• Title, Summary, Keyword: betaine

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Simultaneous determination of betaine and choline using derivatization by HPLC with UV detection (HPLC-UV검출방법으로 유도체화를 통한 비테인과 콜린의 동시분석)

  • Rhee, Insook;Paeng, Ki-Jung
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.112-116
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    • 2015
  • Extraction of quaternary ammonium compounds (choline and betaine) from plant samples (spinach) using ion exchange resin (AG1, OH form) is a very simple and inexpensive approach. However, it is very hard to determine amounts of choline and betaine simultaneously using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection. Unlike choline, betaine has low molar absorptivity in UV-visible (UV-Vis) region, which makes it difficult to carry out UV-Vis detection of betaine. The mixture of quaternary ammonium compounds (choline and betaine) was derivatized using 2-bromo acetophenone as a derivatizing agent. As a result, choline did not react with the derivatizing agent, whereas betaine formed a betaine derivative. This betaine derivative exhibited detectable UV absorption with baseline separation between choline and the betaine derivative. Thus, with this method, choline and betaine can be determined simultaneously by using the HPLCUV method through one-step derivatization, which is an easy, sensitive, and reliable method.

Effects of Feeding Betaine on Performance and Hormonal Secretion in Laying Hens

  • Park, Jae-Hong
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
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    • pp.17-27
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    • 2006
  • The effects of dietary betaine on performance, blood compositions, hepatic amino acid concentrations and hormonal secretions were examined in laying hens. Egg production was significantly higher in birds fed the 16.5 % protein diet compared to those fed 14.5 % protein diet(p<0.05), whereas dietary supplementation of betaine did not show any significant effect. The high level of protein and betaine supplementation significantly improved egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion(p<0.05), while eggshell breaking strength, eggshell thickness and Haugh unit were not influenced by betaine and dietary protein levels. Supplemental betaine did not affect serum total protein, albumin and BUN concentration. However, uric acid concentration significantly increased in 600 ppm betaine-fed groups(p<0.05). Concentrations of most hepatic amino acid were influenced by increased protein feeding and dietary betaine supplementation. Hormone studies recorded significantly higher serum and hepatocyte IGF-I concentration in 600 and 1,200 ppm betaine treatments(p<0.05) compared to those of control group. IGF-I mRNA gene expression of hepatocytes revealed statistically correlated increase in 600 and 1,200 ppm betaine-fed groups compared to the controls(p<0.05). Serum IGFBP-3 concentration was significantly elevated in 600 ppm betaine treatments. However, the secretion of IGFBP-1 in hepatocyte of laying hens fed with 600 and 1,200 ppm of betaine showed a significant decrease compared to the control group(p<0.05). Results of these study show that dietary betaine supplementation affects protein and hormone metabolism in laying hens.

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Metabolic, Osmoregulatory and Nutritional Functions of Betaine in Monogastric Animals

  • Ratriyanto, A.;Mosenthin, R.;Bauer, E.;Eklund, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.10
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    • pp.1461-1476
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    • 2009
  • This review focuses on the metabolic and osmoregulatory functions of betaine and its impact on nutrient digestibility and performance in pigs and poultry. Betaine is the trimethyl derivative of the amino acid glycine, and is present in plant and animal tissue. It has been shown to play an important role in osmoregulation of plants, bacteria and marine organisms. Due to its chemical structure, betaine exerts a number of functions both at the gastrointestinal and metabolic level. As a methyl group donor, betaine is involved in transmethylation reactions and donates its labile methyl group for the synthesis of several metabolically active substances such as creatine and carnitine. Therefore, supplementation of betaine may reduce the requirement for other methyl group donors such as methionine and choline. Beneficial effects on intestinal cells and intestinal microbes have been reported following betaine supplementation to diets for pigs and poultry, which have been attributed to the osmotic properties of betaine. Furthermore, betaine potentially enhances the digestibility of specific nutrients, in particular fiber and minerals. Moreover, at the metabolic level, betaine is involved in protein and energy metabolism. Growth trials revealed positive effects of supplemental betaine on growth performance in pigs and poultry, and there is evidence that betaine acts as a carcass modifier by reducing the carcass fat content. In conclusion, due to its various metabolic and osmoregulatory functions, betaine plays an important role in the nutrition of monogastric animals.

