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Isolation and Characterization of Bacillus Species Having Antifungal Activity Against Pathogens of Ginseng Damping Off (인삼모잘록병원균에 항균활성을 갖는 Bacillus 균의 분리 및 특성조사)

  • Park, Kyeong Hun;Park, Hong Woo;Lee, Seong Woo;Lee, Seung Ho;Myung, Kyung Sun;Lee, Sang Yeob;Song, Jaekyeong;Kim, Young Tak;Park, Kyoung Soo;Kim, Young Ock
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.380-387
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    • 2016
  • This study was performed to select potentially available biological control agent from soil bacteria for prevention of ginseng damping off. More than five hundred strains were isolated from ginseng rhizosphere soil. By testing antifungal activity, we have selected three soil bacteria strains and their ability to produce antibiotics and lytic enzymes such as cellulase, protease and pectate lyase was examined. Also, the presence of genes for biosynthesis of lipopeptide such as fengycin, bacillomycin D, surfactin, iturin A, and zwittermicin A was investigated in selected strains. All three strains produced cellulase, protease, and xylanase. Moreover, these strains had gene for biosynthesis of bacillomycin D, surfactin, and iturin A. ES1 and ES3 strains were identified Bacillus methylotrophucus and ES2 was confirmed Bacillus amyloliquefaciens using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. In field test, control value of ES1, ES2 and ES3 treatment was 32.4%, 46.8% and 36.7%, respectively. This results indicate that antagonistic microbes with high ability of antifungal and lytic enzyme activity can be used as a useful biological control agent to control ginseng damping off.

Optimal Lactic Acid Fermentation Conditions and Quality Properties for Rubus coreanus Miquel (Bokbunja) and Chlorella Mixtures (복분자와 클로렐라 혼합물의 젖산발효 최적조건 및 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Jae-Young;Lee, Sang-Uk;Kim, Na-Hyung;Moon, Kwang-Hyun;Baek, Seung-Hwa
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.386-395
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    • 2016
  • To develop a functional fermentation food from Rubus coreanus Miquel (Bokbunja) and chlorella mixtures, optimal lactic acid fermentation conditions were established, and quality properties based on physicochemical evaluation such as chemical compositions, free sugars, organic acids, and antibacterial activities were investigated. Regarding optimal fermentation strain selection, formation of lactic acid was best in Lactobacillus plantarum among the experimental strains (10 kinds), and the optimal fermentation temperature was $37^{\circ}C$. In addition, overall acceptability in the sensory evaluation was highest in the 5% chlorella mixture sample. Therefore, quality properties of the prepared sample under the established optimal fermentation conditions were investigated. Moisture, total sugar (dry basis), crude fiber (dry basis), and pH of fermented Rubus coreanus Miquel juice (RCM) with 5% chlorella mixture (RCM-C5) were reduced by 4.90%, 14.15%, and 0.32%, respectively, as compared with non-fermented RCM. Meanwhile, crude protein, crude fat, and crude ash (dry basis) of RCM-C5 were elevated by 13.75%, 0.18%, and 0.73%, respectively, as compared with RCM. The yellowness (b value) of color values was greater in RCM-C5 compared to RCM. The free sugar and organic acid contents of RCM-C5 were elevated by 0.97% and 616.30 mg%, respectively, as compared with RCM. In addition, the gram positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was elevated by 5.83% while gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium were elevated by 2.94% and 4.67%, respectively, as compared with RCM. In conclusion, the quality properties of RCM and chlorella lactic acid fermentation mixtures were improved compared with the general RCM product. Consequently, it is possible to apply fermented RCM as a functional fermentation food.

Physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of pear vinegars using 'Wonhwang', 'Niitaka' and 'Chuhwangbae' fruits (원황, 신고 및 추황배를 이용한 배 식초의 이화학적 특성 및 항산화활성)

  • Yim, Sun-Hee;Cho, Kwang-Sik;Choi, Jin-Ho;Lee, Ju-Hyun;Lee, ByulHaNa;Kim, Myung-Su;Jiang, Gui-Hun;Eun, Jong-Bang
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.174-179
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    • 2016
  • This study was to prepared vinegars using three kinds of pear cultivar with different maturities, 'Wonhwang', 'Niitaka', and 'Chuhwangbae', and investigate their physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities. Result showed that the firmness of 'Wonhwang' was much lower than other pear cultivars. No significant difference in soluble solid content was found among three pear cultivars. The total acidity of 'Chuhwangbae' pear vinegar was 4.89~7.98%, which was higher than that those of 'Wonhwang' and 'Niitaka' vinegars. The color of 'Niitaka' vinegar had a lower lightness and redness values, but a higher yellowness value, compared with the other two vinegars. The free sugar contents were mainly composed of fructose, glucose, and sorbitol, with the greatest content of sorbitol in all three peer vinegars. The total phenolics and flavonoids contents were 35.2~55.3 and 8.4~14.4 mg/100 mL, respectively. Antioxidant activity had a positive correlation with total phenolic contents. The DPPH free radical scavenging and $ABTS^+$ radical scavenging activity were 45.0~62.1% and 73.8~78.2%, respectively. From these results, we confirmed that immature pear cultivars such as 'Wonhwang', 'Niitaka' and 'Chuhwangbae' could be used as a raw materials to prepare vinegar regardless of maturity.

This Study of the Arms Used in the Three Kingdoms (삼국시대(三國時代) 병기체제(兵器體制)의 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, sung-tae
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.34
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    • pp.20-58
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    • 2001
  • In order to unravel the characteristics of arms used in the 'Three Kingdoms,' Kokuryo, Silla and Paikje. the classification and the developing procedures of the arms should be first discussed. At first, the basic arms of the soldiers of Three Kingdoms were iron swords, iron spearheads, and bows. During that period, swords attached a ring pommel were commonly used. But after 5A. D. a sword with a decoration pommel appeared. Infantry generally used iron spearheads. From the late 4A. D. the long spearheads were broadly used in cavalry battles. In the late 6A. D. infantry mainly used long spearheads, and this resulted in the foundation of long spearheads units. There were two kinds of bows: Short Bow whose arch is small and Long Bow whose arch is long. It is known that the Short Bow was widely used in Kokuryo and Paikje up to 5A. D. In the early era, infantry used Long Bow, yet it was vastly used after 6A. D. when a castle's strategical value was great and defending a castle was. significant. Above mentioned, as basic combat weapons, iron spearhead and bow were fundamental. In particular, the spearhead was the essential weapon to a soldier. Yet, arrow gun and hook-shape cutters were important weapons. Especially, after 6A.D., when a castle became strategically pivotal in military, the arrow gun became the important weapon. This resulted in the foundation of arrow gun units. Hook-shape cutters were used to snatch horsemen or to climb up to fall the castle. Yet, the cutter was not the Three Kingodoms' basic weapon. In addition, the three stages of arms development in the Three Kingdoms are formation stage, development stage, and settlement stage. The formation stage was the period when premitive military unit appeared in the Three Kingdoms. It ranged from 1B. C. to the mid 3A. D. At that time according to regions. there were two weapon systems operating: North area including Kokuryo and the northern part of Paikje and South area including Silla, Kaya and the southern part of Paikje. ln North area a sword with a ring attached at the end of the holder, iron spear with neck and mid-size flat holder and iron arrowhead with an extension to fix, were used. In this period, during a war calvary units were mostly used and their weapon systems seemed possibly to succeed in that of Kochosun. In the development stage, when LoLang's influence on surroundings became weak, Koguryo, Paikjae and Silla had directly contacted each other. In the late 3A.D. to the early 6A.D., Silla achieved a drastic improvement in weapon system. This was the period when Kokuryo played a leading role in arms race. Kokuryo's arms manufacturing techniques passed onto Silla, Kaya and Paikje. In combat strategy a joint operation between infantry and calvary prevailed even if their military tactics were different. In a calvary battle heavily armed horsemen played import roles at this period. The horsemen and even horses were heavily guarded with iron armors. After all, the appearance of fully armed horsemen implies the very need of powerful destructive forces in weapon system. At that time, basic weapons were a big sword with a ring attached at the end of the holder, swallow's tail-shape spear with neck, and iron spearhead with neck and an extension. The settlement stage began at the mid 6A.D., when it was the revolutionary period in the arms development history. Of course, actual proofs and picture documents were not sufficient enough to penetrate full scale of the weapon system. But, according to historical circumstances and historic records, it is very certain that this period was the peak in arms development. In this period special military units, such as infantry-calvary companies, Archery units and Long spear units, that executed particular duties with special weapons, were founded. This became the characteristics of the settlement stage.

