• Title, Summary, Keyword: benomyl

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Residue of benomyl in the coastal environment on the Cheju island (제주도(濟州道) 연안(沿岸) 해양(海洋) 중(中) benomyl의 잔류(殘留))

  • Kim, Jung-Ho;Suh, Seung-Kyo;Oh, Youn-Keun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.51-56
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    • 1999
  • For the determination of coastal environmental contamination level of benomyl, benzimidazole pesticide, the residue of benomyl in various environmental samples on the Cheju island was monitored in May, August and October 1996, respectively. The residue of benomyl was determined as carbendazim because benomyl was converted to carbendazim (methyl 2- benzimidazolecarbamate) in the environment. The qualified limit detection of benomyl was $0.2{\mu}g/L$ in ocean water and $0.4{\mu}g/kg$ in the solid such as sediment and sea organism by HPLC with UV detector. Benomyl was not detected in any water and sediment. Moreover benomyl was neither detected in seaweed cava(Ecklonia Cava), agar(Gelidium amansii), turban sell(Batillus cornutus) and sea urchin(Anthocidaris Crassispina). Above date suggest that the benomyl used in the Cheju island is not the major source of coastal contamination.

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Studies on the Benomyl Resistance of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) (느타리버섯의 Benomyl 저항성(抵抗性)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Yoo, Sung-Joon;Shin, Gwan-Chull
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1984
  • The mycelial growth of some mushrooms was inhibited by benomyl treatment. The $ED_{50}$ of benomyl to that of Pleurotus spp., Agaricus bisporus and Flammulina velutipes was 25ppm, 50ppm and 200ppm, respectively, which indicates the former was the most sensitive to the fungicide. The mycelial growth of mushrooms growing on artificial media amended by benomyl was increased when they were cultured successively 5 times and 10 times on the media. The increasing rate of that of each mushroom was the highest at the concentration of $ED_{50}$ of benomyl. The mycelial growth of P. ostreatus was increased progressively as the number of successive culturing increased, while that of P. florida and A. bisporus was increased until they were cultured successively up to 5 times and 7 times, respectively, but they were decreased after that. Mutant sectors of mycelia were induced by successive treatment of benomyl. Mutant sectors of P. ostreatus appeared earlier than those of P. florida and all of them were induced earlier on the media of low contration of benomyl than on that of high concentration. The mycelia of mutant sectors induced by benomyl treatment grow faster than those of mother colony treated with benomyl successively, but there was no difference in resistance against the fungicide between them. The increase of mycelial growth of the mushrooms culturing successively on media containing benomyl indicated that they might obtain the resistance against benomyl.

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Influence of Benomyl on Photosynthetic Capacity in Soybean Leaves

  • Roh, Kwang-Soo;Oh, Mi-Jung;Song, Seung-Dal;Chung, Hwa-Sook;Song, Jong-Suk
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.100-106
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    • 2001
  • This investigation was performed to study the influence of benomyl on photosynthetic pigments and enzymes in soybean leaves. Chlorophyll and pheophytin levels were reduced by benomyl 45 days after greening. These results indicate that chlorophyll a and b, and pheophytin must be controlled by benomyl. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that 50 and 14.5 kD polypeptides represented as large and small subunits of rubisco. In the both of these subunits, the band intensity of the control was significantly higher than that after benomyl treatment, indicating that these two subunits are affected by benomyl. Benomyl strongly inhibited both the activity and content of rubisco as its concentration was gradually increased. However, it remains unclear whether this reduction of rubisco level was due to a reduced level of rubisco activase. Two major polypeptides of 46 and 42 kD were identified as rubisco activase subunits by SDS-PAGE. The intensity of these two bands was shown to be higher in the control than after benomyl treatment. These results indicate that the rubisco decrease resulting from increased benomyl concentrations was caused by rubisco activase. A significant decrease in both the activity and content of rubisco activase by benomyl was also observed. There results suggest that the decrease in rubisco level caused by benomyl is accompanied by a decrease in both the activity and content of rubisco activase.

