• Title, Summary, Keyword: biotype

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Occurrence of Sweet-potato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and Its Response to Insecticide in Gyeonggi Area (경기지역에서 담배가루이의 발생 및 약제반응)

  • Lee, Young-Su;Kim, Jin-Young;Hong, Soon-Sung;Park, Jungan;Park, Hong-Hyun
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.377-382
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    • 2012
  • This study investigated the occurrence of sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci affecting cucumber, eggplant and red pepper, as well as sweet potato species, and its response to insecticides in Gyeonggi province from 2010 to 2011. Sweet potato whitefly is widespread throughout the southern part of Gyeonggi province. Most regional populations of B. tabaci belong to biotype Q having been reported in the south Korea since 2005, but in Goyang mixed populations of two biotypes (B and Q) were found. Survey results of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) disease that was vectored by B. tabaci indicated that this virus disease was not spread throughout the Gyeonggi province. Biotype Q of B. tabaci was found to be resistant to neonicotinoid insecticides, whereas biotype B was highly susceptible to them.

Chromosomal Variation among Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), Biotypes in Korea (한국산 벼멸구 생태형의 염색체 변이)

  • ;R.C. Saxena;A.A. Barrion
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.366-370
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    • 1992
  • Salient chromosomal variations during the first meiotic division in primary spermatocyLes of the three brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) , biotypes were observed. The meiotic index was highest in biotype 3 (58.6), followed by biotype 1 (39.4) and biotype 2 (23.6). Total chromosomal aberration including agmatoploidy, aneuploidy, loose pairings of sex chromosomes, and cytoplasmic shrinkage was found high in the order of biotype 1 (60.6%),2 (47.9 %), and 3 (38.1 %). However, percent agmatoploidy was highest in biotype 2 (19.6%) whereas in biotypes 3 and 1, it was 9.5% and 2.5%, respectively. The number of cells with isolated sex chrosomomes was observed highest in biotype 2.

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Soft tissue volume changes following gingival grafting for labial gingival recession in the mandibular anterior area: a case report

  • Song, Young Woo;Jung, Ui-Won;Cha, Jae-Kook
    • The journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.58 no.1
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    • pp.8-18
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    • 2019
  • This case report presents results for gingival recession coverage following gingival grafting and for gingival biotype enhancements by visualizing soft tissue volume changes using intraoral three-dimensional scanning. A 28 year old female patient with multiple gingival recessions and a 19 year old female patient with a single gingival recession on mandibular anterior area were treated. Root coverage was performed in both cases using autogenous subepithelial connective tissue harvested from palate. Intraoral 3D scan data were obatained presurgery and at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years postsurgery. The recession areas were recovered successfully by subepithelial connective tissue graft combined with pedicle flap repositioning, and the patients showed neither further recurrence nor post-operative complication. Soft tissue biotype changes were identified by superimposing and analyzing scan data, revealing that gingival biotype was enhanced in both cases. These cases suggest that SCTG could be advantageous in terms of the gingival biotype enhancement, as well as gingival recession coverage, and intraoral 3D scanning might be suitable for assessing post-surgical gingival biotype change.

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Protective Enzymes of Paraquat-Resistant Conyza bonariensis (Paraquat 저항성 망초의 protective 효소)

  • Kim, Hee-Joo;Hwang, Eul-Chul
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.46-51
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    • 2000
  • The resistance of Cornyza bonariensis to herbicide paraquat was investigated by evaluating the activities of three enzymes concerning in scavenging paraquat-generated toxic oxygen species such as superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide in resistant and susceptible biotypes. Conyza bonariensis inhabited in cultivated area was more tolerant to paraquat than that of uncultivated area. This is the first report that a biotype of Cornyza bonariensis has appeared in an area with repeated paraquat treatments of Korea. Superoxide dismutase activity of resistant biotype was 20% higher as 150 than that of susceptible biotype. Ascorbate peroxidase activity of resistant biotype was 44% higher than that of susceptible biotype. Glutathione reductase activity of resistant biotype was 64% higher than that of susceptible biotype. It can be concluded from above results that the resistance of Conyza bonariensis to paraquat depends partially on the toxic oxygen species-scavenging efficiency of protective multienzymatic system which is composed of three enzymes, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase.

