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A Study on the Prediction of Fatigue Life in 2024-T3 Aluminium using X-ray Half-Value Breadth (X선 반가폭을 이용한 Al 2024-T3 합금의 피로수명예측에 관한 연구)

  • 조석수;김순호;주원식
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.145-152
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    • 2000
  • X-ray diffraction method detects change of crystal lattice distance under material surface using diffraction angle 2$\theta$. This technique can be applied to the behavior on slip band and micro crack due to material degradation. The relation between half-value breadth and number of cycle has three stages which constitute rapid decrease in initial number of cycles, slight decrease in middle number of cycles and rapid decrease in final number of cycles. The ratio of half-value breadth takes a constant value on B/B$_{0}$-N diagram with loading condition except early part of fatigue life. The ratio of half-value breadth B/B$_{0}$ with respect to number of cycle to failure N$_{f}$ has linear behavior on B/B$_{0}$-log N$_{f}$ diagram. Therefore, in this paper the estimation of fatigue life by average gradient method has much less estimated mean error than the estimation of fatigue life by log B/B$_{0}$-log N/N$_{f}$ relation.elation.ation.

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Prediction of Fatigue Life in 2024-73 Aluminum Using X-ray half-value breadth

  • Kim, Soon-Ho;Cho, Seok-Swoo;Park, Jung-Hyeon
    • International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.78-86
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    • 2002
  • In general, X-ray diffraction method detects the changes of crystal lattice under material surface using the angle of diffraction 2$\theta$. This technique which deals with in the presented paper can be applied to a behavior on the slipped band or the micro crack cause to material degradation. The relation between half-value breadth and cycle numbers shows three stages, which consist of rapid decrease in the initial cycle, slight decrease in the middle cycle, and then rapid decrease in the final cycle. The ratio of half-value breadth has a constant value on B/B$\_$0/ - N diagram under the loading condition except early part of fatigue life. The ratio of half-value breadth B/B$\_$0/ - log N$\_$f/ with respect to number of cycle to failure N$\_$f/ has linear behavior on B/B$\_$0/ - log N$\_$f/ diagram. Therefore, the evaluation of fatigue life by the average gradient has much less mean error than the estimation of fatigue life by log B/B$\_$0/ - log N/N$\_$f/ relation.

Estimating Customer Value under B2B Environment Using Description and Prediction Models (B2B 거래에서 서술모델과 예측모델을 이용한 고객가치 산정)

  • 박찬주;박윤선;주상호;유우연
    • Korean Management Science Review
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.135-149
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    • 2003
  • Developing a proper program for customer evaluation is one of the most imminent tasks to implement CRM (Customer Relationship Management). Design of the Customer Value model is an important key to the customer evaluation progrgm. This paper proposes two models for estimating Customer Value. The first one is a Description Model for Customer Value based on customer CSI (Customer Satisfaction Index) data. This model represents as quantitative numbers what customers feel from the company or the service. The second one is a Prediction Model which employs factor analysis and regression to predict customer value. This paper exploits the two models to evaluate Customer Value as well as for customer behavior prediction.

Comparison of Vitamin B1, B2, and Niacin Contents According to the Cultivars of Apple, Peach and Strawberry (사과, 복숭아, 딸기 품종에 따른 비타민 B1, B2 및 나이아신 함량 비교)

  • Yoon, Sung Ran;Ryu, Jung A;Chung, Namhyeok;Jang, Kil Su;Kim, Jong Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.1119-1127
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    • 2019
  • This study analyzes the content of niacin, B1, and B2, which are among the water-soluble vitamin B group, in cultivars of the commonly consumed agricultural products of apples, peaches, nectarines and strawberries to compare content differences and to use results as base material for the Korean Food Composition Table. While the vitamin B1 content of apples according to different cultivars was found to be within the ranges of 0.063-0.208 mg/100g, and the content of vitamin B2 was found to be within the value ranges of 0.006-0.031 mg/100g, no niacin was found. The vitamin B1 content of peaches and nectarines according to different cultivars was found to be within the value ranges of 0.014-0.276 mg/100g, the content of vitamin B2 was found to be within he value ranges of 0.019-0.042 mg/100g, and niacin content was found to be within the value ranges of 0.298-1.096 mg/100g. The vitamin B1 content of strawberries according to cultivars was found to be within the value ranges of 0.112-0.394 mg/100g, the content of vitamin B2 was found to within the value ranges of 0.001-0.027 mg/100g, and niacin content was found to be within the value ranges of 0.388-0.809 mg/100g. Therefore, when nutrient composition analysis databases for the fruits of apples, peaches, and strawberries are constructed, cultivar factors must be put into consideration. In addition, differences can be found according to fruit harvest times, cultivation methods, and environmental factors, so related additional is needed.

