• Title, Summary, Keyword: beam-column effect

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Improvement of the earthquake resistance of R/C beam-column joints under the influence of P-△ effect and axial force variations using inclined bars

  • Tsonos, Alexander G.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.389-410
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    • 2004
  • In this study, theoretical and experimental results are presented which were obtained during an investigation of the influence of the $P-{\Delta}$ effect that was caused by the simultaneous changing of the axial load P of the column and the lateral displacement ${\Delta}$ in the external beam-column joints. The increase or decrease of ${\Delta}$ was simultaneous with the increase or decrease of the axial compression load P and caused an additional influence on the aseismic mechanical properties of the joint. A total of 12 reinforced concrete exterior beam-column subassemblies were examined. A new model, which predicts the beam-column joint ultimate shear strength, was used in order to predict the seismic behaviour of beam-column joints subjected to earthquake-type loading plus variable axial load and $P-{\Delta}$ effect. Test data and analytical research demonstrated that axial load changes and $P-{\Delta}$ effect during an earthquake cause significant deterioration in the earthquake-resistance of these structural elements. It was demonstrated that inclined bars in the joint region were effective for reducing the unfavourable impact of the $P-{\Delta}$ effect and axial load changes in these structural elements.

Behaviour of RC beam-column joint with varying location of construction joints in the column

  • Vanlalruata, Jonathan;Marthong, Comingstarful
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.29-38
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    • 2021
  • According to ACI 224.3R-95 (ACI, 2013), construction joints (cold joint) in the column are to be provided at the top of floor slab for column continuing to the next floor and underside of floor slab and beam. A recent study reveals that providing cold joint of the mentioned location significantly reduced the seismic performance of the frame structures. Since, the construction joints in multi-story frame structures normally provided at the top of the floor slabs and at soffit of the beam in the column. This study investigated the effect of construction joint at various location in the column of beam-column joint such as at the top of floor slab, soffit level of the beam, half the depth of beam below the soffit of the beam and at a full depth of the beam below the soffit of the beam. The study revealed that there is an improvement in seismic capacity of the specimens as the location of cold joint is placed away from the soffit of the beam for lower story column.

Effect of geometrical configuration on seismic behavior of GFRP-RC beam-column joints

  • Ghomia, Shervin K.;El-Salakawy, Ehab
    • Advances in concrete construction
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.313-326
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    • 2020
  • Glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars have been introduced as an effective alternative for the conventional steel reinforcement in concrete structures to mitigate the costly consequences of steel corrosion. However, despite the superior performance of these composite materials in terms of corrosion, the effect of replacing steel reinforcement with GFRP on the seismic performance of concrete structures is not fully covered yet. To address some of the key parameters in the seismic behavior of GFRP-reinforced concrete (RC) structures, two full-scale beam-column joints reinforced with GFRP bars and stirrups were constructed and tested under two phases of loading, each simulating a severe ground motion. The objective was to investigate the effect of damage due to earthquakes on the service and ultimate behavior of GFRP-RC moment-resisting frames. The main parameters under investigation were geometrical configuration (interior or exterior beam-column joint) and joint shear stress. The performance of the specimens was measured in terms of lateral load-drift response, energy dissipation, mode of failure and stress distribution. Moreover, the effect of concrete damage due to earthquake loading on the performance of beam-column joints under service loading was investigated and a modified damage index was proposed to quantify the magnitude of damage in GFRP-RC beam-column joints under dynamic loading. Test results indicated that the geometrical configuration significantly affects the level of concrete damage and energy dissipation. Moreover, the level of residual damage in GFRP-RC beam-column joints after undergoing lateral displacements was related to reinforcement ratio of the main beams.

Simulation of cyclic response of precast concrete beam-column joints

  • Adibi, Mahdi;Talebkhah, Roozbeh;Yahyaabadi, Aliakbar
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.223-236
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    • 2019
  • Experience of previous earthquakes shows that a considerable portion of concrete precast buildings sustain relatively large damages especially at the beam-column joints where the damages are mostly caused by bar slippage. Precast concrete buildings have a kind of discontinuity in their beam-column joints, so reinforcement details in this area is too important and have a significant effect on the seismic behavior of these structures. In this study, a relatively simple and efficient nonlinear model is proposed to simulate pre- and post-elastic behavior of the joints in usual practice of precast concrete building. In this model, beam and column components are represented by linear elastic elements, dimensions of the joint panel are defined by rigid elements, and effect of slip is taken into account by a nonlinear rotational spring at the end of the beam. The proposed method is validated by experimental results for both internal and external joints. In addition, the seismic behavior of the precast building damaged during Bojnord earthquake 13 May 2017, is investigated by using the proposed model for the beam-column joints. Damage unexpectedly inducing the precast building in the moderate Bojnord earthquake may confirm that bearing capacity of the precast building was underestimated without consideration of joint behavior effect.

Central angle effect on connection behavior of steel box beam-to-circular column

  • Hwang, Won-Sup;Kim, Young-Pil;Yoon, Tae-Yang
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.531-547
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    • 2009
  • This paper presents the experimental results on the strength behavior and failure modes of box beam-to-circular column connections in steel piers. Previous research introduced parameters such as joint central angles, extension of horizontal stiffeners, and use of equivalent web depth, which ignored strength behavior and failure modes of box beam-to-circular column connections. The use of equivalent web depth $d_2$ is not reasonable when central angle ${\alpha}$ is closer to $90^{\circ}$; therefore, a monotonic loading test has been performed for eight connection specimens. From the test, it is identified that the connection with the circular column is stronger than the connection with the box-sectioned substitution column. Also, the strength of the beam-to-column connections with horizontal stiffeners is higher than the one of the no column stiffeners. The concrete-filled effect of box beam-to-circular column connection is also investigated, and the experimental yield strength of the connection is compared with the theoretical one. Also, more a reasonable equivalent web depth is suggested. The failure modes of connection are clearly defined.

