• 제목, 요약, 키워드: biotype

검색결과 141건 처리시간 0.033초

물달개비의 Acetolactate synthase (ALS) 유전자의 특성과 Sulfonylurea 제초제 저항성과 관련 돌연변의 분자생물학적 접근 (Characterization of the Acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene and Molecular Assay of Mutations Associated with Sulfonylurea Herbicide Resistance of Monochoria vaginalis)

  • 박태선;박홍규;구본일;김영두;고재권;이인용;박재읍
    • 농약과학회지
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.290-297
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    • 2009
  • 본 연구는 한국에서 발생하고 있는 설포닐우레아계 제초제 저항성 및 감수성 물달개비의 ALS 염기서열 분석에 의한 ALS 유전자의 특성과 제초제 저항성 메카니즘을 구명하기 위하여 실시하였다. 감수성 및 저항성 두 계통의 biotype에서 815개의 염기서열을 분석하였다. 분석된 염기서열에서 감수성 biotype으로부터 4개 clone, 저항성 계통으로부터 15개 clone, 총 19개의 clone들을 크게 4 group으로 분류할 수 있었다. 첫 번째 group은 저항성 및 감수성 biotype의 ALS 유전자 염기서열이 차이가 없었으며, 두 번째 그룹은 아미노산 197번째의 proline이 DNA의 점돌연변이(point mutation)에 의해 serine으로 변화된 부분이다. 세 번째 group은 6곳에서 점돌연변이에 의한 아미노산치환이 발생하였으며, 네 번째 group는 첫 번째 group과 세 번째 group 중간적 특성으로 3곳에서 염기서열 점돌연변이에 의해 아미노산 치환이 있었다. 따라서 하나의 물달개비 식물체에서 여러 가지 형태의 ALS 유전자가 존재할 수 있으며, 물달개비 저항성 biotype의 ALS 유전자는 Domain A 부분에 있는 아미노산 197번째 proline이 염기서열 변화에 의해 serine으로 돌연변이 되었다.

초발 정신병 환자에서 기저핵 구조물 부피의 패턴분석 (Pattern Analysis of Volume of Basal Ganglia Structures in Patients with First-Episode Psychosis)

  • 민세리;이태영;곽유빈;권준수
    • 생물정신의학
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.38-43
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    • 2018
  • Objectives Dopamine dysregulation has been regarded as one of the core pathologies in patients with schizophrenia. Since dopamine synthesis capacity has found to be inconsistent in patients with schizophrenia, current classification of patients based on clinical symptoms cannot reflect the neurochemical heterogeneity of the disease. Here we performed new subtyping of patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) through biotype-based cluster analysis. We specifically suggested basal ganglia structural changes as a biotype, which deeply involves in the dopaminergic circuit. Methods Forty FEP and 40 demographically matched healthy participants underwent 3T T1 MRI. Whole brain parcellation was conducted, and volumes of total 6 regions of basal ganglia have been extracted as features for cluster analysis. We used K-means clustering, and external validation was conducted with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results K-means clustering divided 40 FEP subjects into 2 clusters. Cluster 1 (n = 25) showed substantial volume decrease in 4 regions of basal ganglia compared to Cluster 2 (n = 15). Cluster 1 showed higher positive scales of PANSS compared with Cluster 2 (F = 2.333, p = 0.025). Compared to healthy controls, Cluster 1 showed smaller volumes in 4 regions, whereas Cluster 2 showed larger volumes in 3 regions. Conclusions Two subgroups have been found by cluster analysis, which showed a distinct difference in volume patterns of basal ganglia structures and positive symptom severity. The result possibly reflects the neurobiological heterogeneity of schizophrenia. Thus, the current study supports the importance of paradigm shift toward biotype-based diagnosis, instead of phenotype, for future precision psychiatry.