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The Effect of Benomyl Treatments on Ginsenosides and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis in Roots of Panax ginseng

  • Eo, Ju-Kyeong;Eom, Ahn-Heum
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.256-259
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    • 2009
  • The effects of benomyl treatment on ginsenoside and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in the roots of Panax ginseng that were collected from two sites in Korea were investigated. The ginseng roots that were treated with benomyl showed different species compositions of AM fungi colonizing the ginseng roots, compared to untreated roots. In the analysis of ginsenoside, Rc was significantly higher in benomyl untreated roots than in benomyl treated roots. The results suggest that AM fungal species composition and ginsenosides in ginseng root could be influenced by the benomyl treatment.

Toxicity Evaluation of Chemicals using Asian Toad Embryos, Bufo gargarizans (두꺼비 배아를 활용한 화학물질의 독성평가 연구)

  • Ko, Sun-kun
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.705-711
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    • 2016
  • In this experiment, embryos of Asian toad, Bufo gargarizans, were investigated to evaluate toxicity of chemicals along FETAX(Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus) protocol. Asian toad, Bufo gargarizans, embryos incubated and investigation of Zn and Benomyl effect by probit analysis. As a result, depends on the concentrations of Zn and Benomyl, mortality and malformation rates were increases and larval body length were decreased. The teratogenic concentration($EC_{50}$) of Zn and Benomyl were 2.3, $1.0mg/{\ell}$, respectively and the embryo lethal concentration($LC_{50}$) Zn and Benomyl were 10.3, 6.9, respectively. The teratogenic index(TI) were 4.4 in Zn and 6.7 in Benomyl, thus showed teratogenicity in embryonic development of B. gargarizans. These results reveal that Zn and Benomyl in this experiment suppressed the development of embryos at relatively low concentration. Much of B. gargarizans embryos can be secured, and easy to incubate. In addition, mortality, malformation ratios, malformation patterns and growth rates are similar to the results from the other assay systems. Therefore, the B. gargarizans embryo teratogenesis assay system could be a useful tool to evaluate toxicity of pollutants in environment.

The Comparison of Photocatalysis and Sonophotocatalysis for Benomyl Degradation (광촉매공정과 초음파를 접목시킨 광촉매공정에 의한 Benomyl의 분해 비교)

  • An, Sang-Woo;Park, Jae-Hong;Cho, Il-Hyoung;Chang, Soon-Woong
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.585-589
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    • 2006
  • Comparison between photocatalysis and sonophotocatalysis were performed in lab-scale experiments for the treatment of benomyl. The effect of operational parameters, i.e., initial benomyl concentration, $TiO_2$ concentration, $H_2O_2$ concentration on the degradation rate of aqueous solution of benomyl has been examined. The optimal conditions for photocatalysis and sonophotocatalysis processes were determined: initial Benomyl concentration was 3 mg/L, the concentration of $TiO_2$ was 2 g/L and $H_2O_2$concentration was 1.5 mM. Under the optimal conditions, sonophotocatalysis was effective for inducing faster degradation of the benomyl.

Effects of Pesticides(Benomyl, Carbofuran, Thiobencarb) on the Asian Toad(Bufo Gargarizans) Embryo Development (농약류(Benomyl, Carbofuran, Thiobencarb)가 두꺼비(Bufo Gargarizans) 배아발달에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko, Sun-Kun
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.207-215
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    • 2020
  • In this experiment, investigated toxicity evaluation of chemicals using Asian toad embryos, along FETAX(Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus) protocol. Asian toad, Bufo gargarizans embryo incubated and investigation of Benomyl(Germicide), Carbofuran(Insecticide) and Thiobencarb(Herbicide) effect by probit analysis. As a result, depends on the concentrations of Benomyl, Carbofuran and Thiobencarb, along mortality and malformation rates were increases and larval body length were decreased. The teratogenic concentration(EC50) of Benomyl, Carbofuran and Thiobencarb were 1.03, 8.74, 4.98mg/ℓ, respectively. And when exposed to Benomyl, larvae responded most sensitively to malformations. Embryo lethal concentration (LC50) Benomyl, Carbofuran and Thiobencarb were 7.26, 560.72, 16.87mg/ℓ, respectively. And Benomyl were at the lowest concentration of lethal the embryos. The teratogenic index(TI) were 7.05 in Benomyl, 64.16 in Carbofuran and 3.39 in Thiobencarb, thus TI values were above 1.5, which is the criterion of teratogenicity. Three of the pesticides used in this study were considered to be a teratogenic substances and Carbofuran was the most potent teratogen. And more specific researches are needed to investigate the effects of pesticides on the embryo development of toads and amphibians and their mechanism.

