• Title/Summary/Keyword: bioavailability

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Molecular targets of pepper as bioavailability enhancer

  • Gohil, Priyanshee;Mehta, Anita
    • Advances in Traditional Medicine
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.269-276
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    • 2009
  • Black pepper (family Piperaceae), is called king of spices because it is one of the oldest spice and alone accounts for about 35% of the world's total spice trade. The pepper is used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of various ailments particularly neurological, broncho-pulmonary and gastrointestinal disorders. Pepper has also been reported to have various pharmacological actions but recently, it is highlighted as a bioavailability enhancer. This results in higher plasma concentration of drugs, nutrients, ions and other xenobiotics, rendering them more bioavailable for physiological as well as pharmacological actions in the body. Numerous scientific studies reported that piperine; a main bioactive compound of pepper, is responsible for its bioavailability enhancing property. It's a well known fact that pepper enhances bioavailability by inhibition of microsomal enzyme system but other mechanisms are also responsible to acts as a bioavailability enhancer. The brief overview of the mechanism of action of pepper as well as its applications as bioavailability enhancer is given in the present article.

Bioavailability of Phosphorus in Two Cultivars of Pea for Broiler Chicks

  • Woyengo, T.A.;Emiola, I.A.;Kim, I.H.;Nyachoti, C.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.396-403
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    • 2016
  • The aim was to determine the relative bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in peas for 21-day old broiler chickens using slope-ratio assay. One hundred and sixty eight male Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided into 42 groups 4 balanced for body weight and fed 7 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups/diet) from day 1 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the corn-soybean meal basal diet to which monosodium phosphate, brown- or yellow-seeded pea was added at the expense of cornstarch to supply 0.5% or 1% total phosphorus. Monosodium phosphate was included as a reference, and hence the estimated bioavailability of P in pea cultivars was relative to that in the monosodium phosphate. Birds and feed were weighed weekly and on d 21 they were killed to obtain tibia. The brown-seeded pea contained 23.4% crude protein, 0.47% P, whereas the yellow-seeded pea contained 24.3% crude protein and 0.38% P. Increasing dietary P supply improved (p<0.05) chick body weight gain and tibia ash and bone density. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas obtained using final body weight, average daily gain, tibia ash, and bone mineral density were 31.5% and 36.2%, 35.6% and 37.3%, 23.0% and 5.60%, and 40.3% and 30.3%, respectively. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas did not differ within each of the response criteria measured in this study. In conclusion, the relative bioavailability of P in pea did not differ depending on the cultivar (brown- vs yellow-seed). However, the relative bioavailability of P in pea may vary depending on the response criterion used to measure the bioavailability.

Bioavailability of slow-desorbable naphthalene in a biological air sparging system

  • Li, Guang-Chun;Chung, Seon-Yong;Park, Jeong-Hun
    • Advances in environmental research
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.201-210
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    • 2012
  • The bioavailability of sorbed organic contaminants is one of the most important factors used to determine their fate in the environment. This study was conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of slow-desorbable naphthalene in soils. An air sparging system was utilized to remove dissolved (or desorbed) naphthalene continuously and to limit the bacterial utilization of dissolved naphthalene. A biological air sparging system (air sparging system with bacteria) was developed to evaluate the bioavailability of the slow-desorption fraction in soils. Three different strains (Pseudomonas putida G7, Pseudomonas sp. CZ6 and Burkholderia sp. KM1) and two soils were used. Slow-desorbable naphthalene continuously decreased under air sparging; however, a greater decrease was observed in response to the biological air sparging system. Enhanced bioavailability was not observed in the Jangseong soil. Overall, the results of this study suggests that the removal rate of slow-desorbable contaminants may be enhanced by inoculation of degrading bacteria into an air sparging system during the remediation of contaminated soils. However, the enhanced bioavailability was found to depend more on the soil properties than the bacterial characteristics.