Effect of the Off-axis distance of the Electron Emitting Source in Micro-column (마이크로 칼럼의 전자 방출원 위치 오차의 영향)

  • Lee, Eung-Ki
    • Journal of the Semiconductor & Display Technology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.17-21
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    • 2010
  • Currently miniaturized electron-optical columns find their way into electron beam lithography systems. For better lithography process, it is required to make smaller spot size and longer working distance. But, the micro-columns of the multi-beam lithography system suffer from chromatic and spherical aberration, even when the electron beam is exactly on the symmetric axis of the micro-column. The off-axis error of the electron emitting source is expected to become worse with increasing off-axis distance of the focusing spot. Especially the electron beams far from the system optical axis have a non-negligible asymmetric intensity distribution in the micro-column. In this paper, the effect of the off-axis e-beam source is analyzed. To analyze this effect is to introduce a micro-column model of which the e-beam emitting source is aligned with the center of the electron beam by shifting them perpendicular to the system optical axis. The presented solution can be used to analysis the performance of the multi-electron-beam system. The performance parameters, such as the working distances and the focusing position are obtained by the computational simulations as a function of the off-axis distance of the emitting source.

Experimental Study on Seismic Performance of Beam-column Connections with High Strength Reinforcements (고장력 철근이 적용된 철근콘크리트 보-기둥 접합부 파괴모드에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Kim, Dae-Hoon;Park, Aa-Ron;Lee, Kihak
    • Journal of Korean Association for Spatial Structures
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.61-68
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    • 2016
  • Behavior of RC(Reinforced-concrete) beam-column connections has been subjected to the earthquake loading has been determined by shear and attachment mechanism. However, since the shear and attachment are very fragile for cycle loadings. Through occurring plastic hinges at the beam, the column and the connection should remain elastic condition and the beam should dissipate the energy from the earthquake. This study was investigate on the seismic performance of 6 RC beam - column connections built with the high strength reinforcements (700MPa) based on design and detailing requirements in the ACI 318-05 Provision and KCI-07 appendix II. This is aimed to evaluate the effect of the high-strength reinforcements as used the beam-column connection members. The main comparisons were the seismic performance of the connections affect the seismic performance in terms of strength, stiffness and ductility, joint shear stress-strain. A total of 6 beam-column specimens were built with a 1/2 scale and subjected to the cyclic loadings. Main design considerations were the area of the longitudinal reinforcements of the beam and details of the beam-column joint designed based on the seismic code. Cyclic test results are given and recommendations for the usage of high strength reinforcements for the seismic design is provided.

Analytical assessment of RC beam-column connections strengthened with CFRP sheets

  • Le, Trung-Kien;Kim, Min;Lee, Ki-Hak;Lee, Jae-Hong
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.470-473
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    • 2006
  • Past experiences from recent earthquakes indicate that shear failures of beam-column connections were one of the main reasons causing significant damages and collapses of RC structures subjected to earthquake loadings. Many researchers and engineers have conducted to propose an effective way to improve the joint shear strength of RC connections. This paper presents an analytical model for the RC exterior beam-column joints strengthened with CFRP sheets. In the analytical model, the effect of shear behavior of the RC beam-column joint, bond slip of the beam longitudinal reinforcements and CFRP sheets were considered and incorporated into the non-linear structural analysis program. Final analytical results were compared with those from the experiment of eight exterior RC beam-column specimens. The analytical results showed that the developed connection model is very useful to investigate the hysteretic joint behavior and overall load-displacement response of the RC beam-column connections strengthened with CFRP sheets.

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Stability of Steel Frames with Weak Column-Strong Beam Considering P-Δ effect (P-Δ 효과를 고려한 기둥항복형 강구조 골조의 안정성)

  • Kim, Hee Dong;Lee, Myung Jae
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.457-466
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    • 2003
  • This study aimed to evaluate the stability of steel frames with weak column-strong beam and consider P-effect using the experimental approach. Towards this end, three specimens were tested under monotonic loading condition. Parameters of tests includes the stiffness of the column and the axial load ratio. Result showed that reduction in column stiffness promoted P- effect, which considerably influenced the frame's stability.

A curvature method for beam-column with different materials and arbitrary cross-section shapes

  • Song, Xiaobin
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.147-161
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    • 2012
  • This paper presents a curvature method for analysis of beam-columns with different materials and arbitrary cross-section shapes and subjected to combined biaxial moments and axial load. Both material and geometric nonlinearities (the p-delta effect in this case) were incorporated. The proposed method considers biaxial curvatures and uniform normal strains of discrete cross-sections of beam-columns as basic unknowns, and seeks for a solution of the column deflection curve that satisfies force equilibrium conditions. A piecewise representation of the beam-column deflection curve is constructed based on the curvatures and angles of rotation of the segmented cross-sections. The resulting bending moments were evaluated based on the deformed column shape and the axial load. The moment curvature relationship and the beam-column deflection calculation are presented in matrix form and the Newton-Raphson method is employed to ensure fast and stable convergence. Comparison with results of analytic solutions and eccentric compression tests of wood beam-columns implies that this method is reliable and effective for beam-columns subjected to eccentric compression load, lateral bracings and complex boundary conditions.