• Title, Summary, Keyword: biotype

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Characterization of the Acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene and Molecular Assay of Mutations Associated with Sulfonylurea Herbicide Resistance of Monochoria vaginalis (물달개비의 Acetolactate synthase (ALS) 유전자의 특성과 Sulfonylurea 제초제 저항성과 관련 돌연변의 분자생물학적 접근)

  • Park, Tae-Seon;Park, Hong-Kyu;Ku, Bon-Il;Kim, Young-Doo;Ko, Jae-Kwon;Lee, In-Yong;Park, Jae-Eup
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.290-297
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    • 2009
  • This research aims to contribute the characterization of acetolactate synthase (Ec 4.1.3.18; ALS) and the resistance mechanism by sequence analysis of ALS gene of the sulfonylurea-resistant and -susceptible Monochoria vaginalis. The ALS gene was obtained from susceptible (S) and resistant (R) M. vaginalis to sulfonylurea herbicides (SUs). The 815 bp the fragment and the genomic DNA sequence coding for acetolactate synthase (ALS) of S and R biotypes of M. vaginalis were cloned and sequenced. Nineteen clones were divided greatly into 4 groups as result of sequencing. The first group was not difference to S type, the second group was amino acid of P197S which found point mutations causing substitution of serine for proline at amino acid 197, the third group was observed greatly other part of 6 places than group 1, and the fourth group appeared the intergrade of group 1 and 3. Therefore, it could be assumed what ALS gene of various types can be one plant. The peptide of the 13 amino acid Domain A region for ALS genes from R biotype of M. vaginalis differed from that of the S biotype by one base substitution at proline codon of Domain A. It could also be confirmed that point mutation of serine for proline at amino acid 197.

Pattern Analysis of Volume of Basal Ganglia Structures in Patients with First-Episode Psychosis (초발 정신병 환자에서 기저핵 구조물 부피의 패턴분석)

  • Min, Sally;Lee, Tae Young;Kwak, Yoobin;Kwon, Jun Soo
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.38-43
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    • 2018
  • Objectives Dopamine dysregulation has been regarded as one of the core pathologies in patients with schizophrenia. Since dopamine synthesis capacity has found to be inconsistent in patients with schizophrenia, current classification of patients based on clinical symptoms cannot reflect the neurochemical heterogeneity of the disease. Here we performed new subtyping of patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) through biotype-based cluster analysis. We specifically suggested basal ganglia structural changes as a biotype, which deeply involves in the dopaminergic circuit. Methods Forty FEP and 40 demographically matched healthy participants underwent 3T T1 MRI. Whole brain parcellation was conducted, and volumes of total 6 regions of basal ganglia have been extracted as features for cluster analysis. We used K-means clustering, and external validation was conducted with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results K-means clustering divided 40 FEP subjects into 2 clusters. Cluster 1 (n = 25) showed substantial volume decrease in 4 regions of basal ganglia compared to Cluster 2 (n = 15). Cluster 1 showed higher positive scales of PANSS compared with Cluster 2 (F = 2.333, p = 0.025). Compared to healthy controls, Cluster 1 showed smaller volumes in 4 regions, whereas Cluster 2 showed larger volumes in 3 regions. Conclusions Two subgroups have been found by cluster analysis, which showed a distinct difference in volume patterns of basal ganglia structures and positive symptom severity. The result possibly reflects the neurobiological heterogeneity of schizophrenia. Thus, the current study supports the importance of paradigm shift toward biotype-based diagnosis, instead of phenotype, for future precision psychiatry.

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Characteristics of Yersinia enterocolitica Isolated from Frozen Foods (냉동식품에서 분리한 Yersinia enterocolitica의 특성)

  • Lim, Soon-Young;Yoon, Suk-Kwon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.1336-1340
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    • 2000
  • Overall prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in frozen foods was 5.6% (35 cases of 624 samples). Seasonal variation of contamination was observed. Isolation rate of Y. enterocolitica from samples collected in the second half of the year was six times higher than those of the first half of the year. Serotype of the isolated Y. enterocolitica was mainly serotype O:5 (9 cases). However, 25 cases of 35 isolates could not be serotyped with antiserum used in this study. The biotype test showed that all isolates were non-pathogenic type 1A. The polymerase chain reaction test with ail gene specific primers also confirmed that pathogenic strains were not found in frozen food isolates.