Bioavailabilities of Omeprazole Administered to Rats through Various Routes

  • Choi, Mi-Sook;Lee, Young-Hee;Shim, Chang-Koo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.141-145
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    • 1995
  • Omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, was given intravenously (iv), orally (po), intraperitoneally (ip), hepatoportalvenously (pv), and intrarectally (ir) to rats at a dose of 72mg/kg in order to investigate the bioavailability of the drug, The extent of bioavailabilities of omeprazole administered through pv, ip, po, and ir routes were 88.5, 79.4, 40,8, and 38.7%, respectively. Pharmacokinetic analysis in this study and literatures (Regardh et al., 1985 : Watanabe et al., 1994) implied significant dose-dependency in hepatic first-pass metabolism, clearance and distribution, and acidic degradation in gastric fluid. The high bioavailability from the pv administration (88.5%) means that only 11.5% of dose was extracted by the first-pass metabolism through the liver at this dose (72 mg/kg). The low bioavailability from the oral administration (40.8%) in spite of minor hepatic first-pass extraction indicates low transport of the drug from GI lumen to portal vein. From the literature (Pilbrant and Cederberg, 1985), acidic degradation in gastric fluid was considered to be the major cause of the low transport. Thus, enteric coating of oral preparations would enhance the oral bioavailability substantially. The bioavailability of the drug from the rectal route, in which acidic degradation and hepatic first-pass metabolism may not occur, was low (38.7%) but comparable to that from the oral route (40.8 %) indicating poor transport across the rectal membrane. In this case, addition of an appropriate absorption enhancer would improve the bioavailability. Rectal route seems to be an possible alternative to the conventional oral route for omeprazole administration.

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Studies on the Bioavailability of Acetaminophen Tablets (아세트 아미노펜 정(錠)의 생체이용률(生體利用率)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Chul-Ki;Ko, Geun-Il;Kim, Jae-Baek
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.12-18
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    • 1981
  • We made tablets by several formulations of acetaminophen and their bioavailability was compared with acetaminophen syrup. Result of this experiment, we were observed the highest bioavailability in the C tablet as same as syrup preparation, but in tablet B and tablet A we were observed the lower bioavailability compared with the syrup preparation.

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Effects of Polyoxyl 40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil on Solubility and Bioavailability of Silymarin in Combined Preparation Containing Silymarin and Ursodeoxycholic Acid (Polyoxyl 40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil이 실리마린과 우루소데옥시콜린산 복합제제중 실리마린의 용해성 및 생체이용률에 미치는 영향)

  • 장우익;남권호;조재열;이재희;유영호;박명호;김재환
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.272-277
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    • 1997
  • The effect of nonionic surfactant(polyoxyl 40 hydrogenated castor oil, PHCO), a common solubi-lizer, on the solubility of silymarin in the combined preparation containing ursoseoxycholic acid(UDCA) and silymarin was investigated in vivo using HPLC. The solubility of silybin, a major component of silymarin, was enhanced by increasing the amount of PHCO. The effect of PHCO on bioavailability was also evaluated in rats. The bioavailability was calculated by silybin content in bile juice that was excreted for 24 hr after oral administration. It was found that the bioavailability of silymarin containing PHCO was significantly increased compared to that of control. These results suggest that PHCO may improve the solubility and bioavailabilty of silymarin when it is combined with UDCA and silymarin.

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Zinc Bioavailability in a Semolina/Soy Protein Mixture Was Not Affected by Extrusion Processing

  • Kang, Soo-Young;Wanda L. Chenoweth
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.71-76
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    • 2000
  • Effects of extrusion processing on zinc bioavailability in a product made from 85% semolina and 15% soy protein concentrate were determined using in vitro and in vivo techniques. Soluble and dialyzable zinc contents of the extruded product were 15.3 and 13.0 $\mu$g/g, respectively, compared to 15.6 to 15.0$\mu$g/g in the raw (unprocessed) ingredients. Zinc bioavailability in diets in which all of the zinc (14ppm) was provided either by the extruded product or by its raw ingredients was determined in two groups of male Sprague Dawley rats. No differences were found in concentrations of zinc in plasma, liver and femur between rats fed the two experimental diets. Apparent zinc digestibility was similar for both diets. These results are consistent with the in vitro results showing no effect of extrusion processing on zinc bioavailability.

