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Analysis of Reproductive and Growing Performances by Sow Farm Sizes (국내 양돈장의 모돈규모별 번식 및 육성성적 분석)

  • Kim, Gye Woong;Ok, Young Soo
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 2015
  • This study was carried out to investigate the reproductive and growing performances in sow farms located in Chungnam. Data collected from a total of 15 sow farms divided into 3 farm groups for 1 year were analyzed. The results obtained were as follows; The average of sow at small and large farms were 114.25 and 487.88 heads, respectively. And then, the difference among 3 groups in sow farm was not found significantly in farrowing rate. The significant difference among 3 farm groups was significantly found(p<0.05) in total litter size. The litter size born alive at sucking in small sow farm and middle farms were 9.93, and 10.48 pigs. The difference between small and large farms in number of pigs at weaning were significantly shown 8.89, and 9.35 pigs(p<0.05), respectively. The difference among 3 sow farms for ages at weaning showed significantly (p<0.05). The cycles of farrowing rate per year in small, large and middle farms were 2.17, 2.23 and 2.32, respectively. The significant difference among 3 sow groups was found in farrowing rate(p<0.05). The growing rate up to weaning for middle farms was significantly the higher level(94.70%) than that for other farms(p<0.05). The differences among 3 farm groups for marketing weight were not significantly shown.

Analysis of Hematologic Characteristics of Endangered Korean Native Cattle according to the Age (성장단계별 멸종위기 희소한우의 혈액학적 특성분석)

  • Kim, Hyun;Ko, Yeoung-Gyu;Kim, Nam-Tae;Choe, Changyong;Seong, Hwan-Hoo
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.13-21
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    • 2015
  • The importance of genetic resource preservation has been highlighted in the literature as a means of maintaining genetic diversity. Investigations for hematologic values and the differential count of white blood cell count (WBC) for Korean indigenous cattle (KIC) and endangered indigenous cattle (EIC) are rarely performed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the hematologic values of total 40 EIC (White, Black, Mini cattle) and 35 KIC as control by analysis of hematologic characteristics. As a result, the mean values of RBC and platelet of EIC were significantly decreased by age (p<0.05). The mean values of RBC, HCT, MCV and MCHC between EIC and KIC of the same age (2~3 years) showed the statistical significance (p<0.05). Also, in the WBC of EIC, the mean values were decreased according to the age from $13.9{\times}10^3/{\mu}L{\sim}12.7{\times}10^3/{\mu}L$ under 1 year to $9.1{\times}10^3/{\mu}L{\sim}11.5{\times}10^3/{\mu}L$ over 2 years respectively. In the differential count of WBC of EIC (White, Black, Mini cattle), it showed generally the rates of 40.2%, 52.2%, 49.0% lymphocyte and 27.2%, 33.9%, 32.0% segmented neutrophil from 2~3 years respectively. Result of this study will be used for establishing reference range for blood analysis in EIC such as white, black and mini cattle. This study reported hematological values which could serve as baseline information for comparison in conditions of nutrient deficiency, physiological and health status of endangered Korean native cattle. In addition, this study provides a valuable resource for further investigations of the preservation of rare genetic stocks underlying traits of interest in cattle.

Isolation and functional analysis of three microsomal delta-12 fatty acid desaturase genes from Camelina sativa (L.) cv. CAME (카멜리나 (Camelina sativa L. cv. CAME)로부터 3 microsomal delta-12 fatty acid desaturase 유전자들의 분리 및 기능 분석)

  • Kim, Hyojin;Go, Young Sam;Kim, Augustine Yonghwi;Lee, Sanghyeob;Kim, Kyung-Nam;Lee, Geung-Joo;Kim, Gi-Jun;Suh, Mi Chung
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.146-158
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    • 2014
  • Camelina sativa that belongs to Brassicaceae family is an emerging oilseed crop. Camelina seeds contain approximately 40% storage oils per seed dry weight, which are useful for human and animal diets and industrial applications. Microsomal delta-12 fatty acid desaturase2 (FAD2) catalyzes the conversion of oleic acid to linoleic acid. The polymorphisms of FAD2 genes are correlated with the levels of oleic acids in seed oils. Microsomal delta-12 fatty acid desaturase2 (FAD2) catalyzes the conversion of oleic acid to linoleic acid. The polymorphisms of FAD2 genes are correlated with the levels of oleic acids in seed oils. In this study, three CsFAD2 genes (CsFAD2-1, CsFAD2-2 and CsFAD2-3.1) were isolated from developing seeds of Camelina sativa (L.) cv. CAME. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of three CsFAD2 genes were compared with those from dicotyledon and monocotyledon plants including Camelina cultivars Sunesone and SRS933. Three histidine motifs (HECGH, HRRHH, and HVAHH) required for FAD activity and a hydrophobic valine or isoleucine residue, which is a SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) marker related with enzyme activity are well conserved in three CsFAD2s. The expressions of CsFAD2-1 and CsFAD2-3.1 were ubiquitously detected in various Camelina organs, whereas the CsFAD2-2 transcripts were predominantly detected in flowers and developing seeds. The contents of oleic acids decreased, whereas the amounts of linoleic acid increased in dry seeds of transgenic fad2-2 lines expressing each CsFAD2 gene compared with fad2-2 mutant, indicating that three CsFAD2 genes are functionally active. The isolated CsFAD2 genes might be applicable in metabolic engineering of storage oils with high oleic acids in oilseed crops.