Effects of Dietary Glycine Betaine on Pork Quality in Different Muscle Types

  • Hur, Sun Jin;Yang, Han Sul;Park, Gu Boo;Joo, Seon Tea
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.11
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    • pp.1754-1760
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary glycine betaine on pork quality in different muscle types. A total of 80 female pigs ($Landrace{\times}Yorkshire{\times}Duroc$) were randomly allotted into one of four experimental diet groups. Each group of pigs were fed a commercial diet (Control) with 0.2 g glycine betaine (T1), 0.4 g glycine betaine (T2) and 0.6 g% glycine betaine (T3)/kg for 40 days. pH of belly was significantly higher in the control than dietary glycine betaine groups at 13 days of storage, whereas pH of picnic shoulder and ham were significantly lower in control than glycine betaine groups. At 13 days of storage, redness (a*) of belly was significantly higher in control than dietary glycine betaine groups, whereas picnic shoulder and ham were significantly higher in glycine betaine groups than in the control. Water-holding capacities (WHC) of all muscle samples were significantly higher in the control than glycine betaine groups until 5 days of storage. Sarcomere length was significantly longer in the control than glycine betaine groups. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value of belly was much higher than other muscle types at 13 days of storage. In fatty acid composition, dietary glycine betaine increased the ratio of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and decreased unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) in loins.

Effects of Dietary Glycine Betaine on Growth and Pork Quality of Finishing Pigs

  • Yang, Han Sul;Lee, Jeong Ill;Joo, Seon Tea;Park, Gu Boo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.706-711
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to compare the growth performance and quality properties of pork from finishing pigs fed different levels of betaine. A total 120 female pigs (Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire${\times}$Duroc) were fed either a control commercial diet or the control diet supplemented with 2, 4 and 6% betaine for 31 days. The average daily feed intake (ADFI) of the 2% diet was lower than of the other treatment groups. The average daily gain (ADG) for pigs fed betaine diets was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared with nonsupplemented diets. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) of pigs fed betaine diets was significantly lower (p<0.05) compared with nonsupplemented diets. pH of loin and ham samples were not significantly different between dietary groups, whereas CIE a* (redness) of pork loin was increased by dietary betaine. Also, the shear force value of loin was significantly higher (p<0.05) in pigs given dietary betaine compared with non-supplemented diets, but no significant differences were found in cooking loss by the loin among diets with different levels of betaine (p>0.05). Dietary supplementation with betaine decreased total cholesterol concentrations in blood, and increased saturated fatty acid and decreased unsaturated fatty acid levels in muscle. Pigs supplemented with betaine had increased betaine concentrations in the loin muscle. It was concluded that dietary betaine supplementation of finishing pigs can improve growth performance and reduce blood cholesterol concentrations. It was also concluded that dietary betaine produced detectable betaine concentrations in the lion muscle.

Betaine Alleviates Hypertriglycemia and Tau Hyperphosphorylation in db/db Mice

  • Jung, Ga-Young;Won, Sae-Bom;Kim, Juhae;Jeon, Sookyoung;Han, Anna;Kwon, Young Hye
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2013
  • Betaine supplementation has been shown to alleviate altered glucose and lipid metabolism in mice fed a high-fat diet or a high-sucrose diet. We investigated the beneficial effects of betaine in diabetic db/db mice. Alleviation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress was also examined in the livers and brains of db/db mice fed a betaine-supplemented diet. Male C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice were fed with or without 1% betaine for 5 wk (referred to as the db/db-betaine group and the db/db group, respectively). Lean non-diabetic db/+ mice were used as the control group. Betaine supplementation significantly alleviated hyperinsulinemia in db/db mice. Betaine reduced hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha, a major transcription factor involved in gluconeogenesis. Lower serum triglyceride concentrations were also observed in the db/db-betaine group compared to the db/db group. Betaine supplementation induced hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a mRNA levels, and reduced acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity. Mice fed a betaine-supplemented diet had increased total glutathione concentrations and catalase activity, and reduced lipid peroxidation levels in the liver. Furthermore, betaine also reduced ER stress in liver and brain. c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity and tau hyperphosphorylation levels were lower in db/db mice fed a betaine-supplemented diet, compared to db/db mice. Our findings suggest that betaine improves hyperlipidemia and tau hyperphosphorylation in db/db mice with insulin resistance by alleviating ER and oxidative stress.

Dose-dependent Effects of Betaine on Hepatic Metabolism of Sulfur Amino Acids in Mice (마우스 간의 황함유 아미노산 대사에 미치는 베타인의 용량의존성 영향)

  • Kim, Sang-Kyum
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.69-73
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    • 2009
  • Acute betaine treatment induces time-dependent changes in the hepatic glutathione (GSH), cysteine and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) levels. Our previous study demonstrated that betaine administered $1{\sim}4$ hours prior to sacrifice decreased hepatic GSH levels, but these levels were increased when measured 24 hours following the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine dose-dependent effects of betaine on hepatic metabolism of sulfur amino acid in mice. Mice were sacrificed 2.5 or 24 hours after intraperitoneal treatment with betaine at different dose levels ranging from 50 to 1000 mg/kg. The concentrations of methionine and SAM were increased by a betaine dose of 100 mg/kg, and the concentrations of GSH and cysteine were decreased by a betaine dose of 200 mg/kg at 2.5 hours. These changes were augmented with increasing doses of betaine. At 24 hours following betaine treatment, increased GSH and decreased taurine levels were observed from dose levels of 400 mg/kg. Changes in hepatic activities of cystathionine beta-synthase, gammaglutamylcysteine ligase and cysteine dioxygenase were observed from dose levels of $200{\sim}400$ mg/kg of betaine administered 24 hours prior to sacrifice.

