• Title, Summary, Keyword: avian leukosis

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Differential diagnosis among Marek's disease, reticuloendotheliosis and avian leukosis by polymeras chain reaction (중합효소연쇄반응을 이용한 닭 종양성 질병의 감별진단에 관한 연구)

  • Seong, Hwan-woo;Kim, Sun-jung
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.101-106
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    • 1998
  • The present study attempted to apply polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to develop a rapid differential diagnosis among Marek's disease, reticuloendotheliosis and avian leukosis. The primers chosen to detect Marek's disease virus (MDV) flank the 132bp tandem direct repeat of the MDV genome. The primers selected for reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and avian leukosis virus (ALV) are based on proviral long terminal repeats of spleen necrosis virus and Rous-associated virus-2 genomes, respectively. The specific PCR products of MDV, REV and ALV were observed with each primer and the reaction was not cross-reacted among the viruses. MDV-specific DNA was also amplified from the MDV-induced lymphoma (MDCC-MSB1) but not from the REV-induced tumor and ALV-induced lymphoma (LSCC-1104B1). In addition, proviral DNA of REV from REV-induced tumor and proviral DNA of ALV from ALV-induced lymphoma were also amplified by REV-specific and ALV-specific PCRs, respectively. Therefore these three PCR methods may be used to rapidly differentiate among MDV, REV and ALV-associated tumors in diagnosis.

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Nephroblastoma of the Avian Leukosis/Sarcoma Group (닭 백혈병(白血病)-육종군(肉腫群)의 신배아종(腎胚芽腫))

  • Lim, Chang Hyeong;Mun, Hi Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.49-51
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    • 1974
  • Nephroblastoma of avian leukosis/sarcoma group was encountered in a Shaver pullet. The tumor, measuring $10{\times}5mm$ in base and 5 mm in height, was located on the surface of anterior lobe of the left kidney. The tumor mass was irregular in shape, firm in consistency and greyish white in color. Histologically, the neoplastic tissues consisted of embryonal uriniferous tubules and fibrosarcomatous stroma.

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Development of a New Duplex Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detection of Dicer in G. gallus

  • Ji, Xiaolin;Wang, Qi;Gao, Yulong;Wang, Yongqiang;Qin, Liting;Qi, Xiaole;Gao, Honglei;Wang, Xiaomei
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.630-636
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    • 2013
  • Recently, there has been a growing body of evidence showing that cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in virus-host interactions. Numerous studies have focused on analyses of the expression profiles of cellular miRNAs, but the expression patterns of Dicer, which is responsible for the generation of miRNAs, have only rarely been explored in Gallus gallus. We developed a duplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the relative quantification of the mRNAs of Dicer and ${\beta}$-actin in G. gallus. To apply this method, the expression of Dicer in avian cells after infection with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) was detected using our established duplex real-time RT-PCR. The duplex real-time RT-PCR assay is sufficiently sensitive, specific, accurate, reproducible, and cost-effective for the detection of Dicer in G. gallus. Furthermore, this study, for the first time, demonstrated that ALV-J can induce differential expression of Dicer mRNA in the ALV-J-infected cells.

Analysis of antibody titer of transovarian transmitted diseases in Korean native breeder chickens (토종닭 종계의 난계대 전염병 항체 양성률 분석)