Mitigation Effects of Foliar-Applied Hydrogen Peroxide on Drought Stress in Sorghum bicolor (과산화수소 엽면 처리에 의한 수수에서 한발 스트레스 완화 효과)

  • Shim, Doo-Do;Lee, Seung-Ha;Chung, Jong-Il;Kim, Min Chul;Chung, Jung-Sung;Lee, Yeong-Hun;Jeon, Seung-Ho;Song, Gi-Eun;Shim, Sang-In
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.65 no.2
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    • pp.113-123
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    • 2020
  • Global climatic change and increasing climatic instability threaten crop productivity. Due to climatic change, drought stress is occurring more frequently in crop fields. In this study, we investigated the effect of treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) before leaf development on the growth and yield of sorghum for minimizing the damage of crops to drought. To assess the effect of H2O2 on the growth of sorghum plant, 10 mM H2O2 was used to treat sorghum leaves at the 3-leaf stage during growth in field conditions. Plant height, stem diameter, leaf length, and leaf width were increased by 7.6%, 9.6%, 8.3% and 11.5%, respectively. SPAD value, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate were increased by 3.0%, 4.9%, 26.0%, 23.4% and 12.7%, respectively. The amount of H2O2 in the leaf tissue of sorghum plant treated with 10 mM H2O2 was 0.7% of the applied amount after 1 hour. The level increased to approximately 1.0% after 6 hours. The highest antioxidant activity measured by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity assay was 847.3 µmol·g-1 at 6 hour after treatment. However, in the well-watered condition, the concentration of H2O2 in the plant treated by the foliar application of H2O2 was 227.8 µmol·g-1 higher than that of the untreated control. H2O2 treatment improved all the yield components and yield-related factors. Panicle length, plant dry weight, panicle weight, seed weight per plant, seed weight per unit area, and thousand seed weight were increased by 8.8%, 18.0%, 24.4%, 24.7%, 29.9% and 7.1%, respectively. Proteomic analysis showed that H2O2 treatment in sorghum increased the tolerance to drought stress and maintained growth and yield by ameliorating oxidative stress.

Effect of Olive Oil Substitution Ratio on Quality Characteristics of Low-fat Pork Patty (올리브유 대체 비율이 저지방 돈육 패티의 품질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Si-Hyung;Choi, Young-Joon;Lee, Kyoung-Sook;Jung, In-Chul;Lee, Kyung-Soo;Choi, Gang-Won
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.606-613
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    • 2020
  • This study investigated the effect of olive oil substitution ratio on physicochemical quality of pork patty. Five treatments were performed as follows: control (T0, 20% pork fat), T1 (pork fat 15% and olive oil gel 5%), T2 (pork fat 10% and olive oil gel 10%), T3 (pork fat 5% and olive oil gel 15%), and T4 (olive oil gel 20%). The moisture increased and fat amount was decreased in proportion to olive oil substitution ratio. The L* and a* values were highest levels in raw and cooked pork patty of T0, and the b* value was highly enhanced in of cooked pork patty of T4. The water holding capacity, moisture and fat retention were significantly increased, and the cooking loss, diameter reduction and shrinkage ratio were decreased by olive oil substitution ratio. The hardness, springiness and chewiness showed the highest level in T4, and the cohesiveness and gumminess were highest in T0. The reduction ratio of cholesterol in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 13.8%, 21.6%, 34.5% and 49.0%, respectively, indicating that the content was lowest level in T4. The palmitic acid was the most abundant saturated fatty acid, and the oleic acid was the most abundant unsaturated fatty acid. The unsaturated fatty acid of pork patty was increased in proportion to olive oil substitution ratio. Therefore, the olive oil gel substitution of low-fat pork patty results in a positive effect on the physicochemical qualities due to reduced cholesterol and saturated fatty acids.

