• Title, Summary, Keyword: barnyardgrass

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Diallel Analysis for Rice Allelopathic Potential against Barnyardgrass Assessed in Field Condition

  • Junaedi, Ahmad;Lee, Sang Bok;Chung, Ill Min;Kim, Kwang Ho
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.8-14
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    • 2008
  • A complete diallel cross was performed to determine the inheritance of allelopathic potential and combining ability of six rice germplasm that showed different level of allelopathic potential against barnyardgrass. Parents and F1 of 30 crosses were assessed for allelophatic potential in field condition. Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. var. frumentaceae) was used for rice allelopathic potential indicator which was observed in height and shoot dry weight, then suppression percentage were calculated by comparing to barnyardgrass grown in control plot (no rice). It was found that general combining ability showed no significant effect, whereas specific combining ability and reciprocal effect were significant. Variance analysis confirmed that genetic control of allelopathic potential in rice against barnyardgrass was mostly directed by dominance gene effect. The dominant genes were associated with high allelopathic potential and recessive genes were associated with low allelopathic potential. Heritability in broad sense for barnyardgrass dry weight suppression was around 41%; whereas for barnyardgrass height suppression was 51%. However, heritability in narrow sense was very low. The finding suggests that accumulation of genes associated with allelopathic potential would be a strategy to develop promising varieties in reference with the specific combining ability of cross combinations.

Identification of Herbicide-Resistant Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli) Biotypes in Korea

  • Won, Ok Jae;Lee, Jeung Joo;Eom, Min Yong;Suh, Su Jeoung;Park, Su Hyuk;Hwang, Ki Seon;Pyon, Jong Yeong;Park, Kee Woong
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.110-113
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    • 2014
  • The continuous use of acetolactate synthase (ALS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors has led to the selection of herbicide resistant barnyardgrass populations in direct-seeded rice fields of Korea. This study was conducted to identify herbicide resistant barnyardgrass biotypes and to determine the cross- and multiple-resistance of them. 25% of the population collected from Taeahn was partially resistant to ACCase inhibitors and 22% collected from Kimjae were partially resistant to ALS inhibitors. However, 8.2% of the population from both sites was resistant to ALS and ACCase inhibitors. Resistance to sulfonylurea herbicide, flazasulfuron was identified from two barnyardgrass accessions collected from both Taeahn and Kimjae. One barnyardgrass accession from both sites was resistant to ACCase inhibitor, sethoxydim. The cross-resistance to ALS inhibitors was identified at one barnyardgrass accession from Taeahn and at two accessions from Kimjae. Further, crossresistance to ACCase inhibitors was also identified at barnyardgrass accessions from Taeahn and Kimjae. Multiple-resistance to flazasulfuron and sethoxydim was determined at four barnyardgrass accessions from Taeahn and at six accessions from Kimjae. Therefore, the herbicide mixture and sequences within a growing season or the herbicide rotation with different modes of actions across growing seasons are recommended to control herbicide-resistant barnyardgrass in infested fields.

Competitive Performance of Hybrid Rice with Barnyardgrass

  • Lin, Wenxiong;Kim, Hak-Yoon;Shin, Dong-Hyun;Lee, In-Jung;Kim, Kil-Ung
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.391-395
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    • 1999
  • Barnyardgrass had relatively higher growth vigor at the earlier growth stage than inbred rice did, showing the 2 fold higher $\alpha$-amylase activity during the periods of germination and large leaf area Expansion with high net photosynthetic rate at the earlier autotrophic stage, but it performed weak growth at the late growth stage. However, the hlybrid rice Shanyou 63 had significantly higher $\alpha$-amylase activity and net photosynthetic rate than that of barnyardgrass, exhibiting heterosis for two physiologica1 traits during the germination (6~12 days) and autotrophic phase, respectively. Accordingly, hybrid rice, Shanyou 63, exhibited heterotic effect at the early growing stage when were presented with barnyardgrass. Shanyou 63 exhibited stronger tillering ability, faster leaf area expansion and higher net photosynthetic rate than those of barnyardgrass.

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Absorption and Translocation of Dithiopyr and its Mechanism of Selectivity in Rice and Barnyardgrass (벼와 피에서 Dithiopyr의 흡수(吸收) 및 이행(移行)과 선택성(選擇性) 기작(機作))

  • Pyon, J.Y.;Kang, K.S.;Ryang, H.S.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.23-27
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    • 1994
  • Nutrient culture study was initiated to examine the selectivity of dithiopyr(S, S-dimethyl 2-difluoromethyl)-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-(trifluoro methyl)-3, 5-pyridine dicarbothiate) in rice(Oryza sativa L.) and barnyardgrass(Echinochloa crusgalli Beauv.). Absorption and translocation of $^{14}C$-dithiopyr in rice and barnyardgrass were also investigated to determine their selective mechanism. Rice was very tolerant, but barnyardgrass was susceptible to dithiopyr. The absorption of dithiopyr was greater in barnyardgrass than in rice and most of them remained in the roots of both species. Dithiopyr was absorbed by roots and basal shoots of both species. Translocation of dithiopyr was very low but was higher in barnyardgrass than in rice. Therefore, this study suggest that the selectivity of dithiopyr between rice and barnyardgrass may be mainly attributed to the absorption and translocation of dithiopyr in plants.