Evaluation of LC/MS and LC/UVD(EPA-631) Methods in Determination of Benomyl Concentration in Water Samples (LC/MS법 및 LC/UVD(EPA-631)를 이용한 수계 중 Benomyl의 분석법 평가)

  • Kim, Kee D.;Choi, Won Gyu;Seo, Yong Chan;Park, Byung Hwang;Choi, Hye Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.40-44
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    • 2001
  • Benomyl, one of the known endocrine disrupting chemicals, was analyzed to understand the its fate in water. Benomyl analysis process in water sample include the following sequential steps. Hydrolysis of benomyl into carbendazim, solvent extraction, concentration, and the concentration of final carbendazim solution was determined by LC/MS (TOF). Recoveries of the spiked samples were good with the range of 80.6 to 118.6% and the MDL was 1,600 times lower than that of LC/UVD method. The use of LC/MS (TOF) successfully eliminated the positive error incurred by interferencing materials in the matrix.

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Studies on Toxicological Evaluation of Pesticides(Fungicide, Insecticide, Herbicide) using Tree Frog Embryos, Hyla japonica (청개구리 배아를 활용한 농약류(살균제, 살충제, 제초제)의 독성평가 연구)

  • Yoon, Pil-Sang;Ko, Sun-Kun
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.178-186
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    • 2019
  • This study used the probit analysis to evaluate the toxicity of three chemicals - benomyl (Germicide), carbofuran (insecticide), and thiobencarb (herbicide) - with the FETAX (Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus) protocol using the incubated embryos of tree frog, Hyla japonica. The results showed that the larval body length decreased while the mortality and malformation rates increased as the concentrations of benomyl, carbofuran, and thiobencarb increased. The teratogenic concentration ($EC_{50}$) of benomyl, carbofuran, and thiobencarb were 1.00, 0.58, 4.75 mg/L, respectively, indicating that the malformation of larvae was the most sensitive to carbofuran. The embryo lethal concentration ($LC_{50}$) was 7.04, 28.71, and 16.12mg/L, respectively, indicating that benomyl showed the lowest embryo lethal concentration. The teratogenic index (TI) was 7.04 in Benomyl, 49.50 in Carbofuran, and 3.39 in Thiobencarb, indicating that the TI values were above 1.5, which is the criterion of teratogenicity, for all three chemicals. All three pesticides examined by this study were considered to be the most teratogenic substances, and the carbofuran was the most potent teratogen.

Residues of Benomyl and Bitertanol in Apples Treated as Postharvest Fungicides under Different Storage Conditions (수확후 처리제로서 Benomyl과 Bitertanol이 처리된 사과의 저장조건에 따른 잔류량)

  • Lee, Eun-Joo;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.434-441
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    • 1996
  • This study was conducted to clarify the degradation pattern, safety evaluation and penetration ratio of benomyl and bitertanol to apple used as postharvest fungicides during CA(controlled atmosphere) and cold storage. In CA storage, the degradation of benomyl and bitertanol in stored apple was slow at the early stage, while that in cold storage was, on the contrary, faster at the early stage. The initial concentrations of benomyl and bitertanol in apples applied at the standard application concentrations were 2.24 and 1.54mg/kg, respectively, and their residual amounts were below the maximum residue limits, 1mg/kg at 135 and 96 days in CA storage, 115 and 70 days in cold storage, respectively. The half-lives of benomyl and bitertanol in stored apples were 124 and 130 days in CA storage, 101 and 111 days in the cold storage, respectively, indicating that the degradation was faster in cold storage than in CA storage. The residual amount of benomyl and bitertanol in stored apples was retained more in peels than in pulps of apples.

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