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Estimation of b-value for Earthquakes Data Recorded on KSRS (KSRS 관측자료에 의한 b-값 평가)

  • 신진수;강익범;김근영
    • Proceedings of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.28-34
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    • 2002
  • The b-value in the magnitude-frequency relationship logN(m) = $\alpha$ - bmwhere N(m) is the number of earthquakes exceeding magnitude m, is important seismicity parameter In hazard analysis. Estimation of the b-value for earthquake data observed on KSRS array network is done employing the maximum likelihood technique. Assuming the whole Korea Peninsula as a single seismic source area, the b-value is computed at 0.9. The estimation for KMA earthquake data is also similar to that. Since estimate is a function of minimum magnitude, we can inspect the completeness of earthquake catalog in the fitting process of b-value. KSRS and KMA data lists are probably incomplete for magnitudes less than 2.0 and 3.0, respectively. Examples from probabilistic seismic hazard assessment calculated for a range of b-value show that the small change of b-value has seriously effect on the prediction of ground motion.

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The Relation among Brand Value, Relationship Value, Market Orientation and Performance in B2B (B2B 거래에서 브랜드가치, 관계가치, 시장지향성 그리고 성과에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Seung-Hwan;Han, Sang-Seol
    • The Journal of Industrial Distribution & Business
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    • v.9 no.9
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    • pp.53-62
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    • 2018
  • Purpose - The focus of this study is to investigate the structural influences such as brand value, relationship value, market orientation, long-term orientation, and performance. The effects of brand value and relationship value on the differences on transaction performance in b2b was investigated. Research design, data, and methodology - The subject of this study was a liquor and beverage distribution company that deals in b2b. The research hypothesis is based on literature of the preceding research analysis of brand value, relationship value, market orientation and long-term orientation. This study has constructs that was defined operationally by referencing previous studies. Operational questionnaire was used to investigate the target key staff who work in the liquor and beverage distribution company. 178 survey data were used for empirical analysis to prove the hypothesis. This study used structural equation techniques(AMOS) to prove the research hypothesis. Results - The main results of this empirical study were as follows. First, supplier's brand awareness has a positive effect on market orientation, but did not affect long-term orientation. Brand awareness of suppliers indicates that they are not directly related to long-term orientation. Second, supplier's brand image has a positive effect on market orientation and long-term orientation in b2b transaction. So, the brand image and reputation of the supplier suggest that it is important for the b2b transaction to have a market orientation tendency or a long-term orientation. Third, supplier's relationship value has a positive effect on long-term orientation, but does not affect market orientation. Relationship value indicates that they are not directly related to market orientations of the buyer. Fourth, Market orientation has a positive effect on long-term orientation and marketing performance and long-term orientation has a positive effect on marketing performance in b2b. Additionally, the buyers market and long term orientation are important factors in marketing performance in b2b. ' Conclusions - Based on empirical results, this study confirmed that brand image rather than brand awareness positively influenced long-term orientation as well as market orientation in b2b. Relationship value can be found in transactions, which is important for long-term orientation. Especially, these findings are suggestive in the consumer goods distribution market.

Classifications of the Skin Colors on Korean women and their Preference Colors of Apparel (한국 여성의 피부색 분류와 의상선호색에 관한 연구)

  • 이민아;김구자
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.133-143
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    • 2002
  • The textile industry is petting increased effort to manufacture the value-added products that gives the differentiated characters at every level of fiber and fabric production. The color is an important element to be used strategically in order to push up the value-added design. The colors of apparel products have a close relationship with the skin colors of consumers and their preference colors. This study was carried out to cluster the skin colors of the Korean women into several similar skin colors and to analyze their preference colors by the classified groups. We measured the skin colors of 354 Korean women. With color spectrometer, JX-777, we measured 4 points of the body; cheek with removing cosmetics off, forehead, rear neck and arm on the interior part near elbow. All subjects had been shown with 40 color chips and answered the preference colors and preference colors of apparel. Data were analysed to classify skin colors using K-means Cluster Analysis and Duncan test, Frequency and Chi square test on the preference colors about the clustered 3 groups. In doing so, we used in SPSS Win 10 statistical package. Findings were as fellows: 1) The skin colors of the Korean women were clustered into YR, R, and Y skin colors. The majority of the subjects, 324 observations had YR skin colors and the subjects were classified into 3 kinds of skin color groups who had YR skin colors. 2) The average skin colors of total 324 subjects was 5.23YR 6.49/4.09 in Munsell Color System(MCS), 66.56 in L value, 10.53 in a value, and 20.67 in b value. 3) The average skin color of Type 1 was 7.98YR 6.24/4.14 in MCS, 64.10 in L value, 15.05 in a value, and 24.0 in b value. For Type 2 was 7.30 YR 6.56/3.28 in MCS, 67.24 in L value, 6.89 in a value, and 18.4 in b value, and Type 3 was 7.01 YR 7.20/4.38 in MCS, 73.53 in L value, L 16.04 in a value, and 24.87 in b value. 4) The average face color of total 324 subjects was 7.31YR 6.65/3.56 in MCS, 68.13 in L value, 9.53 in a value, and 20.18 in b value. 5) The average face color of Type 1 was 4.19 YR 6.92/5.05 in MCS, 70.78 in L value, 13.2 in a value, and 25.32 in b value. For Type 2 was 5.24YR 6.33/3.79 in MCS, 64.94 in L value, 9.84 in a value, and 19.08 in b value. Type 3 was 5.4YR 6.85/4.68 in MCS, 70.1 in L value, 11.73 in a value, and 23.92 in b value. 6) The difference of mean values between the clustered 3 skin color groups showed significantly different except the a value of neck and H value of cheeks and H value of foreheads. 7) All 3 groups showed that the most preference colors and the most preference colors of apparel was 5R 4/14. and their preference colors were much more than the preference colors of apparel.