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Morphological Characteristics of Growth of Rice and Barnyardgrass under Various Cropping Patterns - I. Differential Germination and Growth Characteristics (재배양식(栽培樣式)에 따른 벼와 피의 생장(生長) 및 해부형태학적(解剖形態學的) 차이(差異) - I. 재배양식(栽培樣式)에 따른 벼와 피간(間)의 발아(發芽) 및 생육특성(生育特性) 차이(差異))

  • Chon, S.U.;Guh, J.O.;Pyon, J.Y.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.62-70
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    • 1994
  • This study was conducted to find out if there are some differences in germination, growth and morphological characteristics between rice(Oryza saliva) and barnyardgrass(Echinochloa crus-galli) under various cropping patterns and to abtain the fundamental information on weed control method in direct seeded rice. Rice was broadcast on soil-surface(Broadcast rice), drill seeded in soil(Drilled rice) and barnyardgrass was drill seeded in soil(Barnyardgrass) under dry(Dry condition) and water direct seeded condition(Water condition). Also rice was transplanted with 8-day seedlings(8 -day-old seedling) and 25-day seedlings(25-*day-old seedling) under transplanting condition(Transplanting condition) At 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 20 days after seeding or transplanting(DAS/T), plants were harvested to examine their germination, growth and morphology. The major results were as follows ; Until 5 DAS/T growth of rice and barnyardgrass were well established under dry condition but under water condition growth of shoots was mainly elongated. At 20 DAS/T barnyardgrass had greater plant height and shoot fresh weight than rice under direct seeded condition, while plant height and shoot fresh weight of rice was greater than those of barnyardgrass under transplanting condition. Root length of barnyardgrass was greater under the dry, drilled, direct seeded conditions than that of rice under the water, broadcast, transplanting condition, respectively. And root fresh weight of rice under direct seeded condition was similar to that of barnyardgrass but that of rice under transplanting condition was significantly greater than that of barnyardgrass. Barnyardgrass only formed mesocotyls and its length increased with increased depth of seeding. Leaf stage and leaf area of barnyardgrass was greater under the dry, drilled than those of rice under water, broadcast conditions, respectively, while those of rice was greater than those of barnyardgrass under transplanting condition. Chlorophyll contents were higher in barnyardgrass, dry direct seeded rice, transplanted rice, water direct seeded rice in descending order.

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Morphological Characteristics of Growth of Rice and Barnyardgrass under Various Cropping Patterns - III. Difference in Stem Surface and Ultrastructures (재배양식(栽培樣式)에 따른 벼와 피의 생장(生長) 및 해부형태학적(解剖形態學的) 차이(差異) - III. 재배양식(栽培樣式)에 따른 벼와 피간(間의) 미세구조(微細構造) 차이(差異))

  • Chon, S.U.;Guh, J.O.;Lee, Y.M.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.144-155
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    • 1994
  • Scanning electron micrography and Transmission electron micrography studies were performed on the surfaces of stem(coleoptiles) of rice and barnyardgrass under various cropping patterns at 5 days after seeding or transplanting. Stem surfaces of rice under dry condition possessed rodlet-like epicuticular waxes, trichomes, stomata and cork cell layer in both broadcast and drilled rice while barnyardgrass had only thread-like epicuticular waxes, but trichomes, stomata and cork cell layers were not found. However, rice under water condition has no rodlet-like waxes, stomata and cork cells, and barnyardgrass was similar to that under dry condition. On the other hand, those on stems of 8-day and 25-day transplanted rice were well arranged and developed compared with those of direct seeded rice. Electron micrography showed significant difference in thickness of outer epidermal cell walls of rice and barnyardgrass under dry, water and transplanting condition. Thickness of outer epidermal cell was greater in transplanted rice, dry direct seeded rice, water-direct seeded rice and barnyardgrass in descending order.

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Morphological and Anatomical Response of Rice and Barnyardgrass to Herbicides under Various Cropping Patterns -II. Response to Bensulfuron (재배양식(栽培樣式)에 따른 수종(數種) 제초제(除草劑)에 대한 벼와 피의 해부형태적(解剖形態的) 반응차이(反應差異) - II. Bensulfuron 에 대한 반응차이(反應差異))

  • Chon, S.U.;Guh, J.O.;Kuk, Y.I.;Han, S.U.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.230-236
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    • 1996
  • Pot experiment in greenhouse was conducted to determine the effect of growth and anatomical characteristics of bensulfuron on the seedlings of rice and barnyardgrass. Formulated bensulfuron was soil applied at 102g ai/ha to rice and barnyardgrass grown under various cropping patterns at 5 days after seeding or transplanting. At 10 days after application, plants were harvested to examine growth and anatomical changes of rice and barnyardgrass. Bensulfuron did not affect the growth and development of rites under dry seeded condition and trnsplanting condition while inhibited severely those of rice under water-seeded condition compared with untreated control. Under water-seeded condition, root growth of rice was much more severely inhibited by bensulfuron than shoot growth. The herbicide retarded the growth of barnyardgrass under dry-seeded condition and more severely inhibited than that under water-seeded condition. Microscopically, the anatomical change induced by bensulfuron occurred only in barnyardgrass under dry-seeded condition, and involved constriction of leaf primordia within leaf sheaths, rupture of mesophyll cell, and irregular cell arrangement. These anatomical alterations differed from and were not associated with the differential growth response.