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Morphological Characteristics of Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Discrimination of Their Biotypes in Korea by DNA Makers (담배가루이 Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius)(Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)의 형태적 특징과 DNA 표식자에 의한 biotype 판별)

  • 이명렬;안성복;조왕수
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.5-12
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    • 2000
  • The sweetpotato whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius), were found recently in Korea on Glycine max, Euphorbia pulcherrima, and Rosa hybrida. The biotype identity of Bemisia tabaci in Korea was determined by several DNA markers including the random amplified polymorphic DNAs, and restriction fragments length polymorphism of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA genes. The electromorph profiles of DNA fragments from the rose(Jincheon) and poinsettia(Seoul) populations in Korea are both identical to those of B biotypes distributed in Australia, Israel, and Japan. The populations of B. tabaci collected on Glycine max, Ipomea batatas, and Perilla frutescens in different localities retained the same DNA markes with the population from Lonicera japonica and shikoku of Japan. These populations are non-B biotype and considered as an indigenous type in the Far Eastern Asia Region including Korea and Japan, Morphological Characteristics of B. Tabaci were also observed by the scanning electron microscope and described with the comparison to the other important whitefly pest, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood).

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Studies on the Distribution of the Brown Planthopper(Nilaparvata lugens St${\aa}$l)Biotypes Migrated in the Southern Regions of Korea (경남, 전남 남부지방에 비래된 벼멸구 생태형 분포에 관한 연구)

  • 박영도;송유한
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.63-67
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    • 1988
  • Biotypes of the brown planthopper(BPH), Nilaparvata lugens St l, population migrated from maninand China in to southern coastal regions of Korea were investigated in 1985-1987 by honeydew excretion test using Korean cultvars,, 'Milyang 23'(no resistant gene), 'Cheongcheo-ngboy'(bph 1 gene), 'Milyang 63'(bph 2 gene) and 'Gayabyeo'(bph 1 and bph 2 gene). There was a correlation between the amount of honeydew excreted and the ability of each biotype to infest resistant cultivars: 'Milyang 23' with no resistant gene was highiy susceptible to bioty-pe-1, 2 and 3 ; 'cheongcheongbyeo' with resistant bph 1 was susceptible to biotype-2: and 'Milyang 63' with resistant bph 2 gene was highiy resistant to biotype-1, 2 and 3. Percent biotype dis-tribution of the female BPH collected in the southern coastal regions of Korea showed that in 1985, 1986 and 1987, the BPH biotype-1 was predominant accounting for 64.7%, 61.2% and 57.9%, respectivley, whereas bitype-2 was 22.0%, 21.9% and 29.7%, and biotype-3 was 13.3%, 17.0% and 12.6%, repestively.

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Isolation and Characterization of the Mutans Streptococci from the Dental Plaques in Koreans

  • Yoo, So-Young;Park, Seon-Joo;Jeong, Dong-Ki;Kim, Kwang-Won;Lim, Sung-Hoon;Lee, Sang-Ho;Choe, Son-Jin;Chang, Young-Hyo;Park, In-Soon;Kook, Joong-Ki
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.246-255
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    • 2007
  • Mutans streptococci have been implicated as cariogenic bacteria in dental caries because they can produce high levels of dental caries-causing lactic acid and extracellular polysaccharide. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize the mutans streptococci from the dental plaque obtained from Koreans. The dental plaque samples were collected from the anterior and molar teeth of both jaws in 155 subjects (aged 2 to 33.2 years, average age $13.7{\pm}4.7\;years$). The samples were diluted by 100-fold in $1{\times}\;PBS$ and plated on mitis-salivarius bacitracin (MSB) agar plates. The mutans streptococci grown on MSB plates were screened by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) targeting dextranase gene (dex). The mutans streptococci were identified at the species level using a 16S rDNA sequencing comparison method. The biochemical tests were carried out to biotype the mutans streptococci. Ninety-five strains of the mutans streptococci out of 358 colonies, which were derived from 141 subjects, were isolated. Of them, 77 strains and 18 strains were Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, respectively. The biotyping data showed that 62, 1, 20, 10, and 2 strains were biotypes I, II, IV, V and variant, respectively. Of the two strains of variant biotype, one strains was similar to biotype IV except that it was positive to the arginine hydrolysis test. We considered this one strain a new biotype, and classified it as biotype VII. In conclusion, S. mutans and its biotype I was most frequently isolated in Korean dental plaque. The mutans streptococci strains isolated in this study might be useful for the study of the pathogenesis and the prevention of dental caries.