Prognostic Value of a CYP2B6 Gene Polymorphism in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  • Alazhary, Nevin M;Shafik, Roxan E;Shafik, Hanan E;Kamel, Mahmoud M
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.4583-4587
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    • 2015
  • Background: The objectives of this study aimed to detect a CYP2B6 polymorphism in de novo cases of acute myeloid leukemia patients and identify any role in disease progression and outcome. Materials and Methods: DNA was isolated from peripheral blood of 82 newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia cases and the CYP2B6 G15631T gene polymorphism was assayed by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results: The frequency of the GG genotype (wild type) was 48 (58.5%) and that of the mutant type T allele was 34 (41.9%). GT genotype heterozygous variants were found in 28 (34%), and TT genotype homozygous variants in 6 (7.3%) cases. We found no significant association between the CYP2B6 G15631T polymorphism and complete response (CR) (p-value=0.768), FAB classification (p-value=0.51), cytogenetic analysis (p-value=0.673), and overall survival (p-value=0.325). Also, there were no significant links with early toxic death (p-value=0.92) or progression-free survival (PFS) (p-value=0.245). Conclusions: Our results suggest that the CYP2B6 polymorphism has no role in disease progression, therapeutic outcome, patient free survival, early toxic death and overall survival in acute myeloid leukemia patients.

Studies on Cocoon Filament Size Deviation in Multivoltine Breeds and Multivoltine ${\times}$ Bivoltine Hybrids of Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.

  • Rao, D.Raghavendra;Singh, Ravindra;Kariappa, B.K.;Dandin, S.B.
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.273-277
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    • 2004
  • Variation in the size of the silk filament will determine the uniformity and quality of the silk reeled. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the filament size variation in 6 multivoltine parental breeds and 9 multivoltine ${\times}$ bivoltine hybrids in all three seasons of a year. All multivoltine breeds and multivoltine ${\times}$ bivoltine hybrids showed variation in filament size throughout its length from the outer layer to inner layer. Results of the present study indicated that the size of the filament decreased from outer to inner layer. The decrease in filament size was sudden in some breeds/hybrids whereas it was gradual in other. Relationship between filament length to that of slope, average filament size to slope, and maximum filament size to slope was determined based on regression analysis. Regression analysis revealed significant positive correlation between slope vs average filament length (r=0.92$^{**}$) in multivoltine${\times}$bivoltine hybrids. Among parental breeds, 96C showed lowest slope of the curve (b-value: -0.00428) and 96A showed highest slope of the curve (b-value: -0.00269). Among 9 hybrids, PM${\times}$N $B_4$ $D_2$ recorded lowest slope value (b-value: -0.00328) and BL24${\times}$N $B_4$ $D_2$ showed highest value for slope of the curve (b-value: -0.00234). The breed 96C, which showed lowest slope value can be utilized for future breeding programmes to breed strains with less size deviation. Three multivoltine${\times}$bivoltine hybrids viz., PM${\times}$N $B_4$ $D_2$, 96E${\times}$CSR19 and BL67${\times}$CS $R_{101}$ , which showed less slope values (b-values: -0.00328, -0.00300 and -0.00297 respectively) can be utilized for commercial exploitation to produce uniform silk.k.

A NEW MEAN VALUE RELATED TO D. H. LEHMER'S PROBLEM AND KLOOSTERMAN SUMS

  • Han, Di;Zhang, Wenpeng
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 2015
  • Let q > 1 be an odd integer and c be a fixed integer with (c, q) = 1. For each integer a with $1{\leq}a{\leq}q-1$, it is clear that the exists one and only one b with $0{\leq}b{\leq}q-1$ such that $ab{\equiv}c$ (mod q). Let N(c, q) denote the number of all solutions of the congruence equation $ab{\equiv}c$ (mod q) for $1{\leq}a$, $b{\leq}q-1$ in which a and $\bar{b}$ are of opposite parity, where $\bar{b}$ is defined by the congruence equation $b\bar{b}{\equiv}1$ (modq). The main purpose of this paper is using the mean value theorem of Dirichlet L-functions to study the mean value properties of a summation involving $(N(c,q)-\frac{1}{2}{\phi}(q))$ and Kloosterman sums, and give a sharper asymptotic formula for it.