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Phytotoxic Effect of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid, a Biodegradable Photodynamic Biomaterial, on Rice and Barnyardgrass

  • Chon, Sang-Uk
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.268-275
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    • 2006
  • ALA (5-aminolevulinic acid) has been proposed as a tetrapyrrole-dependent photodynamic herbicide by the action of the protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase (Protox IX). A study was conducted to determine photodynamic herbicidal effect of ALA on seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli Beauv. var. oryzicola Ohwi) under dry and wet conditions. ALA effect on early plant growth of rice and barnyardgrass was greatly concentration dependant, suggesting that it promotes plant growth at very low concentration and inhibits at high concentration. No significant difference in herbicidal activity of biologically and synthetically produced ALAs on plant lengths of test plants was observed ALA exhibited significant photodynamic activity regardless of PSDIP and its duration. Significant shoot growth inhibition by ALA soaking treatment exhibited apparently, indicating that ALA absorbed through root system was translocated into shoot part of plants. ALA reduced plant heights of rice and barnyardgrass seedlings by 6% and 27%, respectively, showing more tolerant to ALA in rice under wet condition. Leaf thickness was reduced markedly by ALA with increasing of ALA concentration, due to mainly membrane destruction and severe loss of turgidity in mesophyll cells, although the epidermal was little affected. It was observed that photodynamic herbicidal activity of ALA applied by pre-and post-emergence application exhibited differently on plant species, and that the activity of ALA against susceptible plants was highly correlated with growing condition.

Physical and Structural Characteristics of Endosperm Starch of Four Local Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.) Collections in Korea

  • Kim, Sang-Kuk;Lee, Hee-Dong;Ryu, Jung-Gi;Choi, Hong-Jib;Kang, Sang-Mo;Lee, In-Jung
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.56 no.4
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    • pp.293-298
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    • 2011
  • Physical and structural characteristics of four local barnyardgrass flour and starch were investigated. Amylose content ranged from 6.9 to 12.5%. The BP 3563 and BP 3606 were low amylose lines, and the BP 3592 and BP 3610 showed very low amylose lines. Peak viscosities of four barnyardgrass collections BP-3563, BP-3592, BP-3606, and BP-3610 ranged 264 to 2397. All barnyard grass lines displayed an A-type X-ray diffraction pattern showing the strong diffraction peak at around $2{\theta}$ values $15^{\circ}$, $17^{\circ}$, $18^{\circ}$ and $23^{\circ}$, and a small peak at $20^{\circ}$ $2{\theta}$. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the starch granule sizes ranged $5.5-12.5{\mu}m$ in diameter showing polygonal and rarely spherical in shape with round edges and some pores at the surface. Starch crystallinity of BP 3563, BP 3592, BP 3606, and BP 3610 was 23.9, 25.0, 24.7, and 25.5%, respectively.

In vitro Acetolactate Synthase Inhibition of LGC-40863 in Rice and Barnyardgrass (시규제초제 LGC-40863의 벼와 피에 대한 Acetolactate synthase 저해 활성)

  • Bae, Y.T.;Lee, J.H.;Koo, S.J.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.66-70
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    • 1997
  • LGC-40863(proposed common name ; pyribenzoxim), (benzophenone O-[2,6-bis[(4,6-dimethoxy-2-pyrimidinyl)oxy]benzoyl]oxime) is a new rice herbicide being developed by LG Chemical Ltd. The herbicide is highly selective between rice(Oryza sativa L.) and weeds including barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli(L.) P. Beauv.), and assumed to inhibit acetolactate synthase(ALS ; EC 4.1.3.18) because other structurally related herbicides inhibit the enzyme. To know inhibitory activity and the mode of inhibition of LGC-40863, $I_{50}$(concentration inhibiting ALS activity by 50%) and inhibition kinetics were investigated using ALS extracted from rice and barnyardgrass. $I_{50}$ values of LGC-40863 were 14 and 16mM in rice and barnyardgrass, respectively. In contrast to imazapyr(2-[4,5-dihydro-4-mythyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-pyridine-carboxylic acid) which showed an uncompetitive inhibition pattern, LGC-40863 was a noncompetitive inhibitor to ALS with respect to pyruvate similar to chlorsulfuron(2-chloro-N-((4-methoxy-6-methyl-l,3,5-triazin-2-yl) aminocarbonyl)benz-enesulfonamide) in both plants.

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