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Effect of Bile juice on the Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Acebutolol in Rabbits (토끼에서 체내담즙이 아세부톨롤의 생체이용률 및 체내동태에 미치는 영향)

  • 최준식
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.47-51
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    • 2002
  • Although acebutolol (ABT) is almost completely absorbed in the gastrointestinal (Gl) tract, oral bioavailability of the drug is low due to extensive first-pass metabolism in the Gl tract and liver. In the present study, bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of ABT was studied in bile duct-bypassed rabbits after oral administration. For ABT the time to reach the plasma peak (T$_{max}$) and mean resident time (MRT) were increased by the treatment. For diacetolol (DAT), a metabolite of ABT area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), T$_{max}$ and plasma half-life were increased by the treatment. These results indicate that oral bioavailability of ABT is associated with the enterohepatic recycling of bile juice components.nts.

Effects of Morin on the Bioavailability of Doxorubicin for Oral Delivery in Rats

  • Son, Hong-Mook;Choi, Jun-Shik
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.243-248
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of morin, an antioxidant, on the bioavailability of doxorubicin (DOX) in rats. Thus, DOX was administered intravenously (10 mg/kg) or orally (50 mg/kg) with or without oral morin (0.5, 3 and 10 mg/kg). In the presence of morin, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of DOX was significantly greater than that of the control. In the presence of 3 and 10 mg/kg of morin, the peak concentration $C_{MAX}$) was significantly higher than that of the control. Consequently, the absolute bioavailability (AB) of DOX in the presence of morin was 3.7-8.3%, which was significantly enhanced compared with those of the control group (2.7%). The relative bioavailability (RB) of DOX was 1.36 to 3.02 times higher than those of the control group. Compared to the intravenous control, the presence of morin increased the AUC of DOX, but was not significantly affected. The enhanced bioavailability of oral DOX by oral morin may be due to the inhibition of both P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A in the intestine and/or liver by morin. This result may suggest that the development of oral DOX combination with morin is feasible, which is more convenient than the i.v. dosage forms. The present study raised the awareness about the potential drug interactions by concomitant use of DOX with morin.

The Study on the Bioavailability of the Phenytoin Products (페니토인 제제의 생체이용률에 관한 연구)

  • 박경호;김낙두;이민화
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.14-23
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    • 1986
  • This study was conducted to investigate the correlation between the dissolution rates and the bioavailabilities of commercial phenytoin products, and also the correlation between their biovailabilities in rabbits and those in humans. Dissolution test was conducted in pH 9. 0 alkaline borate buffer (0.2M) using basket method with seven phenytoin products commercially available. According to the dissolution rate, the phenytoin products were divided into three groups, such as rapid, intermediate and slow group. Three phenytoin products from each group were selected for the bioavailability test in rabbits and humans. The bioavailability test was carried out in rabbits and normal volunteers using cross over design. Single doses of 20mg/kg and 300mg/man were orally administered to rabbits and normal volunteers respectively. Average $C_{max}$, $t_{max}$ and AUC of three phenytoin products were determined from the serum concentration-time curve in rabbit and human experiments. The relative bioavailability evaluation was conducted using AUC of three phenytoin products. The correlations between the dissolution rate constants and bioavailabilities (AUC) of three phenytoin products in rabbits as well as those in humans were not found. Whereas, there was significant correlation between average AUC of three phenytoin products in humans and those in rabbits (r=0.993, p<0.1). From the results of this experiment, it can be concluded that the bioavailability of phenytoin products in humans may be predicted from the results of the rabbit experiment. Also it is assumed that the prediction of the bioavailability of phenytoin products in humans may be difficult from the only results of in vitro dissolution test.

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