• Title, Summary, Keyword: attrition

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A study of the arch length discrepancy and the diagnostic analysis (치열궁내 공간 부조화와 진단적 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Ryu, Young-Kyu;Ahn, Kwang-Seok
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2004
  • Predicting the arch length discrepancy by simply comparing the available arch perimeter with tooth materials is merely a 2-dimensional analysis of the teeth movement. However, the real teeth movement takes place 3-dimensionally and is affected by various factors such as, the arch fen the curve of Spee and the axis of the incisors. The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between the decrease in the arch perimeter and the horizontal positional change of the incisors after extraction of the 1st bicuspids, for more analytic evaluation of the arch length discrepancy at pre-treatment model analysis stage. In addition to that to evaluate the effect of the curve of Spee, teeth axis to the basal plane, and the incisional crowding to the treatment outcome. All patients were treated at the department of orthodontics, dental hospital, Yonsei university. Inclusion criteria for patients selection were as follows. $\cdot$ Angle classification I malocclusion with bialveolar protrusion $\cdot$ Extraction of 4 1st bicuspids $\cdot$ No tooth anomaly or prosthesis $\cdot$ No abnormal attrition $\cdot$ No ectopically erupted teeth $\cdot$ Angle classification I canine and molar relationship $\cdot$ Less than 3mm of crowding Model analysis of the above patients was performed and the following conclusions were obtained. 1. When the intercanine distance was maintained, the available space for the distal movement of the mandibular incisors after the extraction of the 4 1st bicuspids was larger than the space provided by the extraction of the 4 1st bicuspids. However the difference was less than 1mm. The more tapered the anterior arch form, the larger the difference. 2. Compared to the situation in which the intercanine distance was maintained, when the intercanine distance was expanded to meet the width of the Posterior teeth, the incisors could move about 3mm more distally. 3. The positional difference of the incisal tip was insignificant whether the central incisors were moved by tipping or bodily movement. 4. When the anterior crowding was solved without changing the intercanine distance, the larger the anterior arch length was, the more the anterior movement of the incisors. 5. When the curve of Spee was levelled, the increase in the arch perimeter was less than half of the deepest curve of Spee.

A STUDY ON THE ENAMEL EROSION BY FERMENTED MILKS (수종 유산균 발효유의 법랑질 침식효과에 대한 연구)

  • Sim, Jeung-Ho;Jeong, Tae-Sung;Kim, Shin
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.555-563
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    • 2004
  • The pH of beverages is known to be low and have, therefore, been implicated in the increasing incidence of erosion. Erosion is believed to be the predominant cause of teeth wear in children and young adults, although there will always be a contribution from attrition and abrasion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of yogurt on the progression of erosive demineralization in human enamel using demineralization model in vitro. In 4 yogurts, available on the market, pH, buffering capacity and the concentrations of calcium, phosphate and fluoride were determined. The buffering effect was determined by titration with NaOH. 50 milliliters of each drink was then titrated with 1M sodium hydroxide, added in 0.5 milliliters increments, until the pH reached about 7. Human deciduous enamel(n=40) samples were divided into four groups and exposed to 80ml of the yogurt for 30,60, 90 and 120min. Enamel surface microhardness(VHN) was examined before and after each exposure. 1. The average PH of fermented milk was 3.77 and this pH value was acidic enough to cause tooth erosion. 2. All of the fermented milks were found to be erosive(p<0.05) 3. The teeth exposed to the fermented milk all showed erosion like lesions and microhardness measurements showed that enamel surface hardness decreased proportionately with increased time of immersion in all tooth specimen groups. 4. After immersion for 30 and 60 minutes, reduction rate of microhardness values was not significantly different between the groups(p>0.05). However, after 90 and 120 minutes, reduction rate of each group was significantly different(p<0.05).