A cohort study on blood zinc protoporphyrin concentration of workers in storage battery factory (축전지 공장 근로자들의 혈중 Zinc Protoporphyrin에 대한 코호트 연구)

  • Jeon, Man-Joong;Lee, Joong-Jeong;SaKong, Joon;Kim, Chang-Yoon;Kim, Jung-Man;Chung, Jong-Hak
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.112-126
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    • 1998
  • To investigate the effectiveness of the interventions in working environment and personal hygiene for the occupational exposure to the lead, the blood zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentrations of 131 workers (100 exposed subjects and 31 controls) of a newly established battery factory were analyzed. They were measured in every 3 months up to 18 months. Ai. lead concentration (Pb-A) of the workplaces was also checked for 3 times in 6 months interval from August 1987. Environmental intervention included the local exhaust ventilation and vacuum cleaning of the floor. Intervention of the personal hygiene included the daily change of clothes, compulsory shower after work and hand washing before meal, prohibition of cigarette smoking and food consumption at the work site and wearing mask. Mean blood ZPP concentration of the controls was $16.45{\pm}4.83{\mu}g/d\ell$ at the preemployment examination and slightly increased to $17.77{\pm}5.59{\mu}g/d\ell$ after 6 months. Mean blood ZPP concentration of the exposed subjects who were employed before the factory was in operation (Group A) was $17.36{\pm}5.20{\mu}g/d\ell$ on employment and it was increased to $23.00{\pm}13.06{\mu}g/d\ell$ after 3 months. The blood ZPP concentration was increased to $27.25{\pm}6.40{\mu}g/d\ell$ on 6 months (p<0.01) after the employment which was 1 month after the initiation of intervention program. It did not increase thereafter and ranged between $25.48{\mu}g/d\ell$ and $26.61{\mu}g/d\ell$ in the subsequent 4 results. Mean blood ZPP concentration of the exposed subjects who were employed after the factory had been in operation but before the intervention program was initiated (Group B) was $14.34{\pm}6.10{\mu}g/d\ell$ on employment and it was increased to $28.97{\pm}7.14{\mu}g/d\ell$ (p<0.01) in 3 months later(1 month after the intervention). The values of subsequent 4 tests were maintained between $26.96{\mu}g/d\ell$and $27.96{\mu}g/d\ell$. Mean blood ZPP concentration of the exposed subjects who were employed after intervention program had been started (Group C) was$21.34{\pm}5.25{\mu}g/d\ell$ on employment and it was gradually increased to $23.37{\pm}3.86{\mu}g/d\ell$ (p<0.01) after 3 months, $23.93{\pm}3.64{\mu}g/d\ell$ after 6 months, $25.50{\pm}3.01{\mu}g/d\ell$ after 9 months, and $25.50{\pm}3.10{\mu}g/d\ell$ after 12 months. Workplaces were classified into 4 parts according to Pb-A. The Pb-A of part I, the highest areas, were $0.365mg/m^3$, and after the intervention the levels were decreased to $0.216mg/m^3$ and$0.208mg/m^3$ in follow-up test. The Pb-A of part II which was resulted in lowe. value than part I was decreased from $0.232mg/m^3$ to $0.148mg/m^3$, and $0.120mg/m^3$ after the intervention. The Pb-A of part III was tested after the intervention and resulted in $0.124mg/m^3$ in January 1988 and $0.181mg/m^3$ in August 1988. The Pb-A of part IV was also tested after the intervention and resulted in $0.110mg/m^3$ in August 1988. There was no consistent relationship between Pb-A and blood ZPP concentration. The blood ZPP concentration of the group A and B workers in the part of the highest Pb-A were lower than those of the workers in the parts of lower Pb-A. The blood ZPP concentration of the workers in the part of the lowest Pb-A increased more rapidly. The blood ZPP concentration of the group C workers was the highest in part III. These findings suggest that the intervention in personal hygiene is more effective than environmental intervention, and it should be carried out from the first day of employment and to both the exposed subjects, blue color workers and the controls, white color workers.