Phytochemical variation of Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb. and Quercus serrata Murray (Fagaceae) in Mt. Jiri, Korea - Their taxonomical and ecological implications - (지리산 신갈나무와 졸참나무의 식물화학적 변이 양상 - 분류학적, 생태학적 의미 -)

  • Park, Jin Hee
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.574-587
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    • 2014
  • In this study, vertical distribution patterns of Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb. and Q. serrata Murray in Korea were recognized and possibility of introgressive hybridization and gene flow between Q. mongolica and Q. serrata in Mt. Jiri was inferred by flavonoid analyses. The most critical factor on distribution patterns was the altitude in accordance with temperature condition. A zonal distribution was recognized: Quercus mongolica zone in the upper area and Q. serrata zone in the lower area. In Central Korea, the range of vertical distribution of Q. mongolica was above alt. 100m, almost everywhere, whereas that of Q. serrata was from alt. 0 m to alt. 500(-700) m, and the species is rare above that altitude. But in Southern Korea, Q. serrata is found up to above alt. 1,000 m, whereas frequency of Q. mongolica reduces as elevation in decline and the species is rare below alt. 300 m, even though pure stands being formed on higher mountain slope. Altitudinal distribution of the two species, however, overlaps, where the two species occur together. Thirty-seven individuals of Q. mongolica and Q. serrata in Mt. Jiri and other area were examined for leaf flavonoid constituents. Twenty-three flavonoid compounds were isolated and identified; they were glycosylated derivatives of the flavonols kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, and four compounds among the flavonoid compounds were acylated. Kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-galactoside and its acylated compounds were major constituents and present in all individuals. Quercus mongolica is distinguished from Q. serrata by the presence of quercetin 3-O-arabinosylglucoside and by high concentration of three acylated compounds, acylated kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-galactoside, and by relatively low concentration or lacking of rhamnosyl flavonol compounds. There are intraspecific variations in flavonoid profiles for Q. mongolica and Q. serrata, the flavonoid profiles for individuals of two species in hybrid zone (sympatric zone) tend to be similar to each other, qualitatively and quantitatively. These findings strongly suggest that gene exchange or gene flow occurs through the introgressive hybridization between Q. mongolica and Q. serrata in Mt. Jiri. Therefore, Quercus crispula, occupying morphologically intermediate position between Q. mongolica and Q. serrata, is suspected of being a hybrid taxon of two putative parental species.

Reproduction Cycle and Litter Size of Red-tongued viper snake (Gloydius ussuriensis) (쇠살모사의 생식주기와 한배의 출산수)

  • Kim, Byoung-Soo;Oh, Hong-Shik
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.531-541
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    • 2014
  • This research investigated the reproduction cycle, litter size, and the effects of factors of red-tongue viper snake inhabiting in Jeju Island, to delve into their life strategy. Field survey was conducted in Jeju Island from May 2006 to November 2008. Reproduction cycle was analyzed through measurements of testis and follicle sizes in laboratory from March 2009 to December 2010. According to the research results, the sizes of red-tongue viper snake's testis and follicle clearly changed seasonally. The number of eggs within the oviduct were greater on the right side ($2.6{\pm}1.0$ eggs, n=16) than on the left side ($1.8{\pm}0.5$ eggs, n=16) (t=-2,721, p<0.05). Average (${\pm}SD$) of survival litter size (SLS) was $4.4{\pm}1.7$ (1~9, range), while total litter size (TLS) was $4.7{\pm}1.5$ (3~9, range), which were not statistically significant. However, their litter sizes were similar to the number of eggs within the oviduct (t=0.039, P>0.05). Relative litter mass (RCM) was $0.42{\pm}0.13$ (0.18~0.79, n=33), and tended to increase, as maternal condition of pre-parturition (MCPPI) was getting better. The sexual ratio of delivered litters showed no significant difference between male and female red-tongue viper snakes (♂:♀ = 1.15:1, n=73 ; ${\chi}^2$=0.342, P>0.5). Average neonate mass showed a weak correlation with maternal mass of pre-parturition (MMPP1) (r=0.387, P<0.05, n=33). Average neonate Snout-vent length (SVL) also demonstrated a weak correlations with maternal SVL (r=0.399, P<0.05, n=33) and MMPP1 (r=0.344, P<0.05, n=33). Average neonate mass and maternal SVL approached significant probability (r=0.323, P=0.067, n=33). This indicates that mother snakes can bear bigger litter due to its larger size. In some cases, litter's weight decreases as mother snakes are bearing more litter; however, the red-tongued viper snake did not show such exchange relationship. From this, it can be conjectured that a red-tongued viper snake has peculiarity of its own species. The research results are predicted to be used as the basis to find a life history of red-tongued viper snake.

