickly from crisis. The volatile changes in structural core inflation suggests that the Bank of Korea barely managed to attain the 2007-2009 inflation target, owing to the very large negative impacts of the global financial crisis on the domestic demand. It also suggests that the rapid rise in core inflation with the rapid recovery of the Korean economy will lead to rapid rise in headline inflation.

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A Study on the Nonlinear Deterministic Characteristics of Stock Returns (주식 수익률의 비선형 결정론적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Chang, Kyung-Chun;Kim, Hyun-Seok
    • The Korean Journal of Financial Management
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.149-181
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    • 2004
  • In this study we perform empirical tests using KOSPI return to investigate the existence of nonlinear characteristics in the generating process of stock returns. There are three categories in empirical tests; the test of nonlinear dependence, nonlinear stochastic process and nonlinear deterministic chaos. According to the analysis of nonlinearity, stock returns are not normally distributed but leptokurtic, and appear to have nonlinear dependence. And it's decided that the nonlinear structure of stock returns can not be completely explained using nonlinear stochastic models of ARCH-type. Nonlinear deterministic chaos system is the feedback system, which the past incidents influence the present, and it is the fractal structure with self-similarity and has the sensitive dependence on initial conditions. To summarize the results of chaos analysis for KOSPI return, it is the persistent time series, which is not IID and has long memory, takes biased random walk, and is estimated to be fractal distribution. Also correlation dimension, as the approximation of fractal dimension, converged stably within 3 and 4, and maximum Lyapunov exponent has positive value. This suggests that chaotic attractor and the sensitive dependence on initial conditions exist in stock returns. These results fit into the characteristics of chaos system. Therefore it's decided that the generating process of stock returns has nonlinear deterministic structure and follow chaotic process.

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