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A Time Series Graph based Convolutional Neural Network Model for Effective Input Variable Pattern Learning : Application to the Prediction of Stock Market (효과적인 입력변수 패턴 학습을 위한 시계열 그래프 기반 합성곱 신경망 모형: 주식시장 예측에의 응용)

  • Lee, Mo-Se;Ahn, Hyunchul
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.167-181
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    • 2018
  • Over the past decade, deep learning has been in spotlight among various machine learning algorithms. In particular, CNN(Convolutional Neural Network), which is known as the effective solution for recognizing and classifying images or voices, has been popularly applied to classification and prediction problems. In this study, we investigate the way to apply CNN in business problem solving. Specifically, this study propose to apply CNN to stock market prediction, one of the most challenging tasks in the machine learning research. As mentioned, CNN has strength in interpreting images. Thus, the model proposed in this study adopts CNN as the binary classifier that predicts stock market direction (upward or downward) by using time series graphs as its inputs. That is, our proposal is to build a machine learning algorithm that mimics an experts called 'technical analysts' who examine the graph of past price movement, and predict future financial price movements. Our proposed model named 'CNN-FG(Convolutional Neural Network using Fluctuation Graph)' consists of five steps. In the first step, it divides the dataset into the intervals of 5 days. And then, it creates time series graphs for the divided dataset in step 2. The size of the image in which the graph is drawn is $40(pixels){\times}40(pixels)$, and the graph of each independent variable was drawn using different colors. In step 3, the model converts the images into the matrices. Each image is converted into the combination of three matrices in order to express the value of the color using R(red), G(green), and B(blue) scale. In the next step, it splits the dataset of the graph images into training and validation datasets. We used 80% of the total dataset as the training dataset, and the remaining 20% as the validation dataset. And then, CNN classifiers are trained using the images of training dataset in the final step. Regarding the parameters of CNN-FG, we adopted two convolution filters ($5{\times}5{\times}6$ and $5{\times}5{\times}9$) in the convolution layer. In the pooling layer, $2{\times}2$ max pooling filter was used. The numbers of the nodes in two hidden layers were set to, respectively, 900 and 32, and the number of the nodes in the output layer was set to 2(one is for the prediction of upward trend, and the other one is for downward trend). Activation functions for the convolution layer and the hidden layer were set to ReLU(Rectified Linear Unit), and one for the output layer set to Softmax function. To validate our model - CNN-FG, we applied it to the prediction of KOSPI200 for 2,026 days in eight years (from 2009 to 2016). To match the proportions of the two groups in the independent variable (i.e. tomorrow's stock market movement), we selected 1,950 samples by applying random sampling. Finally, we built the training dataset using 80% of the total dataset (1,560 samples), and the validation dataset using 20% (390 samples). The dependent variables of the experimental dataset included twelve technical indicators popularly been used in the previous studies. They include Stochastic %K, Stochastic %D, Momentum, ROC(rate of change), LW %R(Larry William's %R), A/D oscillator(accumulation/distribution oscillator), OSCP(price oscillator), CCI(commodity channel index), and so on. To confirm the superiority of CNN-FG, we compared its prediction accuracy with the ones of other classification models. Experimental results showed that CNN-FG outperforms LOGIT(logistic regression), ANN(artificial neural network), and SVM(support vector machine) with the statistical significance. These empirical results imply that converting time series business data into graphs and building CNN-based classification models using these graphs can be effective from the perspective of prediction accuracy. Thus, this paper sheds a light on how to apply deep learning techniques to the domain of business problem solving.

