• Title, Summary, Keyword: biodosimetry

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Gene Expression Biodosimetry: Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Dose with Total Body Exposure of Rats

  • Saberi, Alihossein;Khodamoradi, Ehsan;Birgani, Mohammad Javad Tahmasebi;Makvandi, Manoochehr
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8553-8557
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    • 2016
  • Background: Accurate dose assessment and correct identification of irradiated from non-irradiated people are goals of biological dosimetry in radiation accidents. Objectives: Changes in the FDXR and the RAD51 gene expression (GE) levels were here analyzed in response to total body exposure (TBE) to a 6 MV x-ray beam in rats. We determined the accuracy for absolute quantification of GE to predict the dose at 24 hours. Materials and Methods: For this in vivo experimental study, using simple randomized sampling, peripheral blood samples were collected from a total of 20 Wistar rats at 24 hours following exposure of total body to 6 MV X-ray beam energy with doses (0.2, 0.5, 2 and 4 Gy) for TBE in Linac Varian 2100C/D (Varian, USA) in Golestan Hospital, in Ahvaz, Iran. Also, 9 rats was irradiated with a 6MV X-ray beam at doses of 1, 2, 3 Gy in 6MV energy as a validation group. A sham group was also included. After RNA extraction and DNA synthesis, GE changes were measured by the QRT-PCR technique and an absolute quantification strategy by taqman methodology in peripheral blood from rats. ROC analysis was used to distinguish irradiated from non-irradiated samples (qualitative dose assessment) at a dose of 2 Gy. Results: The best fits for mean of responses were polynomial equations with a R2 of 0.98 and 0.90 (for FDXR and RAD51 dose response curves, respectively). Dose response of the FDXR gene produced a better mean dose estimation of irradiated "validation" samples compared to the RAD51 gene at doses of 1, 2 and 3 Gy. FDXR gene expression separated the irradiated rats from controls with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 87.5%, 83.5% and 81.3%, respectively, 24 hours after dose of 2 Gy. These values were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the 75%, 75% and 75%, respectively, obtained using gene expression of RAD51 analysis at a dose of 2 Gy. Conclusions: Collectively, these data suggest that absolute quantification by gel purified quantitative RT-PCR can be used to measure the mRNA copies for GE biodosimetry studies at comparable accuracy to similar methods. In the case of TBE with 6MV energy, FDXR gene expression analysis is more precise than that with RAD51 for quantitative and qualitative dose assessment.

Assessment of DNA damage and Chromosome aberration in human lymphocyte exposed to low dose radiation detected by FISH(fluorescence in situ hybridization) and SCGE(single cell gel electrophoresis) (FISH기법 및 단세포전기영동기법을 이용한 저선량 방사선에 의한 DNA 상해 및 염색체이상 평가)

  • Chung, Hai-Won;Kim, Su-Young;Kim, Byung-Mo;Kim, Sun-Jin;Kim, Tae-Hwan;Cho, Chul-Koo;Ha, Sung-Whan
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.223-232
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    • 2000
  • Comparative study was performed for the assessment of DNA damage and Chromosomal aberration in human lymphocyte exposed to low dose radiation using fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) and single cell gel electrophoresis(SCGE). Chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes exposed to radiation at doses of 5, 10, 30 and 50cGy were analysed with whole chromosome-specific probes by human chromosome 1, 2 and 4 according to PAINT system. FISH with chromosome-specific probe has been used to be a valid and rapid method fer detection of chromosome rearrangements induced by low dose radiation. The frequencies of stable translocation per cell equivalents were 0.0116, 0.0375, 0.040f, 0.0727 and 0.0814 for 0, 5, 10, 30 and 50cGy, respectively, and those of dicentric were 0.00, 0.0125, 0.174, 0.0291 and 0.0407 respectively. Radiation induced DNA damage in human lymphocyte in a dose-dependent manner at low doses from 5cGy to 50cGy, which were analysed by single tell gel electrophoresis(SCGE). From above results, FISH seemed to be useful for radiation biodosimetry by which the frequencies of stable aberrations in human lymphocyte can be observed more easily than by conventional method and SCGE also seemed to be sensitive method f9r detecting DNA damage by low dose radiation exposure, so that those methods will improve our technique to perform meaningful biodosimetry for radiation at low doses.

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Relationship between the DNA content of human chromosome and their contribution to radiation-induced chromosome aberration analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) (방사선에 의한 염색체이상과 DNA 함량과의 관계)

  • Chung, Hai-Won;Kim, Su-Young;Ha, Sung-Whan;Kim, Tae-Hwan;Cho, Chul-Koo
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.101-111
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    • 2001
  • To study the relationship between the DNA content of human chromosomes and their involvement in radiation-induced structural chromosome aberrations, the frequencies of translocations and dicentrics induced in human lymphocytes after in vitro exposure to 2Gy of x-tay were analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH). Single whole chromosome probes(WCP), specific for chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 9, and 21 and triple combination of probes tot chromosome 1, 2 & 4 were used separately. A significant deviation of the frequency of symmetrical translocation and dicentrics from a DNA-proportional distribution was observed. Chromosomes 2, 7, 8, 9 and 21 were less frequently involved in the formation of symmetrical translocations and dicentrics than expected, whereas chromosomes 1 and 4 were more frequently involved. Chromosome 2 and 4 showed a higher frequency of acentric fragments. When triple combination probe for chromosome 1, 2 & 4 was used, no differences were found between the observed and expected frequency of exchange type aberrations. The results showed that the frequency of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations was not proportional to DNA contents, suggesting the difference in the susceptibility to specific aberrations among individual chromosomes. The results also indicated that the FISH technique with combination of probes for chromosome 1, 2 & 4 was useful for radiation biodosimetry.