SNR and ADC Changes at Increasing b Values among Patients with Lumbar Vertebral Compression Fracture on 1.5T MR Diffusion Weighted Images (1.5T MR 기기를 이용한 확산강조영상에서 b Value의 증가에 따른 요추압박골절 환자의 신호대 잡음비와 현성 확산 계수의 변화)

  • Cho, Jae-Hwan;Park, Cheol-Soo;Lee, Sun-Yeob;Kim, Bo-Hui
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.52-59
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    • 2010
  • To examine among patients with vertebral compression fracture the extent to which signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) values at the lumbar vertebral compression fracture site vary on diffusion-weighted MR images according to varying b values on the 1.5T MR device. Diffusion-weighted MR images of 30 patients with compression fracture due to chronic osteoporosis who underwent vertebral MRI from Jan. 2008 to Nov. 2009 were respectively obtained using a 1.5-T MR scanner with the b values increased from 400, 600, 800, 1,000 to $1,200\;s/mm^2$. For diffusion-weighted MR images with different b values, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was assessed at three sites: the site of compression fracture of the lumbar vertebral body at L1 to L5, and both the upper and lower discs of the said fracture site, while for ADC map images with different b values, the SNR and ADC were respectively assessed at those three sites. As a quantitative analysis, diffusion-weighted MR images and ADC map images with b value of $400\;s/mm^2$ (the base b values) were respectively compared with the corresponding images with each different b value. As far as qualitative analysis is concerned, for both diffusion-weighted MR and ADC map images with b value of $400\;s/mm^2$, the extent to which signal intensity values obtained at the site of compression fracture of the lumbar vertebral body at L1 to L5 vary according to the increasing b values were examined. The quantitative analysis found that for both diffusion-weighted MR and ADC map images, as the b values increased, the SNR were relatively lowered at all the three sites, compared to the base b value. Also, it was found that as the b values increased, ADC valueswere relatively lowered at all the three sites on ADC map images. On the other hand, the qualitative analysis found that as the b values increased to more than $400\;s/mm^2$, the signal intensity gradually decreased at all the sites, while at the levels of more than $1,000\;s/mm^2$, severe image noises appeared at all of the three sites. In addition, higher signal intensity was found at the site of compression fracture of the lumbar vertebral body than at the discs. Findings showed that with the b value being increased, both the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) values gradually decreased at all the sites of the lumbar vertebral compression fracture and both the upper and lower discs of the fracture site, suggesting that there is a possibility of a wider range of applications to assessment of various vertebral pathologies by utilizing multi b values in the diffusion-weighted MRI examination.

Quality Characteristics of White Pan Bread with Banana (바나나를 이용한 식빵의 품질특성)

  • Choi, Ik-Joon
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.78-92
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    • 2016
  • This study investigated the quality characteristics of white pan bread with banana addition. This analysis was through mixograph and stickiness of dough, fermentation rate, TPA, crumbScan image analysis, color, moisture contents and acceptance test. Mixograph peak time presented 4~5 minutes on every sample. However, CON, B10 and B20 sample presented more than 60%, and B30, B40 presented less than 60% at peak value (%). The result indicated that banana addition increased as the stickiness decreased. The fermentation rate generally increased, but the sample B40 decreased after 75 minutes. The result of crust and inside color, CON was the highest on lightness L value, B40 was the highest on both red a value and yellow b value. The result of pH showed that B40 was the lowest, and more banana addition made pH decreased. Thus, adding banana influences negatively on volume and cost of the product. The image analysis through crumbScan did not show any significant difference on crust thickness and distortion of crumb fineness. On the other hand, CON value was 774.33 that was the lowest, and B40 value was 927.66 which is the highest on the density of crumb fineness. Hardness showed a significant difference; B40 was the lowest, and Control was the highest. Moisture contents generally had a noticeable difference; CON value was the highest, and banana addition increased as the value decreased. At the result of acceptance test, one of the sensory tests, B20 showed the highest grade, and B40 showed the worst. Based on the above results of characteristic difference, banana addition could influence volume of the bread negatively.