Dose Response Relationship in Local Radiotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (원발성 간암의 국소 방사선치료 시 선량반응 관계)

  • Park Hee Chul;Seong Jinsil;Han Kwang Hyub;Chon Chae Yoon;Moon Young Myoung;Song Jae Seok;Suh Chang Ok
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.118-126
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : In this study, it was investigated whether dose response relation existed or not in local radiotherapy for primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Materials and Methods : From January 1992 to March 2000, 158 patients were included in present study. Exclusion criteria included the presence of extrahepatic metastasis, liver cirrhosis of Child's class C, tumors occupying more than two thirds of the entire liver, and performance status on the ECOG scale of more than 3. Radiotherapy was given to the field including tumor with generous margin using 6, 10-MV X-ray. Mean tumor dose was $48.2{\pm}7.9\;Gy$ in daily 1.8 Gy fractions. Tumor response was based on diagnostic radiologic examinations such as CT scan, MR imaging, hepatic artery angiography at $4\~8$ weeks following completion of treatment. Statistical analysis was done to investigate the existence of dose response relationship of local radiotherapy when it was applied to the treatment of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Results : An objective response was observed in 106 of 158 patients, giving a response rate of $67.1\%$. Statistical analysis revealed that total dose was the most significant factor in relation to tumor response when local radiotherapy was applied to the treatment of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Only $29.2\%$ showed objective response in patients treated with dose less than 40 Gy, while $68.6\%\;and\;77.1\%$ showed major response in patients with $40\~50\;Gy$ and more than 50 Gy, respectively. Child-Pugh classification was significant factor in the development of ascites, overt radiation induced liver disease and gastroenteritis. Radiation dose was an important factor for development of radiation induced gastroduodenal ulcer. Conclusion : Present study showed the existence of dose response relationship in local radiotherapy for primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Only radiotherapy dose was a significant factor to predict the objective response. Further study is required to predict the maximal tolerance dose in consideration of liver function and non-irradiated liver volume.

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Effect of Garlic Stalk Silage on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (마늘대 사일리지 급여가 한우거세우의 성장 및 도체특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Chu, G.M.;Lee, H.J.;Park, J.S.;Cho, H.W.;Ahn, B.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.1007-1018
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding of garlic stalk silage on performance and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. Feeding trial was conducted with 27 heads of Hanwoo steers and these animals were divided into two groups of control(rice straw) and garlic stalk silage. Animals consuming rice straw were fed concentrates and rice straw for 22 months from the 5 months of age and animals consuming garlic stalk silage were fed concentrates, rice straw and garlic stalk silage for 22 months from the 5 months of age. Animals fed rice straw and garlic stalk silage were fed 1.34 and 1.47, 1.69 and 1.74, 1.65 and 1.66% concentrates to body weight for the growing period, fattening period and finishing period, respectively. Animals fed rice straw and garlic stalk silage as roughage sources were fed 1.37 and 1.38, 0.65 and 0.63, 0.43 and 0.43% roughages to body weight for the growing period, fattening period and finishing period, respectively. Also, animals fed garlic stalk silage were offered 0.22 and 0.33% garlic stalk silage to body weight for the fattening and finishing period, respectively. Animals fed rice straw and garlic stalk silage as a roughage sources did not differ in average daily gain during the whole feeding periods. Animals of control group consumed less concentrates and roughage than those fed garlic stalk silage during the whole feeding periods. However, feed efficiency was not significantly different between both treatments. Beef yield including backfat thickness, eye muscle area and carcass weight was slightly lower in the animals fed garlic stalk silage than in the animals fed rice straw even though there were no differences between both treatments. However, beef quality including beef color, fat color, texture, maturity and marbling score was slightly higher in the garlic stalk silage-fed animals than in the animals fed rice straw although there were not statistically different between both treatments. Animals consuming garlic stalk silage was significantly(p<0.05) lower in shear value than those fed rice straw. Amino acid composition including essential amino acid and non-essential amino acid was not different between animals fed rice straw and garlic stalk silage. Eye muscle area of animals fed garlic stalk silage contained slightly higher oleic acid, less linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and more linolenic acid than that of animals fed rice straw only as a roughage sources. So eye muscle area of animals fed garlic stalk silage contained more mono-unsaturated fatty acid than that of animals fed rice straw and $\omega$6/$\omega$3 ratio was narrower in the animals fed garlic stalk silage than in the animals fed rice straw. Economic income was higher by 20% in the animals fed garlic stalk silage than in the animals fed rice straw. Therefore, It may be concluded that feeding of garlic stalk silage as a roughage sources to steers during the fattening period seems to improve meat quality, fatty acid composition and economic income.