• Title, Summary, Keyword: bioavailability

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Molecular targets of pepper as bioavailability enhancer

  • Gohil, Priyanshee;Mehta, Anita
    • Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.269-276
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    • 2009
  • Black pepper (family Piperaceae), is called king of spices because it is one of the oldest spice and alone accounts for about 35% of the world's total spice trade. The pepper is used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of various ailments particularly neurological, broncho-pulmonary and gastrointestinal disorders. Pepper has also been reported to have various pharmacological actions but recently, it is highlighted as a bioavailability enhancer. This results in higher plasma concentration of drugs, nutrients, ions and other xenobiotics, rendering them more bioavailable for physiological as well as pharmacological actions in the body. Numerous scientific studies reported that piperine; a main bioactive compound of pepper, is responsible for its bioavailability enhancing property. It's a well known fact that pepper enhances bioavailability by inhibition of microsomal enzyme system but other mechanisms are also responsible to acts as a bioavailability enhancer. The brief overview of the mechanism of action of pepper as well as its applications as bioavailability enhancer is given in the present article.

Bioavailability of Phosphorus in Two Cultivars of Pea for Broiler Chicks

  • Woyengo, T.A.;Emiola, I.A.;Kim, I.H.;Nyachoti, C.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.396-403
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    • 2016
  • The aim was to determine the relative bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in peas for 21-day old broiler chickens using slope-ratio assay. One hundred and sixty eight male Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided into 42 groups 4 balanced for body weight and fed 7 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups/diet) from day 1 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the corn-soybean meal basal diet to which monosodium phosphate, brown- or yellow-seeded pea was added at the expense of cornstarch to supply 0.5% or 1% total phosphorus. Monosodium phosphate was included as a reference, and hence the estimated bioavailability of P in pea cultivars was relative to that in the monosodium phosphate. Birds and feed were weighed weekly and on d 21 they were killed to obtain tibia. The brown-seeded pea contained 23.4% crude protein, 0.47% P, whereas the yellow-seeded pea contained 24.3% crude protein and 0.38% P. Increasing dietary P supply improved (p<0.05) chick body weight gain and tibia ash and bone density. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas obtained using final body weight, average daily gain, tibia ash, and bone mineral density were 31.5% and 36.2%, 35.6% and 37.3%, 23.0% and 5.60%, and 40.3% and 30.3%, respectively. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas did not differ within each of the response criteria measured in this study. In conclusion, the relative bioavailability of P in pea did not differ depending on the cultivar (brown- vs yellow-seed). However, the relative bioavailability of P in pea may vary depending on the response criterion used to measure the bioavailability.

Bioavailabilities of Omeprazole Administered to Rats through Various Routes

  • Choi, Mi-Sook;Lee, Young-Hee;Shim, Chang-Koo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.141-145
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    • 1995
  • Omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, was given intravenously (iv), orally (po), intraperitoneally (ip), hepatoportalvenously (pv), and intrarectally (ir) to rats at a dose of 72mg/kg in order to investigate the bioavailability of the drug, The extent of bioavailabilities of omeprazole administered through pv, ip, po, and ir routes were 88.5, 79.4, 40,8, and 38.7%, respectively. Pharmacokinetic analysis in this study and literatures (Regardh et al., 1985 : Watanabe et al., 1994) implied significant dose-dependency in hepatic first-pass metabolism, clearance and distribution, and acidic degradation in gastric fluid. The high bioavailability from the pv administration (88.5%) means that only 11.5% of dose was extracted by the first-pass metabolism through the liver at this dose (72 mg/kg). The low bioavailability from the oral administration (40.8%) in spite of minor hepatic first-pass extraction indicates low transport of the drug from GI lumen to portal vein. From the literature (Pilbrant and Cederberg, 1985), acidic degradation in gastric fluid was considered to be the major cause of the low transport. Thus, enteric coating of oral preparations would enhance the oral bioavailability substantially. The bioavailability of the drug from the rectal route, in which acidic degradation and hepatic first-pass metabolism may not occur, was low (38.7%) but comparable to that from the oral route (40.8 %) indicating poor transport across the rectal membrane. In this case, addition of an appropriate absorption enhancer would improve the bioavailability. Rectal route seems to be an possible alternative to the conventional oral route for omeprazole administration.

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Bioavailability of slow-desorbable naphthalene in a biological air sparging system

  • Li, Guang-Chun;Chung, Seon-Yong;Park, Jeong-Hun
    • Advances in environmental research
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.201-210
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    • 2012
  • The bioavailability of sorbed organic contaminants is one of the most important factors used to determine their fate in the environment. This study was conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of slow-desorbable naphthalene in soils. An air sparging system was utilized to remove dissolved (or desorbed) naphthalene continuously and to limit the bacterial utilization of dissolved naphthalene. A biological air sparging system (air sparging system with bacteria) was developed to evaluate the bioavailability of the slow-desorption fraction in soils. Three different strains (Pseudomonas putida G7, Pseudomonas sp. CZ6 and Burkholderia sp. KM1) and two soils were used. Slow-desorbable naphthalene continuously decreased under air sparging; however, a greater decrease was observed in response to the biological air sparging system. Enhanced bioavailability was not observed in the Jangseong soil. Overall, the results of this study suggests that the removal rate of slow-desorbable contaminants may be enhanced by inoculation of degrading bacteria into an air sparging system during the remediation of contaminated soils. However, the enhanced bioavailability was found to depend more on the soil properties than the bacterial characteristics.