  • Park, Ki-Tae;Kim, Yeon-Ha;Kang, Bo-Seok;Kang, Hwan-Ku;Hong, Eui-Chul;Kim, Hyun-Soo;Jeon, Jin-Joo;Son, Ji-Seon;Kim, Chan-Ho;Kim, Sang-Ho;Choe, Changyong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.139-145
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    • 2020
  • This study was carried out to identify the occurrence of transovarian transmitted diseases and antibody positive rates among Korean native breeder chickens. The infection rates with Salmonella pullorum and Salmonella gallinarum among 16-week-old, 36-week-old, and 56-week-old breeder chickens and the antibody positive rates to Egg Drop Syndrome '76, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae among 16-week-old, 18-week-old, and 56-week-old breeder chickens were identified, and the antibody positive rates to seven major transovarian transmitted diseases among 1-day-old chicks were investigated. As a result, no infection with Salmonella pullorum and Salmonella gallinarum was found among the investigated subjects of all ages. Vaccinated breeder chickens showed the 100% antibody positive rate to Egg Drop Syndrome '76, and unvaccinated breeder chickens showed the 100% antibody negative rate to Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae, confirming that there was no infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae. As a result of the antibody tests of the 1-day-old chicks for transovarian transmitted diseases, it was found that vaccinated chicks showed good antibody positive rates to avian encephalomyelitis, chicken infectious anemia, and avian reovirus, confirming that they had power of defense against the relevant infectious diseases, and that unvaccinated chicks showed the 100% antibody negative rates to avian leukosis, chicken reticuloendotheliosis, and Mycoplasma synoviae, confirming that there was no infection with the relevant diseases. Given that the results of this study showed that among the transovarian transmitted diseases of chickens, there was no history of infection with diseases against which vaccination was not administered and high antibody positive rates were found with diseases against which vaccination was administered, it is judged that chickens with good power of defense against diseases were bred, and it is deemed that constant monitoring and vaccination against transovarian transmitted diseases will be necessary for the control and prevention of the diseases.

Possible Production of Transgenic Chicken by Transferring Foreign Genes and Germ Cells (외부유전자의 전이에 의한 배아세포와 트란스젠닉 가금 생산의 가능성)

  • Fujihara, N.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.119-129
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    • 1999
  • In recent years, numerous researches have been carried out in author's laboratory to develop several kinds of methods for producing transgened chicken, leaving a lot of new findings. Some of them are very useful to search for new approaches necessary to improve the efficiency of hatchability and the survival rate of developing trasgened embryos. The results obtained hitherto might be summarized as follows: (1) foreign gene(Lac Z/ Miw Z) introduced into blastodermal cells of developing embryos was successfully transferred to embryos, leading to the production of primordial germ cells(PGCs) carrying foreign DNA. However, hatched hickens failed to show the incorporation of introduced gene into the gonads. (2) When foreign gene was introduced into germinal crescent region (GCR), the gene was also efficiently incorporated into germ cells, resulting in the production of transgened chickens(offspring) which produced fruther offspring having foreign gene in the gonads. In this case, 2nd and 3rd generations of chickens were obtained through the reproduction of transgened birds. (3) In another way, the gene was injected into blood vessels of developing embryos at stage 13∼15, creating PGCs having foreign gene, and produced some transgened chickens. In this work, the PGCs were transfered between embryos, resulting in the production of transgenic chickens. (4) in these experiments, PGCs were effectively employed for producing transgenic birds, developing some kinds of chimeric chickens from homo- or hetero-sexual transfer of the PGCs from embryos. This means that the gonads from donor PGCs developed in some degree to the stage of hatching. However, these gonads showed slightly abnormal tissues similar to ovotestis like organs through histological examination. (5) Avian Leukosis Virus(ALV) induced B cell line(DT40) successfully carried foreign genes into chicken embryos, suggesting the possibility of the cells as a vector in this field of study in the future. (6) Inter-embryonic transfer of the PGCs also gave us some.

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STUDIES ON AVIAN VISCERAL LYMPHOMATOSIS I. THE INCREASED INCIDENSE AMONG CHICKEN FLOCKS AND PATHOLOGIC PICTURES (장기형임파종증(臟器型淋巴腫症)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) 1. 계군(鷄群)에서의 임파종증(淋巴腫症)의 발생(發生) 및 병리학적소견(病理學的所見))