Studies of cold resistant glycine betaine effect on cold sensitive Bacillus subtilis mutant strains (저온 민감성 바실러스 서브틸리스 돌연변이 균주에서 glycine betaine의 저온 내성에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Do Hyung;Lee, Sang Soo
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.54 no.3
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    • pp.200-207
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    • 2018
  • At high salt concentration, glycine betaine is transported into Bacillus subtilis and growing rate of the cell is not suppressed. Also according to recent studies, cell growth is maintained normal growth rate at low temperature. Low temperature results in a stress response of Bacillus subtilis that is characterized by strong repression of major metabolic activities such as translation machinery and membrane transport. In this regards, genes showing cold sensitive phenotype are cold-induced DEAD box RNA helicases (ydbR, yqfR) and fatty acid desaturases (bkdR, des). Therefore to understand the effect of glycine betaine on cold growth of Bacillus subtilis, we investigated the effect of glycine betaine on growth rate of these deletion mutants showing cold sensitive phenotype. Glycine betaine strongly stimulated growth of wild type Bacillus subtilis JH642 and deletion mutants of ydbR and yqfR at $20^{\circ}C$ (190~686 min $T_d$ difference). On the other hands, glycine betaine does not show growth promoting effects on deletion mutants of bkdR, and des at cold conditions. Same cold protectant growth results were shown with the precursor choline instead of glycine betaine. We investigated the effects of detergents on the cell membrane in bkdR and des deficient strains associated with cell membrane. It was identified that bkdR deficient strain shows retarded growth with detergent such as Triton X-100 or N-lauryl sarcosine compared with wild type cell. Thus, it is possible that deletion mutation of bkdR modifies membrane structure and effects on transport of glycine betaine.

산란계 사료에 비태인의 수준별 급여가 하절기 생산성 및 계란의 품질에 미치는 영향

  • Ryu, Myeong-Seon;Shin, Won-Jip;Kim, Sang-Ho;Ryu, Gyeong-Seon
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
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    • pp.49-51
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    • 2001
  • Betaine functions as an osmoregulators in the cells and its inclusion can spare the choline, carcass fat reduction. Thus, two hundred eighty eight of seventy eight weeks old laying hens were fed with 0, 500, 1,000, 2,000 ppm betaine addition during the environmentally high temperature stress. Basal diets contained 16% CP and 2,800 ME. Egg production, feed intake, feed conversion were examined for eight weeks. Egg qualities, liver betaine, blood osmolarity, AntiDiuretic Hormone(ADH) were measured at the end experiment. Egg production of hens fed 500, 2,000 ppm dietary betaine and showed significance between control and 2,000 ppm betaine treatment(P<0.05). ADH of blood sera tended to increase as dietary supplemental betaine increased. The results of this experiments indicated that dietary supplemental betaine was able to improve the performance, eggshell breaking strength, liver betaine in this experiment.

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Antifungal Mechanism of Action of Lauryl Betaine Against Skin-Associated Fungus Malassezia restricta

  • Do, Eunsoo;Lee, Hyun Gee;Park, Minji;Cho, Yong-Joon;Kim, Dong Hyeun;Park, Se-Ho;Eun, Daekyung;Park, Taehun;An, Susun;Jung, Won Hee
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.242-249
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    • 2019
  • Betaine derivatives are considered major ingredients of shampoos and are commonly used as antistatic and viscosity-increasing agents. Several studies have also suggested that betaine derivatives can be used as antimicrobial agents. However, the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of betaine derivatives have not yet been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the antifungal activity of six betaine derivatives against Malassezia restricta, which is the most frequently isolated fungus from the human skin and is implicated in the development of dandruff. We found that, among the six betaine derivatives, lauryl betaine showed the most potent antifungal activity. The mechanism of action of lauryl betaine was studied mainly using another phylogenetically close model fungal organism, Cryptococcus neoformans, because of a lack of available genetic manipulation and functional genomics tools for M. restricta. Our genome-wide reverse genetic screening method using the C. neoformans gene deletion mutant library showed that the mutants with mutations in genes for cell membrane synthesis and integrity, particularly ergosterol synthesis, are highly sensitive to lauryl betaine. Furthermore, transcriptome changes in both C. neoformans and M. restricta cells grown in the presence of lauryl betaine were analyzed and the results indicated that the compound mainly affected cell membrane synthesis, particularly ergosterol synthesis. Overall, our data demonstrated that lauryl betaine influences ergosterol synthesis in C. neoformans and that the compound exerts a similar mechanism of action on M. restricta.