Identification and in silico analysis of two types of serpin genes from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of the Oriental land snail, Nesiohelix samarangae (동양달팽이 (Nesiohelix samarangae) 의 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) 로부터 분리한 2종류의 Serpin 유전자 분석)

  • Park, So Young;Jeong, Ji Eun;Hwang, Hee Ju;Wang, Tae Hun;Park, Eun Bi;Kim, Yong Min;Lee, Jun-Sang;Han, Yeon Soo;Yang, Seung-Ha;Lee, Yong Seok
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.155-163
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    • 2014
  • Serpins are a group of proteins involved in the regulation of serine and other type of proteases, and have been identified in many kinds of organisms from invertebrates to vertebrates. Serpins are known to regulate the proteolytic cascades of the innate immune pathways in addition to their roles in blood coagulation, angiogenesis, fibrinolysis, inflammation and tumor suppression. In this study, we have isolated two partial serpin gene fragments from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Nesiohelix samarangae. Dotplot analysis indicates that they are of two different types, Ns-serpin type 1 and Ns-serpin type 2. Ns-serpin type 1 has 819 bp coding region (272 amino acids), whereas Ns-serpin type 2 has 555 bp coding region (185 amino acids). Molecular phylogenetic analysis shows that the identified serpins have high similarities to their counterparts in the California see slug, Aplysia californica. Yet, the precise biological and immunological roles of these Ns-serpins remain to be further investigated using RNA interference and other molecular techniques.

Establishment of Pre-Harvest Residue Limit of Fungicides Pyrimethanil and Trifloxystrobin during Cultivation of Persimmon (단감 재배기간 중 살균제 pyrimethanil과 trifloxystrobin의 생산단계 잔류허용기준 설정)

  • Lee, Dong-Yeol;Kim, Yeong-Jin;Lee, So-Jung;Cho, Kyu-Song;Kim, Sang-Gon;Park, Min-Ho;Kang, Kyu-Young
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.45-51
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    • 2012
  • BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to establish pre-harvest residue limit of fungicides pyrimethanil and trifloxystrobin in persimmon, based on dissipation and biological half-lives of two fungicides residue. METHODS AND RESULTS: Both pyrimethanil and trifloxystrobin were extracted with acetonitrile, clean-up with $NH_2$ SPE cartridge and residue were analyzed by HPLC/DAD. Limit of Detection was 0.01 mg/kg. Average recovery were $81{\pm}1.62%$, $98{\pm}1.58%$ of pyrimethanil, and $91{\pm}2.94%$, $98{\pm}1.25%$ of trifloxystrobin at fortification levels at 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively. CONCLUSION: The biological half-lives of pyrimethanil were 15.6 and 11.6 days at sprayed with recommended and double dosage, respectively. The biological half-lives of trifloxystrobin were 10.4 and 10.3 days at sprayed with recommended and double dosage, respectively. The pre-harvest residue limit of pyrimethanil and trifloxystrobin were recommended as 2.69 and 0.83 mg/kg for 10 days before harvest, respectively.