  • Kim, Uh Ho;Lim, Chang Hyeong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 1964
  • 1). An nanlysis was made of 3,500 postmortem diagnoses for the three years 1961 through 1963 to determine whether there was any actual incidence of avian visceral lymphomntosis in the field. Chickens autopsied, which showed gross alterations were 7.6 percent or 266 cases. The diminished incidence of the disease in second and third years seemed due to decreased total numbers of chicken flocks year by year for the reason of difficult feed supply. 2). Because chickens autopsied in this study were not clearly known of their breeds and lines, no distinct data on the incidence in various breeds were made. Some exact breeds were in too small numbers to have any statistical significance. Inconceivably, no other types of avian leukosis than visceral lymphomatosis had been observed in any appreciable number in this analysis. 3). Pathologic analysis for affected organs was made grossly and microscopically. In the gross pictures, liver, spleen, kidney, ovary, and in some case, intestine principally showed lesions, but its manifestation was variable in different organs. In such organs, livers were affected more frequently, and spleens followed next. The organs were classified and arranged according to the gross alterations, and among their distribution one-half of livers were in diffuse variety; one-fourths in nodular; about one-sevenths in mixed; and granular variety followed next. In the spleen samples, two-thirds were in diffuse variety; one-fourths in nodular; and follicular only in three cases. Ovaries almost showed follicular lesions, the diffused were less than one-fifths of total specimens. Kidneys were occurred almost in diffuse variety. And intestine showed only nodular tomors. Microscopically, 42 cases of visceral lymphomatosis composed of 24 livers, 10 spleens, 3 kidneys, 3 intestines and 2 ovaries were examined. The tumor cells were lymphoid cells showing various component in size, shape and stainability. Mitotic figures were usually present. The proportion of the component cells were various in all cases and there were variations in the distribution of the tumor cells. The types of distribution were classified according to the standard proposed by Horiuchi as nodular, infiltrative and diffuse proliferation. In cases of visceral lymphomatosis of the livers and the spleens the types of infiltrative, nodular and diffuse proliferation could be classified. In the cases of the kidneys the types of diffuse and nodular proliferation were observed. In the cases of the intestines and the ovaries the types of infiltrative and diffuse proliferation were observed respectively.

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Studies on Epidemiological Survey of Infectious Disease of Chicken in Korea (국내 닭 전염성 질병에 관한 역학적 조사 연구)

  • 이용호;박근식;오세정
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.175-192
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    • 1989
  • A total of 9, 012 cases was submitted for diagnosis of chicken diseases to Veterinary Research Institute, Rural Development Administration from domestic chicken farms during 18 years from 1971 to 1988. Of them, 6, 181 cases diagnosed as the infectious disease were investigated for the detection rate of infections on basis of you, season , and chicken age. The results obtained were summarized as followings:1. Detection rate or the infections was lowest as 49.3% in the year 1973, and highest as 78.6% in 1985 (average 68.6%). 2. Of infections detected, bacterial diseases were most frequent (32.6%), and followed in order by viral (26.3%), parasitic (7.7%), and fungal diseases (2.1%) in geneal. 3. The most frequently detected bacterial diseases in order of prevalence were mycoplasmosis (8.8%), colibacillosis (8.5%), and staphylococcosis (5.8%), and followed by salmonellosis pullorum disease , yolk sac disease, and salpingitis (0.8-1.5%). 4. In viral diseases, 7.5% of infections detected was lymphoid leukosis and 7.2%-Marek's disease, 4.4%-Newcastle disease, 2.0%-infectious laryngotracheitis, 1.7%-infectious bursal disease, and 1.0%-avian encephalomyelitis, while detection rate of infectious bronchitis, egg drop syndrome '76, and inclusion body hepatitis was less than 1.0%, respectively. 5. The most prevalent parasitic disease was coccidiosis (4.5%), followed by ascariasis (1.4%). The detection rate of other parasitic diseases including leucocytozoonosis, black head , heterakiasis, and ectoparasitosis was very as 0.2-0.7%, respectively: In fungal diseases, 2.0% of infections was detected as aspergillosis, and followed by candidiasis (0.1%). 6. Detection rate of the infections on basis of season was somewhat higher in summer. (27.7%), and autumn (27.7%) than in winter (23.5%), and spring (21.5%) in general. In bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases, there were the similar tendencies of detection rate as in infections, while parasitic diseases were much highly detected in summer (34.3%), and autumn (39.5%) than in any other season. 7. Among bacterial diseases colibacillosis was most frequently detected in summer, and staphylococcosis in autumn. In detection rate of viral diseases, Marek's disease, infectious laryngotracheitis, and infectious bursal disease was highest in summer, lymphold leukosis, fowl pox and egg drop syndrome '76 in autumn, and infectious trachitis in winter, repectively. The majority of important parasitic diseases including coccidiosis were highly detected in summer and autumn. 8. On basis of chicken age, detection rate of infections were highest in chicken of growing period between 30 and 150 days of age (41.4%), and followed by 35.3% in laying chicken over 150 days of age, and 17.3% in chicken of brooding age under 30 days of age. Bacterial, and parasitic diseases were most frequently detected in chicken of growing period, viral diseases in chicken of growing, and laying period as nearly equal rate of detection, and fungal diseases in chicken of brooding age.