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Analysis of Chromosome aberrations by fluorescence in situ hybridization using triple chromosome-specific probes in human lymphocyte exposed to radiation (3중 DNA probe를 이용한 FISH(fluorescence in situ hybridization) 기법으로 방사선에 의한 염색체 이상 분석)

  • Chung, Hai-Won;Kim, Su-Young;Ha, Sung-Whan
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.45-53
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    • 1999
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific probe has been shown to be a valid and rapid method for detection of chromosome rearrangements induced by radiation. This method is useful for quantifying structural aberrations, expecially for stable ones, such as translocation and insertion, which are difficult to detect with conventional method in human lymphocyte. In order to apply FISH method for high dose biological dosimetry, chromosomal abberations by radiation at doses of 1, 3, 5, and 7Gy were analysed with whole chromosome-specific probes by human chromosome 1, 2 and 4 according to PAINT system. The frequencies of stable translocation per cell equivalent were 0.04, 0.33, 1.22, 2.62, and 5.58 for the lymphocyte exposed to 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7Gy, respectively, and those of dicentric were 0.00, 0.06, 0.52, 1.19 and 2.44, respectively. Significantly more translocation of t(Ab), a translocated chromosome with a piece of painted acentric matrial 'b' attached to unpainted piece containing centromere 'A', than reciprocal chromosome t(Ba) was observed. The frequencies of all type of chromosome rearrangements increased with dose. From above result, FISH seemed to be useful for radiation biodosimetry by which the frequencies of various types of stable aberrations in human lymphocyte can be observed more easily than by conventional method and so will improve our ability to perform meaningful biodosimetry.

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Radiation exposure dose in human blood lymphocytes as assessed by the CBMN assay

  • Ryu, Tae Ho;Kim, Jin-Hong;Kim, Jin Kyu
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.195-200
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    • 2014
  • The chances of accidental exposure are augmented as the application of ionizing radiation increases in various fields. Such accidental exposures may occur at nuclear power plants, laboratories, and hospitals. Cytogenetic assays have been used for estimating radiation dose in the situation of the accidents. The micronucleus assay has several advantages over the other cytogenetic methods as it is simple and fast. The present study aimed at investigation of the micronuclei frequencies in cytokinesis-block cells in human blood lymphocytes after ${\gamma}$-irradiation and at establishment of a standard dose response relationship. The samples of peripheral blood were obtained from 6 different donors aged between 24 and 30 years old. The bloods were irradiated in vitro with 0-5 Gy. A linear quadratic dose-response equation was obtained by scoring the micronuclei in binucleated cells; $y=27.87x^2+46.13x+2.08$ ($r^2=0.99$). Irradiation caused a significant decrease in the nuclear division index. Necrotic and apoptotic cells increased in number after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the conventional cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay has proven to be the great technique in biological dosimetry. Dose-response calibration curve derived from CMBN assay could be used to estimate the exposure dose during a radiological emergency.

Mouse model system based on apoptosis induction to crypt cells after exposure to ionizing radiation (방사선에 전신 조사된 마우스 음와 세포의 아포토시스 유도를 이용한 생물학적 선량 측정 모델 개발 연구)

  • Kim, Tae-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.571-578
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    • 2001
  • To evaluate if the apoptotic fragment assay could be used to estimate the dose prediction after radiation exposure, we examined apoptotic mouse crypt cells per 1,000 cells after whole body $^{60}Co$ $\gamma$-rays and 50MeV ($p{\rightarrow}Be^+$) cyclotron fast neutron irradiation in the range of 0.25 to 1 Gy, respectively. The incidence of apoptotic cell death rose steeply at very low doses up to 1 Gy, and radiation at all doses tigger rapid changes in crypt cells in stem cell region. These data suggest that apoptosis may play an important role in homeostasis of damaged radiosensitive target organ by removing damaged cells. The curve of dose-effect relationship for the data of apoptotic fragments was obtained by the linear-quadratic model $y=0.18+(9.728{\pm}0.887)D+(-4.727{\pm}1.033)D^2$ ($r^2=0.984$) after $\gamma$-rays irradiation, while $y=0.18+(5.125{\pm}0.601)D+(-2.652{\pm}0.7000)D^2$ ($r^2=0.970$) after neutrons in mice. The dose-response curves were linear-quadratic, and a significant dose-response relationship was found between the frequency of apoptotic cell and dose. These data show a trend towards increase of the numbers of apoptotic crypt cells with increasing dose. Both the time course and the radiation dose-response curve for high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation modalities were similar. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) value for crypt cells was 2.072. In addition, there were significant peaks on apoptosis induction at 4 and 6h after irradiation, and the morpholoigcal findings of the irradiated groups were typical apoptotic fragments in crypt cells that were hardly observed in the control group. Thus, apoptosis in crypt cells could be a useful in vivo model for studying radio-protective drug sensitivity or screening test, microdosimetric indicator and radiation-induced target organ injury. Since the apoptotic fragment assay is simple, rapid and reproducible in the range of 0.25 to 1 Gy, it will also be a good tool for evaluating the dose response of radiation-induced organ damage in vivo and provide a potentially valuable biodosimetry for the early dose prediction after accidental exposure.

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