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Influence of granite waste aggregate on properties of binary blend self-compacting concrete

  • Jain, Abhishek;Gupta, Rajesh;Chaudhary, Sandeep
    • Advances in concrete construction
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.127-140
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    • 2020
  • This study explores the feasibility of granite waste aggregate (GWA) as a partial replacement of natural fine aggregate (NFA) in binary blend self-compacting concrete (SCC) prepared with fly ash. Total of nine SCC mixtures were prepared wherein one was Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based control SCC mixture and remaining were fly ash based binary blend SCC mixtures which included the various percentages of GWA. Fresh properties tests such as slump flow, T500, V-funnel, J-ring, L-box, U-box, segregation resistance, bleeding, fresh density, and loss of slump flow (with time) were conducted. Compressive strength and percentage of permeable voids were evaluated in the hardened state. All the SCC mixtures exhibited sufficient flowability, passing ability, and resistance to segregation. Besides, all the binary blend SCC mixtures exhibited lower fresh density and bleeding, and better residual slump (up to 50% of GWA) compared to the OPC based control SCC mixture. Binary blend SCC mixture incorporating up to 40% GWA provided higher compressive strength than binary blend control SCC mixture. The findings of this study encourage the utilization of GWA in the development of binary blend SCC mixtures with satisfactory workability characteristics as a replacement of NFA.

Properties of PA 6,6/Elastomer Blends with Various Elastomer Content (탄성중합체 함유량 변화에 따른 폴리아미드-6,6/탄성중합체 블랜드물의 특성)

  • Lee, Yoong;Lee, Chang-Woo;Cho, Yoon-Ho;Hahm, Yeong-Min
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.20-30
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    • 1999
  • In this study, binary polyamide 6,6(PA 6,6)/ethylene-propylene rubber(EPM) or EPM-g-maleic anhydride(EPM-g-MA) blends and ternary PA 6,6/EPM/EPM-g-MA blends with various elastomer content were prepared in order to investigate the degree of influence of elastomer content and average particle size, morphology, and distribution of dispersed elastomer on mechanical and thermal properties of blends. According to the results, notched Izod impact strength and relative crystallinity of binary blends modified with EPM-g-MA as well as average particle size and distribution of dispersed elastomer in such blends were more improved than those of binary blends modified with EPM. Notched Izod impact strength of blend whose composition ratio(wt % ) was 70:30(PA 6,6 : EPM-g-MA) was the highest among the binary PA 6,6/EPM-g-MA blends. The impact strength was increased by 25 times and its relative crystallinity was increased by 7 times when compared with those of polyamide 6,6. In the case of ternary PA 6,6/EPM/EPM-g-MA blend of which composition ratio was 70:15:15(PA 6,6:EPM:EPM-g-MA), the elastomer was finely distributed with the average particle size of $0.56{\mu}m$. The Izod impact strength of this blend was the highest of all blends prepared with different elastomer content.

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Relationships between Morphologies and Properties of PA 6,6/EPM/EPM-g-MA Blends (PA 6,6/EPM/EPM-g-MA 블렌드물의 특성과 Morphology 관계)

  • Lee, Yoong;Lee, Chang-Woo;Chang, Yoon-Ho;Hahm, Yeong-Min
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.682-689
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    • 1999
  • In this study, binary PA 6,6/EPM(or EPM-g-MA) blends and ternary PA 6,6/EPM/EPM-g-MA blends were fabricated according to the variation in elastomer content and composition ratio of blend, and mixing temperature and rate so as to investigate the degree of influence of elastomer content and average particle size, morphology, and distribution of dispersed elastomer on properties of blends. As results, under the constant mixing rate(250 rpm) and different five section temperature profiles(270-265-265-255-$255^{\circ}C$) in extruder, high notched Izod impact strength was the property of PA 6,6/EPM-g-MA(70/30) blend among binary blends. Notched Izod impact strength of this blend was 25 times improvement compared with that of polyamide 6,6. In addition, elastomer average particle size of ternary PA 6,6/EPM/EPM-g-MA(70/15/15) blend was $0.56{\mu}m$, which was fine distribution, and notched Izod impact strength of that blend was the highest of all blends prepared with the variation in elastomer content. But the properties of this ternary blend were decreased remarkably at the diverse mixing temperatures and mixing rates.