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냉동식품에서 분리한 Yersinia enterocolitica의 특성 (Characteristics of Yersinia enterocolitica Isolated from Frozen Foods)

  • 임순영;윤석권
    • 한국식품과학회지
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.1336-1340
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    • 2000
  • 서울등 5개지역에서 수거한 냉동식품 624건을 대상으로 Y. enterocolitica를 분리하였다. 분리대상 식품군 중 해산물가공품중에서 Y. enterocolitica의 분리율(9.1%)이 가장 높았고, 다음으로 식육가공품(7.7%), 만두류(3.5%), 기타 냉동식품(3.4%)의 순이었으며 냉동피자류(1.7%)는 분리율이 가장 낮았다. 그리고 상반기와 하반기의 분리율이 차이를 보였는데 각각 1.6%와 9.6%로 하반기가 상반기에 비하여 분리율이 6배가 높았다. 냉동식품에서 분리된 Y. enterocolitica 균주는 모두 35개(5.6%)였고, 분리균주의 serotype은 O:5(9균주)와 O:1,2(1균주)이었다. 이외의 나머지 25개 균주는 본 연구에서 사용한 항혈청에 응집반응을 보이지 않아 혈청형을 typing할 수 없었다. 그리고 이들 균주를 biotype한 결과 모두 비병원성인 biotype 1A이었으며 중합효소연쇄반응(PCR)으로 확인 결과 또한 모두 비병원성으로 판명되었다.

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벼멸구의 생태형 (Biotypes of the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvara lugens (Stal))

  • R.C.삭세나;A.A.바리온
    • 한국응용곤충학회지
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.52-66
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    • 1983
  • The brown planthopper, N. lugens (Stal), has become a serious pest of rice in tropical Asia during the last decade. At high pest density, its feeding damage causes 'hopperburn' or complete wilting and drying of the rice plant. It also transmits grassy and ragged stunt virus diseases. The estimated losses caused by the pest in tropical Asia exceed $US\$300$ millions. While cultivation of resistant rice varieties has proved to be highly effective against the pest, their long-term stability is threatened because of the evolution of prolific biotypes which can destroy these varieties. At present, identification of biotypes is based principally on the differential reactions of host rice varieties to the pest and on host-mediated behavioral and physiological responses of the pest. Recent findings of morphological differences in adult rostrum, legs, and antennae, body parts that possess receptors for host plant location and discrimination, and cytological differences in N. lugens populations maintained as stock cultures strongly complement other biotype studies. So far, three N. lugens biotypes have been identified in the Philippines. Biotype I can survive on and damage varieties that do not carry and genes for resistance, while Biotype 2 survives on resistant varieties carrying Bph 1 gene and Biotype 3 on varieties carrying gene bph 2. However, none of these biotypes can survive on varieties with genes Bph 3 or bph 4. Several varieties which are resistant in the Philippines are susceptible in India and Sri Lanka as the South Asian biotypes of N. lugens are more virulent than Southeast Asian biotypes. To monitor the pest biotypes in different geographical regions and to identify new sources of resistance, an International Brown Planthopper Nursery has been established in many cooperating countries. The evolution of biotypes is an exceedingly complex process which is governed by the interactions of genetic and biological factors of the pest populations and the genetic makeup of the cultivated varieties. While the strategy for sequential release of varieties with major resistance genes has been fairly successful so far, the monegenic resistance of these varieties makes them vulnerable to the development of the pest biotypes. Therefore, present breeding endeavors envisage utilizing both major and minor resistance genes for effective control of the pest.

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유추(幼雛)에 있어서 Campylobacter jejuni 및 Campylobacter coli의 실험적(實驗的) 감염(感染) (Experimental infection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in chicks)