Association of gingival biotype with the results of scaling and root planing

  • Sin, Yeon-Woo;Chang, Hee-Yung;Yun, Woo-Hyuk;Jeong, Seong-Nyum;Pi, Sung-Hee;You, Hyung-Keun
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.283-290
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: The concept of gingival biotype has been used as a predictor of periodontal therapy outcomes since the 1980s. In the present study, prospective and controlled experiments were performed to compare periodontal pocket depth (PPD) reduction and gingival shrinkage (GSH) after scaling and root planing (SRP) according to gingival biotype. Methods: Twenty-five patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis participated in the present study. The PPD and GSH of the labial side of the maxillary anterior teeth (from the right canine to the left canine) were evaluated at baseline and 3 months after SRP. Changes in the PPD following SRP were classified into 4 groups according to the gingival thickness and initial PPD. Two more groups representing normal gingival crevices were added in evaluation of the GSH. The results were statistically analyzed using the independent t-test. Results: In the end, 16 patients participated in the present study. With regard to PPD reduction, there were no significant differences according to gingival biotype (P>0.05). Likewise, sites with a PPD of over 3 mm failed to show any significant differences in the GSH (P>0.05). However, among the sites with a PPD of under 3 mm, those with the thin gingival biotype showed more GSH (P<0.05). Conclusions: PPD changes after SRP were not affected by gingival biotype with either shallow or deep periodontal pockets. GSH also showed equal outcomes in all the groups without normal gingival crevices. The results of SRP seem not to differ according to gingival biotype.

Determination of paraquat-resistant biotype on Conyza canadensis and the resistant mechanism (Paraquat 저항성 생태형 망초의 선발과 저항성 기작)

  • Kim, Sung-Eun;Kim, Seung-Yong;Ahn, Sul-Hwa;Chun, Jae-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.88-96
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    • 2005
  • Paraquat-resistant biotype of Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. was determined by chlorophyll loss and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and the resistant mechanism was investigated with respect to absorption, translocation, and binding constant. RAPD analysis for paraquat resistant (R) and susceptible (S) biotypes found in a pear orchard revealed that the biotypes possessed remote genetic relationship. Chlorophyll loss, as an indication of paraquat toxicity, of S biotype was 7.8-fold greater than that of R biotype. There were no differences in contents of epicuticular wax and cuticle and amounts of [14C]paraquat penetrating the cuticle between the two biotypes. Little translocation of the herbicide out of the treated leaf was observed in either biotype. Binding constants of paraquat to the cell wall and thylakoid membrane were 7.4-fold and 16.9-fold, respectively, higher in R biotype than in S biotype. The results suggest that the resistance mechanism of C. canadensis biotype is due partly to high binding affinity of paraquat to the cell wall and thylakoid membrane.

Characteristics and Pathogenicity for Japnaes Eel Anguilla japonica of Vibrio vulnificus Isolated from Oyster, Sediment and Seawater in the Korea Coast

  • Kim, Myoung Sug;Jung, Sung Hee;Hong, Suhee;Jeong, Hyun Do
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.387-393
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    • 2015
  • Biotyping of Vibrio vulnificus strains isolated from marine environments along the south coast of Korea showed that the majority of the isolates (94.7%) belonged to biotype 1 and the remaining isolates (5.3%) belonged to biotype 2. Analysis of 16S rRNA V. vulnificus strains isolated from marine environments using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that 78.7% were type A and 21.3% were type B. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyze the genomic differences in V. vulnificus among the biotype 2 strains isolated from marine environments (newly isolated strains group) and reference strains obtained from infected eels (reference strains group). The two groups had distinctly different profiles of the amplicons produced from RAPD. Additionally, biochemical comparison of these strains revealed that all four strains isolated from marine environments differed from the strains isolated from eels in their ability to promote D-mannitol fermentation. Two (NH 1 and NH 2) out of four isolates of biotype 2 from marine environments showed pathogenicity in eels Anguilla japonica in a challenge test. These isolates did not agglutinate with antisera against V. vulnificus NCIMB 2137 (serovar E), ATCC 27562 (non-serovar E), and ATCC 33816 (atypical serovar E).