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Status of Birds and countermeasures of the crop damage by the birds at Reed Marsh of Sihwa Lake (시화호 갈대습지의 조류상 및 농작물 피해 대처방안)

  • Lee, Si-Wan;Song, Min-Jung;Kang, Tae-Han;Yoo, Seung-Hwa
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.105-120
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out at Reed Marsh of Sihwa Lake from July 2003 to June 2004. We observed total(sum of maximum population) 5,752 individuals of 70 species including 12 species of ducks, 10 species of egrets, 6 species of wagtails and buntings, 4 species of eagles. The most dominant species was Spotbill Duck(Anas poecilorhyncha - 3,518 individuals, 61.16%), and other species were Mallard(Anas platyrhynchos - 540 individuals, 9.39%), Great Reed-Warbler(Acrocephalus arundinaceus - 217 individuals, 3.77%). Reed Marsh of Sihwa Lake were observed many kinds of protected species such as Great Bittern(Botaurus stellaris), Mandarin Duck(Aix galericulata), Chinese Sparrow Hawk (Accipiter soloensis), Eurasian Sparrow Hawk(Accipiter nisus), Japanese Buzzard(Buteo buteo), Hen Harrier(Circus cyaneus), Eurasian Hobby(Falco subbuteo), and Common Kestrel(Falco tinnunculus). Since the Reed Marsh of Sihwa Lake arrived many individuals of waterbird, crop damage by the waterbird occurred in the surrounding rice fields. It was an area adjacent to the reed marsh of sihwa lake such as Yoopori and Samhwari Bibongmyoun, Yamokri Maesongmyoun Hwaseong City. Bird of crop damage was ducks openly. The most species was Spot-billed Duck. Crop damage types by the Spot-billed Duck were grazing, used the grain up or lower in quality with step on the rice. Crop damage size was about 560bags of rice during the one month on August 2002. In 2003, After carrying out the various crop damage reduction countermeasures, which measured crop damage size in 2002's crop damage area. It happened about 152bags of rice during the two months from on August to September 2003. Migration routes of Spot-billed Duck were that it was migrated from up the sihwa lake to reed marsh. It took a rest at reed marsh and migrated the surrounding rice fields for the feeding action. In 2002, it was migrated direct from up the sihwa lake to in surrounding rice fields. But as environment of reed marsh was improved better than 2002, it was migrated to reed marsh because of reducing the energy attrition rate. Crop damage reduction countermeasures are get on ears to use explosion machine, searchlight, start-gun and patrol at regular intervals. Which was an effect short term. Indirect method is to make a feeding area of substitution at up the sihwa lake and reed marsh of sihwa lake.

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Morphologic Follow-Up of the Anastomotic Sites Using One-year and Five-year Angiography after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (관상동맥우회술 후 1년 및 5년 추적 관상동맥조영술을 이용한 문합부위의 형태학적 변화)

  • Cho Kwang Ree;Kim Jun-Sung;Choi Jae-Sung;Chae In-Ho;Oh Byung-Hee;Lee Myoung-Mook;Park Young-Bae;Kim Ki-Bong
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.191-196
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    • 2005
  • We analysed the characteristics of anastomotic sites after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using coronary angiographies (CAGs) performed at one and five years postoperatively in the same patient population. Material and Method: Among the 219 patients who underwent isolated CABGs between January 1995 and December 1997, follow-up coronary angiograms were performed in 149 ($75.3\%$) patients at one year and in 115 ($58.1\%$) patients at five years postoperatively. FitzGibbon grading system was used to evaluate the anastomotic sites. Result: The patency rates of arterial grafts at one- and five-year were $96.5\%$ (192/199) and $93.1\%$ (134/144), which were higher than those of saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) ($82.9\%$ (224/270) and $77.5\%$ (141/182), respectively) (p=0.01). Although there were significant decreases in the patency rates between one- and five-year CAGs of both arterial and venous grafts, the proportion of FitzGibbon grade B among the SVGs was increased from $5.2\%$ (one-year) to $8.2\%$ (five-year), suggesting the progression of vein graft disease (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The patency rate of the arterial graft was higher than that of SVG in both one- and five-year CAGs. The attrition rate of saphenous vein graft was higher than arterial grafts.

Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in instrumental performers (악기연주자의 측두하악장애 징후와 증상)

  • Jang, Jae-Young;Choi, Young-Chan;Bae, Jung-Hee;Kim, Seong-Taek
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.86-95
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the subjective symptoms and clinical signs through the TMD-questionnaire, clinical examination and radiography against the many instrumental performers and to investigate the association between playing instruments and TMDs. Materials and Methods: A total of 803 instrumental performers received TMD-related questionnaire and evaluations of prevalence and disease distribution were performed. Among those who reported at least one symptom of TMD, 70 volunteers visited in clinic then received clinical examination and radiography for diagnosis and evaluations of prevalence and disease distribution were performed. 70 subjects were divided into three groups as woodwind, brass wind, string. Comparative analysis of disease distribution was performed. Results: Among 803 instrumental performers, 610 people (75.97%) were reported to one or more symptoms of TMD. The most frequent symptom was click (29.68%).70 subjects underwent a clinical examination and radiography survey results, the most frequent symptom was a click (29.75%). Most commonly diagnosed disease was a myofacial pain (30.53%).Comparison of the three groups, a significant difference was not observed in the clinical sign. But among subject symptom, muscle pains howed significant differences in accordance with the Group (P = 0.024). During the 70 people who underwent clinical examination, 66 people (94.3%) showed moderate to severe attrition, mild to severe tongue ridging, mild to severe cheek ridging assigns of parafunction. Conclusion: Instrumental performers showed a high prevalence of TMD and the most of the musicians with temporomandibular disorder had bruxism or clenching habits.

Phosphorus Modified Co/Al2O3 Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst for a Slurry Phase CSTR with Enhanced Hydrothermal and Mechanical Stability (수열특성 및 기계적 안정성의 개선으로 슬러리상 CSTR에 적합한 P 첨가 알루미나 기반의 Fischer-Tropsch 합성용 코발트 촉매)

  • Jung, Gyu-In;Ha, Kyoung-Su;Park, Seon-Ju;Kim, Du-Eil;Woo, Min-Hee;Jun, Ki-Won;Bae, Jong-Wook;Kang, Yong
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.229-237
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    • 2012
  • Phosphorus was incorporated into Co/$Al_2O_3$ catalyst for FTS by impregnating an acidic precursor, phosphoric acid, in ${\gamma}-Al_2O_3$ support to improve the mechanical strength, the hydrothermal stability of the catalyst particle, and the catalytic performance as well. Surface characterization techniques such as FT-IR revealed that $AlPO_4$ phase was generated on the surface of the P-modified catalyst. The addition of phosphorus was found to alleviate the interaction between cobalt and alumina surface, and to increase reducibility of catalyst. The catalytic activity such as $C_{5+}$ productivity and turnover frequency (TOF) was calculated to evaluate catalytic performance. The influence of calcination temperature of the $Al_2O_3$ containing 2 wt.% P on the catalytic performance was also investigated. Through hydrothermal stability test and XRD analysis, the P-modified catalyst had strong resistant to the pressurized and hot $H_2O$. The mechanical strength of the P-modified catalyst was also examined through an in-house fluidized-bed vessel, and it was found that the catalyst fragmentation could be successfully suppressed with P. Taken as a whole, the best performance was shown to be at 1~2 wt.% P in alumina and at the calcination temperature of $500^{\circ}C$.

PRC Maritime Operational Capability and the Task for the ROK Military (중국군의 해양작전능력과 한국군의 과제)