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Biotypes of the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvara lugens (Stal) (벼멸구의 생태형)

  • Saxena R.C.;Barrion A.A.
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.52-66
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    • 1983
  • The brown planthopper, N. lugens (Stal), has become a serious pest of rice in tropical Asia during the last decade. At high pest density, its feeding damage causes 'hopperburn' or complete wilting and drying of the rice plant. It also transmits grassy and ragged stunt virus diseases. The estimated losses caused by the pest in tropical Asia exceed $US\$300$ millions. While cultivation of resistant rice varieties has proved to be highly effective against the pest, their long-term stability is threatened because of the evolution of prolific biotypes which can destroy these varieties. At present, identification of biotypes is based principally on the differential reactions of host rice varieties to the pest and on host-mediated behavioral and physiological responses of the pest. Recent findings of morphological differences in adult rostrum, legs, and antennae, body parts that possess receptors for host plant location and discrimination, and cytological differences in N. lugens populations maintained as stock cultures strongly complement other biotype studies. So far, three N. lugens biotypes have been identified in the Philippines. Biotype I can survive on and damage varieties that do not carry and genes for resistance, while Biotype 2 survives on resistant varieties carrying Bph 1 gene and Biotype 3 on varieties carrying gene bph 2. However, none of these biotypes can survive on varieties with genes Bph 3 or bph 4. Several varieties which are resistant in the Philippines are susceptible in India and Sri Lanka as the South Asian biotypes of N. lugens are more virulent than Southeast Asian biotypes. To monitor the pest biotypes in different geographical regions and to identify new sources of resistance, an International Brown Planthopper Nursery has been established in many cooperating countries. The evolution of biotypes is an exceedingly complex process which is governed by the interactions of genetic and biological factors of the pest populations and the genetic makeup of the cultivated varieties. While the strategy for sequential release of varieties with major resistance genes has been fairly successful so far, the monegenic resistance of these varieties makes them vulnerable to the development of the pest biotypes. Therefore, present breeding endeavors envisage utilizing both major and minor resistance genes for effective control of the pest.

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Experimental infection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in chicks (유추(幼雛)에 있어서 Campylobacter jejuni 및 Campylobacter coli의 실험적(實驗的) 감염(感染))

  • Chung, Byong-gon;Kang, Ho-jo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.345-353
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    • 1988
  • The present study was carried out to investigate the incidence of C jejuni and C coli in chicken. Also were examined the pathogenicity of the isolates in chick by experimental inoculation. Thermophilic Campylobacter were isolated from 34(45.9%) of the 74 specimens, and classified as 21.6% C jejuni, and 24.3% C coli. In the biotyping of 16 stranis of C jejuni isolates, 37.5% of the strains were grouped as biotype I, 62.5% as biotype II. In the case of 18 strains of C coli isolates, 49.9% of isolates were grouped as biotype I, 55.6% as biotype II. n oral inoculation with $10^4cfu$ of Campylobacter isolates into infant chicks(1 to 3 days-old), 17 days-old and 34 days-old chicks, 32.5% of the chicks developed diarrhea on day 1, 52.5% on day 3, 70.0% on day 5, and 27.5% on day 7, and the peak incidence of diarrhea was reached on day 5. The organisms were found to be discharged in feces one day afterwards. C jejuni and C coli strains were detected from the feces in 87.5% of the chicks on day 5. The organisms were multiplied from $10^4$ to $10^6cfu/gm$ in feces 5 to 7 days after inoculation. C jejuni and C coli recovered from 100% of the cecum, 64.3% of the duodenum, 50.0% of the spleen, 42.9% of the livers, and from 21.4% of gallbladders 7 days after inoculation.