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Characterization and processing of Biodegradable polymer blends of poly(lactic acid) with poly(butylene succinate adipate)

  • Lee, Sang-Mook;Lee, Jae-Wook
    • Korea-Australia Rheology Journal
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 2005
  • We investigated thermal, rheological, morphological and mechanical properties of a binary blend of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(butylene succinate adipate) (PBSA). The blends were extruded and their molded properties were examined. DSC thermograms of blends indicated that the thermal properties of PLA did not change noticeably with the amount of PBSA, but thermogravimetric analysis showed that thermal stability of the blends was lower than that of pure PLA and PBSA. Immiscibility was checked with thermal data. The rheological properties of the blends changed remarkably with composition. The tensile strength and modulus of blends decreased with PBSA content. Interestingly, however, the impact strength of PLA/PBSA (80/20) blend was seriously increased higher than the rule of mixture. Morphology of the blends showed a typical sea and island structure of immiscible blend. The effect of the blend composition on the biodegradation was also investigated. In the early stage of the degradation test, the highest rate was observed for the blend containing $80wt\%$ PBSA.

Morphological Properties of Binary Blends of Polyolefins Synthesized by Metallocene and Ziegler-Natta Catalysts (Ziegler-Natta와 메탈로센 촉매로 합성된 폴리올레핀 2원 블렌드의 상 형태학)

  • Kwag, Hanjin;Kim, Hak Lim;Choe, Soonja
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.944-948
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    • 1999
  • The morphological properties of four binary blends of polyethylene synthesized by metallocene catalyst(MCPE) and four polyolefins prepared by Ziegler-Natta catalyst have been investigated to interpret the effect of micro-molecular structure on the phase morphology and interfacial behavior; four binary blend systems studied are high density polyethylene(HDPE)-metallocene polyethylene (MCPE), polypropylene(PP)-MCPE, poly(propylene-co-ethylene) (CoPP)-MCPE, and poly(propylene-co-ethylene-co-1-butylene) (TerPP)-MCPE, and they are all phase separated. The HDPE-MCPE blend shows evenly growing homogeneous HDPE domain on the continuous MCPE phase, on the other hand, the rest of three blends show complex heterogeneous phase behavior. The PP-MCPE blend shows that PP and MCPE and completely phase separated and phase inversion takes place at 50% MCPE. The CoPP-MCPE and TerPP-MCPE show enhanced interface due to the same micro-molecular structure of ethylene, and phase inversion takes place at 40% MCPE. In particular, TerPP-MCPE blend shows improved phase morphology between interfaces, and this may be arisen from the comonomer contents in TerPP, which are 1-butene and ethylene having the same chemical structure as that of MCPE. The enhancement of the phase morphology in the TerPP-MCPE blend is correlated with the mechanical and morphological properties. Thus, although the four blend systems are phase separated, the phase morphology suggests that the order of interfacial adhesion strength be HDPE-MCPE > TerPP-MCPE > CoPP-MCPE > PP-MCPE and that micro-molecular structure between constituents be one of major factors giving enhanced interfacial adhesion.

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Melt Rheology of Ethylene 1-Octene Copolymer Blends Synthesized by Ziegler-Natta and Metallocene Catalysts

  • Kim, Hak-Lim;Dipak Rana;Hanjin Kwag;Soonja Choe
    • Macromolecular Research
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.34-43
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    • 2000
  • The melt rheology of four binary blends of ethylene 1-octene copolymers (EOCs) which consist of one component by Ziegler-Natta and another by metallocene catalysts, was studied to elucidate miscibility in the melt by using torsion rheometer at 200$\^{C}$ and different shear rates. The four blend systems, designated into the FA+FM, SF+FM, RF+EN, and RF+PL blend, are divided and interpreted based on the melt index (MI), the density and the comonomer contents. The melt viscosity such asη', η", and η$\^$*/ is weight average value if the comonomer contents are similar, otherwise they show different manner. The experimental resole are analyzed based on the Cole-Cole plot of logη' uersus log η", the logarithmic plots of the dynamic storage modulus (G') versus the dynamic loss modulus (G") for various blend compositions, and the melt viscosity of 11', n", and f" as a function of blend compositions. As a cerise-quence, the FA+FM blend is miscible, but the SF+FM, RF+EN, and RF+PL blends are not in the melt. Thus miscibility of the blends studied in this communication is suggested to strongly influence by the comonomer contents rather than the density or the MI.