  • Kim, Min-Seok
    • Strategy21
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    • pp.65-112
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    • 2014
  • Recent trends show that the PRC has stepped aside its "army-centered approach" and placed greater emphasis on its Navy and Air Force for a wider range of operations, thereby reducing its ground force and harnessing its economic power and military technology into naval development. A quantitative growth of the PLA Navy itself is no surprise as this is not a recent phenomenon. Now is the time to pay closer attention to the level of PRC naval force's performance and the extent of its warfighting capacity in the maritime domain. It is also worth asking what China can do with its widening naval power foundation. In short, it is time to delve into several possible scenarios I which the PRC poses a real threat. With this in mind, in Section Two the paper seeks to observe the construction progress of PRC's naval power and its future prospects up to the year 2020, and categorize time frame according to its major force improvement trends. By analyzing qualitative improvements made over time, such as the scale of investment and the number of ships compared to increase in displacement (tonnage), this paper attempts to identify salient features in the construction of naval power. Chapter Three sets out performance evaluation on each type of PRC naval ships as well as capabilities of the Navy, Air Force, the Second Artillery (i.e., strategic missile forces) and satellites that could support maritime warfare. Finall, the concluding chapter estimates the PRC's maritime warfighting capability as anticipated in respective conflict scenarios, and considers its impact on the Korean Peninsula and proposes the directions ROK should steer in response. First of all, since the 1980s the PRC navy has undergone transitions as the focus of its military strategic outlook shifted from ground warfare to maritime warfare, and within 30 years of its effort to construct naval power while greatly reducing the size of its ground forces, the PRC has succeeded in building its naval power next to the U.S.'s in the world in terms of number, with acquisition of an aircraft carrier, Chinese-version of the Aegis, submarines and so on. The PRC also enjoys great potentials to qualitatively develop its forces such as indigenous aircraft carriers, next-generation strategic submarines, next-generation destroyers and so forth, which is possible because the PRC has accumulated its independent production capabilities in the process of its 30-year-long efforts. Secondly, one could argue that ROK still has its chances of coping with the PRC in naval power since, despite its continuous efforts, many estimate that the PRC naval force is roughly ten or more years behind that of superpowers such as the U.S., on areas including radar detection capability, EW capability, C4I and data-link systems, doctrines on force employment as well as tactics, and such gap cannot be easily overcome. The most probable scenarios involving the PRC in sea areas surrounding the Korean Peninsula are: first, upon the outbreak of war in the peninsula, the PRC may pursue military intervention through sea, thereby undermining efforts of the ROK-U.S. combined operations; second, ROK-PRC or PRC-Japan conflicts over maritime jurisdiction or ownership over the Senkaku/Diaoyu islands could inflict damage to ROK territorial sovereignty or economic gains. The PRC would likely attempt to resolve the conflict employing blitzkrieg tactics before U.S. forces arrive on the scene, while at the same time delaying and denying access of the incoming U.S. forces. If this proves unattainable, the PRC could take a course of action adopting "long-term attrition warfare," thus weakening its enemy's sustainability. All in all, thiss paper makes three proposals on how the ROK should respond. First, modern warfare as well as the emergent future warfare demonstrates that the center stage of battle is no longer the domestic territory, but rather further away into the sea and space. In this respect, the ROKN should take advantage of the distinct feature of battle space on the peninsula, which is surrounded by the seas, and obtain capabilities to intercept more than 50 percent of the enemy's ballistic missiles, including those of North Korea. In tandem with this capacity, employment of a large scale of UAV/F Carrier for Kill Chain operations should enhance effectiveness. This is because conditions are more favorable to defend from sea, on matters concerning accuracy rates against enemy targets, minimized threat of friendly damage, and cost effectiveness. Second, to maintain readiness for a North Korean crisis where timely deployment of US forces is not possible, the ROKN ought to obtain capabilities to hold the enemy attack at bay while deterring PRC naval intervention. It is also argued that ROKN should strengthen its power so as to protect national interests in the seas surrounding the peninsula without support from the USN, should ROK-PRC or ROK-Japan conflict arise concerning maritime jurisprudence. Third, the ROK should fortify infrastructures for independent construction of naval power and expand its R&D efforts, and for this purpose, the ROK should make the most of the advantages stemming from the ROK-U.S. alliance inducing active support from the United States. The rationale behind this argument is that while it is strategically effective to rely on alliance or jump on the bandwagon, the ultimate goal is always to acquire an independent response capability as much as possible.