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CELL CULTURE STUDIES OF MAREK'S DISEASE ETIOLOGICAL AGENT (조직배양(組織培養)에 의한 Marek 병(病) 병원체(病原體)의 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Uh-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.23-62
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    • 1969
  • Throughout the studies the following experimental results were obtained and are summarized: 1. Multiplication of agents in primary cell cultures of both GF classical and CR-64 acute strain of Marek's disease infected chicken kidneys was accompanied by the formation of distinct transformed cell foci. This characteristic nature of cell transformation was passaged regularly by addition of dispersed cell from infected cultures to normal chicken kidney cell cultures, and also transferred was the nature of cell transformation to normal chick-embryo liver and neuroglial cell cultures. No cytopathic changes were noticed in inoculated chick-embryo fibroblast cultures. 2. The same cytopathic effects were noticed in normal kidney cell monolayers after the inoculation of whole blood and huffy coat cells derived from both forms of Marek's disease infected chickens. In these cases, however, the number of transformed cell foci appearing was far less than that of uninoculated monolayers prepared directly from the kidneys of Marek's disease infected chickens. 3. The change in cell culture IS regarded as a specific cell transformation focus induced by an oncogenic virus rather than it plaque in slowly progressing cytopathic effect by non-oncogenic viruses, and it is quite similar to RSV focus in chick-embryo fibroblasts in many respects. 4. The infective agent (cell transformable) were extremely cell-associated and could not be separated in an infective state from cells under the experimental conditions. 5. The focus assay of these agents was valid as shown by the high degree of linear correlation (r=0.97 and 0.99) between the relative infected cell concentration (in inoculum) and the transformed cell foci counted. 6. No differences were observed between the GF classical strain and the CR-64 acute strain of Marek's disease as far as cell culture behavior. 7. Characterization of the isolates by physical and chemical treatments, development of internuclear inclusions in Infected cells, and nucleic acid typing by differential stainings and cytochemical treatments indicated that the natures of these cell transformation agents closely resemble to those described fer the group B herpes viruses. 8. Susceptible chicks inoculated with infected kidney tissue culture cells developed specific lesions of Marek's disease, and in a case of prolonged observation after inoculation (5 weeks) the birds developed clinical symptoms and gross lesions of Marek's disease. Kidney cell cultures prepared from those inoculated birds and sacrificed showed a superior recovery of cell transformation property by formation of distinct foci. 9. Electron microscopic study of infected kidney culture cells (GF agent) by negative staining technique revealed virus particles furnishing the properties of herpes viruses. The particle was measured about $100m{\mu}$ and, so far, no herpes virus envelop has been seen from these preparations. 10. No relationship of both isolates to avian leukosis/sarcoma group viruses and PPLO was observed.

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