  • 정병곤;강호조
    • 대한수의학회지
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.345-353
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    • 1988
  • The present study was carried out to investigate the incidence of C jejuni and C coli in chicken. Also were examined the pathogenicity of the isolates in chick by experimental inoculation. Thermophilic Campylobacter were isolated from 34(45.9%) of the 74 specimens, and classified as 21.6% C jejuni, and 24.3% C coli. In the biotyping of 16 stranis of C jejuni isolates, 37.5% of the strains were grouped as biotype I, 62.5% as biotype II. In the case of 18 strains of C coli isolates, 49.9% of isolates were grouped as biotype I, 55.6% as biotype II. n oral inoculation with $10^4cfu$ of Campylobacter isolates into infant chicks(1 to 3 days-old), 17 days-old and 34 days-old chicks, 32.5% of the chicks developed diarrhea on day 1, 52.5% on day 3, 70.0% on day 5, and 27.5% on day 7, and the peak incidence of diarrhea was reached on day 5. The organisms were found to be discharged in feces one day afterwards. C jejuni and C coli strains were detected from the feces in 87.5% of the chicks on day 5. The organisms were multiplied from $10^4$ to $10^6cfu/gm$ in feces 5 to 7 days after inoculation. C jejuni and C coli recovered from 100% of the cecum, 64.3% of the duodenum, 50.0% of the spleen, 42.9% of the livers, and from 21.4% of gallbladders 7 days after inoculation.

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동물원(動物園) 야생동물(野生動物)에서 분리(分離)한 Yersinia enterocolitica 의 생물형(生物型), 혈청형(血淸型) 및 항생제(抗生劑) 감수성(感受性) (Biotype, serotype and antibiotics susceptibility of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from zoo animals)

  • 박석기;윤은선;김은정
    • 대한수의학회지
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.85-91
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    • 1994
  • A study on the isolation of Yersiniae from the feces of wild animals(mammals 376, birds 19 and reptiles 13) in zoo and the biotype and serotype and susceptibility of 12 antibiotics was carried. Out of 408 animals, Yersiniae were isolated from 28 animals(6.9%). Of 28 isolates, 27 isolates(96.4%) were Y. enterocolitica and 1(3.6%) was Y. kristensenii. According to the species, 25(6.6%) of Y. enterocolitica and 1(0.3%) of Y. kristensenii were isolated from 376 mammals, 2(15.4%) of Y. enterocolitica from 13 reptiles but not isolated from 19 birds. According to the eating pattern, 8(5.2%) of Y. enterocolitica were isolated from 155 carnivora, 13(10%) of Y. enterocolitica from 123 herbivora, and 6(4.9%) of Y. enterocolitica and 1(0.8%) of Y. enterocolitica from 123 omnivora. Out of 27 isolates of Y. enterocolitica, all were biotype 1. And predominant serotype was 0:21(40.7%), and 0:5(37.0%), 0:6(11.1%), 0:1(3.7%), 0:9(3.7%) and untypable(3.7%). Yersiniae isolated from zoo animals were resistant to cephalothin(100%), ampicillin(96.4%), carbenicillin(96.4%) and tetracycline(14.3%) and streptomycin(3.6%) and susceptible to chloramphenicol(100%), colistin(100%), gentamicin(100%), kanamycin(100%), nalidixic acid(100%), polymyxin B(100%) and tobramycin(100%). The predominant multiple resistance pattern was Am-Cf-Cb(82.1%), and Am-Cf-Cb-Te(10.7%) and Am-Cf-Cb-Te-Sm(3.7%).

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Efficacy of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in Korean mongrel dogs against virulent strains of B. abortus biotype 1 and B. canis