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Spinodal Phase Separation and Isothermal Crystallization Behavior in Blends of VDF/TrFE(75/25) Copolymer and Poly(1,4-butylene adipate) (I) -Spinodal Phase Separation Behavior-

  • Kim, Kap Jin;Kyu, Thein
    • Fibers and Polymers
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.188-194
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    • 2003
  • Phase behavior and spinodal phase separation kinetics in binary blends of a random copolymer of vinylidene fluoride and trifluoroethylene (75/25) [P(VDF/TrFE)] and poly(l,4-butylene adipate) (PBA) have been investigated by means of optical microscopic observation and time-resolved light scattering. The blends exhibited a typical lower critical solution temperature (LCST)∼${34}^{\circ}C$ above the melting temperature of the P(VDF/TrFE) crystals over the entire blend composition range. P(VDF/TrFE) and PBA were totally miscible in the temperature gap between the melting point of P(VDF/TrFE) and the LCST. Temperature jump experiments of the 3/7 P(VDF/TrFE)/PBA blend were carried out on a light-scattering apparatus from a single-phase melt state (${180}^{\circ}C$) to a two-phase region (205∼${215}^{\circ}C$). Since the late stage of spinodal decomposition (SD) is prevalent in the 3/7 blend, SD was analyzed using a power law scheme. Self-similarity was preserved well in the late stage of SD in the 3/7 blend.

Strength and durability studies on high strength concrete using ceramic waste powder

  • Karthikeyan, B.;Dhinakaran, G.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.61 no.2
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    • pp.171-181
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    • 2017
  • This paper summarizes the study on effect of ceramic waste powder as partial substitute to cement in binary blend and along with silica fume in ternary blend high strength concrete in normal and aggressive environments. Strength parameters such as compression & tension and durability indices such as corrosion measurement, deterioration, water absorption and porosity were studied. Ceramic waste powder was used in three different percentages namely 5, 10 and 15 with constant percentage of silica fume (1%) as substitutes to cement in ternary blend high strength concrete was investigated. After a detailed investigation, it was understood that concrete with 15% ceramic waste powder registered maximum performance. Increase of ceramic waste powder offered better resistance to deterioration of concrete.

Plastic viscosity based mix design of self-compacting concrete with crushed rock fines

  • Kalyana Rama, JS;Sivakumar, MVN;Vasan, A;Kubair, Sai;Ramachandra Murthy, A
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.461-468
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    • 2017
  • With the increasing demand in the production of concrete, there is a need for adopting a feasible, economical and sustainable technique to fulfill practical requirements. Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) is one such technique which addresses the concrete industry in providing eco-friendly and cost effective concrete. The objective of the present study is to develop a mix design for SCC with Crushed Rock Fines (CRF) as fine aggregate based on the plastic viscosity of the mix and validate the same for its fresh and hardened properties. Effect of plastic viscosity on the fresh and hardened properties of SCC is also addressed in the present study. SCC mixes are made with binary and ternary blends of Fly Ash (FA) and Ground Granulated Blast Slag (GGBS) with varying percentages as a partial replacement to Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The proposed mix design is validated successfully with the experimental investigations. The results obtained, indicated that the fresh properties are best achieved for SCC mix with ternary blend followed by binary blend with GGBS, Fly Ash and mix with pure OPC. It is also observed that the replacement of sand with 100% CRF resulted in a workable and cohesive mix.

A Study on the Commercialization of Polyamide 66/Polypropylene Blend (폴리아마이드 66/폴리프로필렌 블렌드의 상업화 연구)

  • Kim, Seog-Jun;Nam, Byeong-Uk
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.262-272
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    • 2003
  • Maleic anhydride-grafted-polypropylene(PP-g-MA) were used as a blend component and a compatibilizer, respectively, for two reactive blends of polyamide 66(PA 66)PP-g-MA binary blends and PA 66/polypropylene(PP)/PP-g-MA ternary blends. The goal of this work was to investigate the property differences between binary and ternary blends. Tensile strength, flexural modulus, heat deflection temperature, impact strength, melt flow index, and the dependence of melt viscosity on the shear rate were examined. The impact strengths of binary blends were higher than those of ternary blends at all compositions, since the in situ synthesis of PP-g-PA 66 copolymer through the imide formation between the amine end group of PA 66 and the anhydride group of PP-g-MA gave the increase of molecular weight and was more popular in binary blends than in ternary blends. In case of ternary blends, most of the properties were superior to those of binary blends, owing to the better properties of PP compared with PP-g-MA. The toughened binary blends with 70/30(PA 66/PP-g-MA) and 80/20 ratios were not commercially applicable due to their poor processibility. So, the ternary blends which showed lower melt viscosities were recommended for the commercial applications.