Effects of Regular Exercise and L-Arginine Intake on Abdominal Fat, GH/IGF-1 Axis, and Circulating Inflammatory Markers in the High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Aged Rat (규칙적인 운동과 L-arginine의 섭취가 고지방식이 유도 비만 노화생쥐의 복부지방량, GH/IGF-1 axis 및 혈관염증지표에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Sok;Sung, Ki-Woon;Lee, Jin;Lee, Cheon-Ho;Lee, Young-Jun;Yoo, Young-June;Park, Kyoung-Shil;Min, Byung-Jin;Shin, Yong-Sub;Kim, Jung-Suk;Jung, Hun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.516-523
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise and/or L-arginine on abdominal fat, IGF-1 on GH/IGF-1 axis, fibrinogen, and PAI-1 in aged and obese rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with a D-galactose aging inducing agent (50 mg/kg) given intraperitoneally for 12 weeks. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated and divided into four groups: aging-high fat diet group (AG+HF), AG+HF with L-arginine intake group (AG+LA), AG+HF with exercise group (AG+EX), and AG+EX with L-arginine intake group (AG+LA+EX). The experimental rats underwent treadmill training (60 min/day, 6 days/week at 0% gradient) for 12 weeks. L-arginine was given orally (150 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. After the experiment, blood was collected from the left ventricle and abdominal fat was extracted. The results showed that GH was significantly increased in AG+EX and AG+AL+EX. IGF-1 was significantly increased in both the AG+AL+EX and AG+EX group ($p$<0.05), while fibrinogen and PAI-1 were not significantly different among the groups. Abdominal fat was significantly decreased in the AG+LA, AG+EX, and AG+LA+EX groups ($p$<0.05) compared with the AG+HF group. In conclusion, this study suggests that exercise alone or L-arginine alone or a combination not only increases the GH and IGF-1 concentration, but also decreases the abdominal fat mass.

Reproductive Cycle of Small Abalone, Haliotis diversicolor aquatilis in Jeju Coastal Waters (제주연안에 서식하는 오분자기, Haliotis diversicolor aquatilis의 생식주기)

  • Kim, Seong-Hoon;Lee, Chi-Hoon;Song, Young-Bo;Kim, Byung-Yeob;Hyun, Saang-Yoon;Lee, Young-Don
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.145-153
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    • 2012
  • Reproductive cycle of the small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor aquatilis which collected from Seong-san coastal waters, Jeju, Korea were investigated monthly from May 2006 to April 2007 using histological methods. The gonad index (GI) of male and female reached a peak in June ($70.72{\pm}5.20$) and July ($55.38{\pm}11.73$). Subsequently, GI decreased in September (Male, $21.27{\pm}2.91$; Female, $27.75{\pm}4.76$) and increased again in October (Male, $48.49{\pm}8.39$; Female, $51.36{\pm}7.47$), respectively. After that, GI gradually decreased. In March 2007, GI was reached the minimum (Male, $8.46{\pm}0.57$; Female, $9.69{\pm}0.88$). The reproductive cycle of female and male could be divided into six successive stages ; In female, multiplication (February and May), growing (February to May), mature (April to July), partial spawning (May to November), degenerating (October to December) and recovery (September to October and December to February) stage. In male, multiplication (February and May), growing (March to May), mature (April to July), spawning (June to November), degenerating (November to February) and recovery (September to February) stage. The yellowish granular cells have been observed more in multiplication, growing, degenerating, and recovery stage than mature and partial spawning stage. The results of GI and histological observations of the gonads suggested that this species could be presumed as multi- spawning characteristics more two times in spawning seasons.

Effect of HCG, LHRHa, Ovaprim and Pimozide on Ovulation Induction in Long Snout Bullhead Leiocassis longirotris (HCG, LHRHa, Ovaprim and Pimozide 처리에 따른 종어 Leiocassis longirotris의 배란유도)

  • Lim, Sang-Gu;Kim, Kwang-Suk;Kim, Young-Soo;Han, Hyung-Gyun;Kim, Eung-Oh
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.137-143
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    • 2012
  • The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of ovulation induction by treating HCG, LHRHa, GnRHa, ovaprim and pimozidein in long snout bullhead, L. longriostris. All hormons were injected into the muscles of back. Concentration of LHRHa to injection were 20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 ${\mu}g/kg$ and same concentration of LHRHa was injected after 24 hour. The ovulation induction rate was 100% and fertilization and hatching rates were 68.4, 45.2, 58.4 and 33.6% in 50 and 100 ${\mu}g/kg$. The times to ovulation were between 28 and 44 h. HCG was injected in long snout bullhead at 5,000, 10,000, 15,000, 20,000 and 25,000 IU/kg. The ovulation induction rate was 50% in 15,000 and 20,000 IU/kg. Fertlilzation and hatching rates were 55.2, 45.6, 52.8 and 44.8%. Ovulation time was between 72~80 h. HCG concentration of 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000 IU/kg were injected with $50{\mu}g$ of LHRHa. Ovulation and hatching rates in 2,000 IU/kg were 75 and 35%. Ovulation time was 28~48 h. Ovaprim of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mL/kg were injected to the abdominal cavity. The ovulation induction rate was highest at 2.5 mL/kg to 50% and ovulation time was between 66~86 h. LHRHa concentration of 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 ${\mu}g/kg$ was injected with pimozide (1,000 ${\mu}g/kg$). Ovulation induction rate was 87% at 100 and 200 IU/kg with pimozide. Ovulation time was between 66~86 h.