  • Hur, Jin;Baek, Byeong-Kirl
    • 한국가축위생학회지
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.29-35
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    • 2010
  • This study was performed to test the hypothesis that Brucella abortus strain RB51 (SRB51) might protect Korean indigenous mongrel dog against challenge with either virulent B. abortus biotype 1 or B. canis. A total of 12 Korean mongrel dogs were divided into four groups (Group A, B, C and D). Dogs belonging to Group A and C were inoculated subcutaneously with $1{\times}10^9$ CFU of SRB51 in 1ml of sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Dogs of Group B and D were inoculated subcutaneously with 1ml of sterile PBS as control. At 12 weeks post vaccination, dogs of Group A and B were challenged by oral inoculation of virulent strain of B. canis ($5.0{\times}10^9$ CFU) and dogs of Group C and D were challenged by oral inoculation of virulent strain of B. abortus biotype 1 ($4.4{\times}10^{10}$ CFU). The serum antibodies titers in all dogs were monitored at regular interval for eight weeks after challenge (AC) by standard tube agglutination test, plate agglutination test, rose bengal test, 2-mercaptoethanol rapid slide agglutination test and 2-mercaptoethanol tube agglutination test. No antibody titers in Group A and C was detected. Also, the challenge strains were not found from blood of all dogs of Group A and C from 1 week AC till the end of the experiment by culture and modified AMOS-PCR, whereas B. canis and B. abortus challenge strains were detected from blood of Group B and D, respectively. In addition, neither of two challenge bacteria was recovered from liver, spleen, kidneys, lymph nodes and reproductive tracts of Group A and C dogs after postmortem. However, B. canis and B. abortus challenge strains were isolated from these tissues of Group B and D, respectively. These data suggest that SRB51 could be a promising vaccine candidate for immunizing dogs to control canine brucellosis caused by B. canis or B. abortus.

고추역병과 시들음병을 방제하는 토착길항세균 Pseudomonas fluorescens 4059의 선발과 길항기작 (Selection and Antagonistic Mechanism of Pseudomonas fluorescens 4059 Against Phytophthora Blight Disease)

  • 정희경;김상달
    • 한국미생물·생명공학회지
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.312-316
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    • 2004
  • 토양 우점능이 강한 생물학적 방제제 제조를 위해 경북지역 토양에서 길항균주를 분리하고 이들 중 Fusarium oxysporum, Phytophthora capsici 에 강력한 길항능을 보이는 Pseudomonas sp. 4059 를 선발, 동정하였다. Pseudomonas sp. 4059 의 시들음 병균 Fusarium oxysporum, 고추 역병균 Phytophthora capsici 에 대한 길항기작은 내열성 저분자의 항생물질과 철이온을 특이적으로 흡착하는 siderophore의 생산에 의한 것이다. Pseudomonas sp. 4059 는 항진균성 항생물질 Phenazine 생산 유전자를 소유하며 Salkowski test에 양성인 옥신류 생산도 한다는 것을 확인하였다. Pseudomonas sp. 4059 는 bioochemical tests, API test, MicroLogTM system을 통해 Pseudomonas fluorescens (biotype A)으로 98% 상동성을 보였으므로 이를 Pseudomonas fluorescens (biotype A) 4059 로 명명하였다. 선발된 길항균 Pseudomonas fluorescens (biotype A) 4059는 고추를 기주식물로 하였을 때 고추역병균인 Phytophthora capsici가 원인이 되는 고추역병을 in vivo 상에서도 충분히 억제할 수 있는 생물방제능을 나타내었다.

한국인 치아치은 집합체구조의 삼차원적인 분석 (Three dimensional analysis of Korean dentogingival complex)

  • 박영석;이승표;김태일
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.199-206
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: Variation in the morphology of gingival papilla may be determined by the shape and position of anatomic crown as well as contact area and embrasure form of individual teeth. However, periodontal biotype classification is regarded to be subjective because of the lack of definite criteria. In this study, we defined the objective parameters which constitute the periodontal biotype and measured their relationship. Materials and Methods: 109 of dental casts were prepared using three dimensional scanner and specialized reconstruction software, then acquiredvirtual models were sent to the 20 professional dentists to define the specific periodontal biotypes. Several parameters around periodontal structures were measured from the virtual models; facial surface area of the anterior tooth (AT), anterior papillary area (AP), proportion of the dento-papillary complex, clinical papillary length (PL), and clinical papillary angle (PA). Statistical analysis was performed to confirm the relationship among parameters. Results: Coincidence rate of periodontal biotype within observers was $63.77{\pm}16.05%$. Coincidence rate between observers was $76.15{\pm}16.43%$. Among the parameters measured, PL showed the most positive correlations and PA presented the most negative correlations. The parameter of the AP and PL of six maxillary anterior teeth showed significant correlation coefficient. Conclusion: Anterior papillary area and clinical papillary length would be objective parameters for determining the consistent periodontal biotypes.