A Study on Relationship Quality Influencing Customer Value, Customer Satisfaction and Relationship Retention Intention in the B2B Transaction : Focused on Clients of PCB Manufacturing Corporation (B2B 거래관계에서 고객가치, 고객만족, 관계지속의도에 영향을 미치는 관계품질에 관한 연구 : PCB 제조기업의 고객사를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Min Jeong;Lee, Jae Kwang;Jeong, Jong Kwan
    • Journal of Information Technology Services
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.139-153
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of relationship quality on customer value, customer satisfaction and relationship retention intention in the B2B transaction relationship. For the empirical study, we conducted a survey of the PCB corporation's client companies and used 110 surveys of them for analysis. The results of this study are summarized as follows : First, trust, relationship satisfaction, unity and performance as factors of relationship quality had significantly positive effect on relationship retention intention by the medium of customer satisfaction. Second, utilitarian value which is a parameter did not have significantly effect on customer satisfaction and relationship retention intention. Whereas, hedonic value which is influenced by relationship satisfaction, unity and performance had significantly positive effect on customer satisfaction and relationship retention intention. These results are not treated weightily in the preceding studies and managing the hedonic value in B2B transaction relationship is considered important to improve the customer satisfaction and relationship retention intention.

Research and Development of Korea B(Benefit)-impact Model for Sustainable Development - in Case of Construction Sector -

  • Kwon, Sung-Sik;Lee, Myung-Sik
    • Architectural research
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.41-48
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study is to research and development of 'Korea B(Benefit)-impact Model' for Sustainable Development. A concept evaluation model is 'B(Benefit)-impact model' in U.S.A. We use the results of surveys that examined the importance of social value issues to stakeholders in Korea to implement the benefit-impact model in Korea. In particular, in this paper, we use the KSI(Korean Sustainability Index) survey data conducted by the Korea Standards Association to evaluate the social value of the construction industry for representative stakeholders in the construction industry. The social value pool and the activity indicator pool used for the survey are created based on relevant International Standards; ISO 26000, ISO 14001, ISO 37001. As a result, Korea B-impact model for construction industry included the following five core social value issues; Strengthen transparency of corporate management, Ensure fair employment and employment relations, Efforts to prevent corruption, Conduct fair competition, Efforts to prevent environmental pollution. In addition, the US B-impact model has three limitations. First, it is unclear whether the key indicators have been derived while considering all issues of social value. Second, US B-impact model indicators are developed by the social responsibility experts, so it is necessary to review by stakeholders in each industry. Finally, it would be more effective for companies to use the B-impact model index as a more detailed activity indicator. When developing a Korea B-impact model, the following methods are used to supplement it. First, we reviewed all social value issues using international standards. Secondly, we used the KSI(Korean Sustainability index) survey results to derive the importance of the social value issue of construction industry in Korea. Finally, we have clearly matched the activity indicators by social value core issues based on the GRI Standard so that companies can actually use the Korea B-impact model for the construction sector. The detailed development stages and results of this study are as follows;.

Identification of resources and competences for value co-creation in the relationship network of high-tech B2B firm (첨단 기술 기반 B2B 회사의 관계 네트워크에서의 공동 가치 창출을 위한 자원 및 역량 도출)

  • Park, Changhyun;Lee, Heesang
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.4191-4197
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    • 2014
  • Value co-creation is an important business strategy these days in both the business-to-business (B2B) and business-to-consumer (B2C) markets. The aim of this study was to identify specialized resources and competences for value co-creation in the relationship network within a high-tech B2B market. A case of Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Limited (TSMC) with customers and partners was chosen as the study case. Based on the observations, contents analysis of the secondary data and unstructured interviews with former TSMC employees, 4 critical resource types (financial, knowledge, efficiency and intellectual resource) and 6 competence types (relational, collaboration, strategic, innovation, managing and service capability), were performed as the principal factors for value co-creation in the relationship network. A research framework that can analyze the value co-creation phenomena in the relationship network was established.

Analysis of the Behavior of Undrained Pore Water Pressure in Saturated Sand by Isotropic Loading Test (포화된 사질토에서 등방재하시험에 의한 비배수 공극수압의 거동분석)

  • Eam, Sung-Hoon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.43-52
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    • 2005
  • It is known in some literatures that the B value is not equal to unity in saturated soil when effective stress is given, in which the B Value is the ratio of measured excess pore water pressure and isometric loading pressure. In this study the B value was measured on various effective stresses and on various incremental loading stresses in various grain size of specimens with saturated sand. The test results showed that the B value was affected largely by grain size of sand in specimen and the amount of effective stress. There was the semi-logarithmic relationship between B value and effective stress, and also there was the linear relationship between the gradient of the former semi-logarithmic relationship and grain size of specimen.

A Study on Knowledge-Diffusing Mechanisms of e-Marketplace to Promote Performances of B2B Transactions (기업간 전자상거래 성과 제고를 위한 가상시장의 지식확산체계에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Jongsik
    • Knowledge Management Research
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.17-30
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    • 2002
  • The emergence of business-to-business e-marketplace spanning both vertical and horizontal markets has relandscaped the competitive playing field in nearly every industry over the past few years by aggregating scale and spends, increasing market and value chain transparency, automating transactions along the value chain. The traits uncovered in business-to-business e-marketplaces are the taking initiative of leading companies in e-marketplace, value chain composing of promoting commerces etc, wide alliance network, and B2B in relation to B2C etc.

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