Studies on the Bioavailability of Acetaminophen Tablets (아세트 아미노펜 정(錠)의 생체이용률(生體利用率)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Chul-Ki;Ko, Geun-Il;Kim, Jae-Baek
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.12-18
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    • 1981
  • We made tablets by several formulations of acetaminophen and their bioavailability was compared with acetaminophen syrup. Result of this experiment, we were observed the highest bioavailability in the C tablet as same as syrup preparation, but in tablet B and tablet A we were observed the lower bioavailability compared with the syrup preparation.

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Effect of Bile juice on the Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Acebutolol in Rabbits (토끼에서 체내담즙이 아세부톨롤의 생체이용률 및 체내동태에 미치는 영향)

  • 최준식
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.47-51
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    • 2002
  • Although acebutolol (ABT) is almost completely absorbed in the gastrointestinal (Gl) tract, oral bioavailability of the drug is low due to extensive first-pass metabolism in the Gl tract and liver. In the present study, bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of ABT was studied in bile duct-bypassed rabbits after oral administration. For ABT the time to reach the plasma peak (T$_{max}$) and mean resident time (MRT) were increased by the treatment. For diacetolol (DAT), a metabolite of ABT area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), T$_{max}$ and plasma half-life were increased by the treatment. These results indicate that oral bioavailability of ABT is associated with the enterohepatic recycling of bile juice components.nts.

Zinc Bioavailability in a Semolina/Soy Protein Mixture Was Not Affected by Extrusion Processing

  • Kang, Soo-Young;Wanda L. Chenoweth
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.71-76
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    • 2000
  • Effects of extrusion processing on zinc bioavailability in a product made from 85% semolina and 15% soy protein concentrate were determined using in vitro and in vivo techniques. Soluble and dialyzable zinc contents of the extruded product were 15.3 and 13.0 $\mu$g/g, respectively, compared to 15.6 to 15.0$\mu$g/g in the raw (unprocessed) ingredients. Zinc bioavailability in diets in which all of the zinc (14ppm) was provided either by the extruded product or by its raw ingredients was determined in two groups of male Sprague Dawley rats. No differences were found in concentrations of zinc in plasma, liver and femur between rats fed the two experimental diets. Apparent zinc digestibility was similar for both diets. These results are consistent with the in vitro results showing no effect of extrusion processing on zinc bioavailability.

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Effects of Polyoxyl 40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil on Solubility and Bioavailability of Silymarin in Combined Preparation Containing Silymarin and Ursodeoxycholic Acid (Polyoxyl 40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil이 실리마린과 우루소데옥시콜린산 복합제제중 실리마린의 용해성 및 생체이용률에 미치는 영향)

  • 장우익;남권호;조재열;이재희;유영호;박명호;김재환
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.272-277
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    • 1997
  • The effect of nonionic surfactant(polyoxyl 40 hydrogenated castor oil, PHCO), a common solubi-lizer, on the solubility of silymarin in the combined preparation containing ursoseoxycholic acid(UDCA) and silymarin was investigated in vivo using HPLC. The solubility of silybin, a major component of silymarin, was enhanced by increasing the amount of PHCO. The effect of PHCO on bioavailability was also evaluated in rats. The bioavailability was calculated by silybin content in bile juice that was excreted for 24 hr after oral administration. It was found that the bioavailability of silymarin containing PHCO was significantly increased compared to that of control. These results suggest that PHCO may improve the solubility and bioavailabilty of silymarin when it is combined with UDCA and silymarin.

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Preliminary Imaging Analysis for Enhanced Intestinal Uptake of Non-soluble Polystyrene Microspheres in the Presence of Oleic Acid using Rat Intestine

  • Tran, Huyen Thi Thanh;Tran, Phuong Ha Lien;Tran, Thao Truong-Dinh;Lee, Kyung-Ho;Lee, Beom-Jin
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.155-159
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    • 2009
  • In vitro intestinal uptake of non-soluble polystyrene microspheres (NPMS) was visualized with and without oleic acid using a fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescent polystyrene latex microspheres with 1${\mu}$m larger size were used as models for nonspecifically absorbed nonbiodegradable particulates. The NPMS could not penetrate the enterocytes but a few NPMS could be penetrated via Peyer's patches. When the oleic acid was mixed with NPMS, the transporting efficiency of NPMS through enterocytes as well as Peyer's patches was significantly enhanced. The modification of the intestinal membrane permeability and surface feature of the NPMS in the presence of oleic acid might be a clue to the transport of NSPM although the detailed mechanism is still under investigation.

Micro-/nano-sized delivery systems of ginsenosides for improved systemic bioavailability

  • Kim, Hyeongmin;Lee, Jong Hyuk;Kim, Jee Eun;Kim, Young Su;Ryu, Choong Ho;Lee, Hong Joo;Kim, Hye Min;Jeon, Hyojin;Won, Hyo-Joong;Lee, Ji-Yun;Lee, Jaehwi
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.361-369
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    • 2018
  • Ginsenosides, dammarane-type triterpene saponins obtained from ginseng, have been used as a natural medicine for many years in the Orient due to their various pharmacological activities. However, the therapeutic potential of ginsenosides has been largely limited by the low bioavailability of the natural products caused mainly by low aqueous solubility, poor biomembrane permeability, instability in the gastrointestinal tract, and extensive metabolism in the body. To enhance the bioavailability of ginsenosides, diverse micro-/nano-sized delivery systems such as emulsions, polymeric particles, and vesicular systems have been investigated. The delivery systems improved the bioavailability of ginsenosides by enhancing solubility, permeability, and stability of the natural products. This mini-review aims to provide comprehensive information on the micro-/nano-sized delivery systems for increasing the bioavailability of ginsenosides, which may be helpful for designing better delivery systems to maximize the versatile therapeutic potential of ginsenosides.