A MEAN VALUE FUNCTION AND ITS COMPUTATIONAL FORMULA RELATED TO D. H. LEHMER'S PROBLEM

  • Wang, Tingting
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.487-494
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    • 2016
  • Let p be an odd prime and c be a fixed integer with (c, p) = 1. For each integer a with $1{\leq}a{\leq}p-1$, it is clear that there exists one and only one b with $0{\leq}b{\leq}p-1$ such that $ab{\equiv}c$ mod p. Let N(c, p) denote the number of all solutions of the congruence equation $ab{\equiv}c$ mod p for $1{\leq}a$, $b{{\leq}}p-1$ in which a and $\bar{b}$ are of opposite parity, where $\bar{b}$ is defined by the congruence equation $b{\bar{b}}{\equiv}1$ mod p. The main purpose of this paper is using the mean value theorem of Dirichlet L-functions and the properties of Gauss sums to study the computational problem of one kind mean value function related to $E(c,p)=N(c,p)-{\frac{1}{2}}{\phi}(p)$, and give its an exact computational formula.

Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Korean Style Meat Products (한국형 육가공 제품류의 물리적 및 관능적 품질 특성)

  • Kim, I.S.;Jin, S.K.;Hah, K.H.;Lyou, H.J.;Park, K.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 2005
  • The Korean styled meat products such as grilled and/or roasted ham(Jikhwagui: J), Bulgogi ham(B), Kimbab ham(K) and sliced roasted ham(DDukgalbi: D) were obtained from different Korean meat processing companies and investigated for their salinity, saccharinity, pH, moisture and fat content, meat color and sensory evaluation. The results obtained were as follows; Percentage of saccharinity in J, B, K and D ranged 7.5 %(13) - 12.7% (J2), 5.3 0/«B2) -7.5 o/«BI), 5.2 0/«K4) - 6.6 o/«KI, K2, KS), and 6.60/«04) - 14.4o/«Dl), respectively. Percentage of salinity in J, B, K and D ranged 2.260/«13)- 2.38 0/«J4), 1.850/«B2) - 2.45 0/«B3), 1.94o/«KI) - 2.40% (K3), and 1.830/«02) - 2.19 o/«Dl), respectively. The pH value of J, B and K were ranged 6.30 - 6.44, 6.266.37 and 6.20 - 6.42, respectively, which are slightly higher than that of D(5.86 - 6.25). Content of average moisture were higher in B(61.0 %), K(59.94%) and J(59.63%) compared to the D(55.93%). In crude fat, B and D were ranged 14-21 %, which are very lower than those of K(59.94%) and J(59.63%). In meat color, $L^*$ value were above 50.0, except D2 and D3. $a^*$ value of B were slightly higher than those of other meat products. Compared to sensory evaluation, the overall acceptability of J is excellent in the range of saccharinity 12.7%, salinity 2.3 %, moisture 61 %, crude fat II - 12%, $L^*$ value 52 - 54, and $a^*$ value 12.3- 12.7. In the case of B, the overall acceptability is excellent in the range of saccharinity 6.6 - 7.5 %, salinity 1.90- 2.45 %, moisture 60 %, crude fat 15 %, $L^*$ value 56, and $a^*$ value 15. In the case of K, the overall acceptability is excellent in the range of saccharinity 6.5 %, salinity 2.4 %, moisture 61 %, crude fat 16%, $L^*$ value 53, and $a^*$ valuce 15. In the case of D, the overall acceptability is excellent in the range of saccharinity 14.0%, salinity 2.1 %, moisture 55%, crude fat 55%, $L^*$ value 50, and $a^*$ value 13.

Major Characteristics Affecting the Sensory Quality of Rice Marketed in Korea

  • Jang, Eun-Hee;Kim, Qui-Woung;Kim, Hoon;Kim, Dong-Chul;Lee, Se-Eun;Kim, Sang-Sook
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.66-71
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    • 2008
  • A total of 284 milled rice (MR) marketed in Korea were analyzed for grading characteristics (head rice, broken kernels, chalky kernels, and damaged kernels%), color characteristics (L-, a-, b-values, and whiteness), protein content (%), and the cooked rice (CR) sensory quality to investigate the key characteristics affecting the overall sensory quality of rice marketed in Korea. Relatively high correlation with the overall sensory quality of the CR was found in color characteristics such b-value of the CR (r=-0.779) and MR (r=-0.545), the a-value of the CR (r=0.513), and the whiteness (r=0.298) of the MR, compared to protein (r=-0.150), and the moisture (r=0.158) contents of the MR and the percentage of head rice (r=0.195). Partial least squares (PLS) regression of the CR b-value with various characteristics of the MR showed that CR b-value was increased with MR b-value effectively, followed by protein content, damaged kernels, chalky kernels, and colored kernels of MR while it was decreased with whiteness and moisture content for the MR.