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Biotype, serotype and antibiotics susceptibility of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from zoo animals (동물원(動物園) 야생동물(野生動物)에서 분리(分離)한 Yersinia enterocolitica 의 생물형(生物型), 혈청형(血淸型) 및 항생제(抗生劑) 감수성(感受性))

  • Park, Seog-gee;Youn, En-sun;Kim, En-jung
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.85-91
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    • 1994
  • A study on the isolation of Yersiniae from the feces of wild animals(mammals 376, birds 19 and reptiles 13) in zoo and the biotype and serotype and susceptibility of 12 antibiotics was carried. Out of 408 animals, Yersiniae were isolated from 28 animals(6.9%). Of 28 isolates, 27 isolates(96.4%) were Y. enterocolitica and 1(3.6%) was Y. kristensenii. According to the species, 25(6.6%) of Y. enterocolitica and 1(0.3%) of Y. kristensenii were isolated from 376 mammals, 2(15.4%) of Y. enterocolitica from 13 reptiles but not isolated from 19 birds. According to the eating pattern, 8(5.2%) of Y. enterocolitica were isolated from 155 carnivora, 13(10%) of Y. enterocolitica from 123 herbivora, and 6(4.9%) of Y. enterocolitica and 1(0.8%) of Y. enterocolitica from 123 omnivora. Out of 27 isolates of Y. enterocolitica, all were biotype 1. And predominant serotype was 0:21(40.7%), and 0:5(37.0%), 0:6(11.1%), 0:1(3.7%), 0:9(3.7%) and untypable(3.7%). Yersiniae isolated from zoo animals were resistant to cephalothin(100%), ampicillin(96.4%), carbenicillin(96.4%) and tetracycline(14.3%) and streptomycin(3.6%) and susceptible to chloramphenicol(100%), colistin(100%), gentamicin(100%), kanamycin(100%), nalidixic acid(100%), polymyxin B(100%) and tobramycin(100%). The predominant multiple resistance pattern was Am-Cf-Cb(82.1%), and Am-Cf-Cb-Te(10.7%) and Am-Cf-Cb-Te-Sm(3.7%).

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Efficacy of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in Korean mongrel dogs against virulent strains of B. abortus biotype 1 and B. canis

  • Hur, Jin;Baek, Byeong-Kirl
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.29-35
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    • 2010
  • This study was performed to test the hypothesis that Brucella abortus strain RB51 (SRB51) might protect Korean indigenous mongrel dog against challenge with either virulent B. abortus biotype 1 or B. canis. A total of 12 Korean mongrel dogs were divided into four groups (Group A, B, C and D). Dogs belonging to Group A and C were inoculated subcutaneously with $1{\times}10^9$ CFU of SRB51 in 1ml of sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Dogs of Group B and D were inoculated subcutaneously with 1ml of sterile PBS as control. At 12 weeks post vaccination, dogs of Group A and B were challenged by oral inoculation of virulent strain of B. canis ($5.0{\times}10^9$ CFU) and dogs of Group C and D were challenged by oral inoculation of virulent strain of B. abortus biotype 1 ($4.4{\times}10^{10}$ CFU). The serum antibodies titers in all dogs were monitored at regular interval for eight weeks after challenge (AC) by standard tube agglutination test, plate agglutination test, rose bengal test, 2-mercaptoethanol rapid slide agglutination test and 2-mercaptoethanol tube agglutination test. No antibody titers in Group A and C was detected. Also, the challenge strains were not found from blood of all dogs of Group A and C from 1 week AC till the end of the experiment by culture and modified AMOS-PCR, whereas B. canis and B. abortus challenge strains were detected from blood of Group B and D, respectively. In addition, neither of two challenge bacteria was recovered from liver, spleen, kidneys, lymph nodes and reproductive tracts of Group A and C dogs after postmortem. However, B. canis and B. abortus challenge strains were isolated from these tissues of Group B and D, respectively. These data suggest that SRB51 could be a promising vaccine candidate for immunizing dogs to control canine brucellosis caused by B. canis or B. abortus.

Selection and Antagonistic Mechanism of Pseudomonas fluorescens 4059 Against Phytophthora Blight Disease (고추역병과 시들음병을 방제하는 토착길항세균 Pseudomonas fluorescens 4059의 선발과 길항기작)

  • Jeong, Hui-Gyeong;Kim, Sang-Dal
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.312-316
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    • 2004
  • In oder to select the powerful rhizophere-dorminatable biocontrol agent, we had isolated an indigenous antagonistic bacterium which produced antibiotic and siderophore from a disease suppressive local field soil of Gyungsan, Korea. And we could select the Pseudomosp. 4059 which can strongly antagonize against Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora capsici by two kinds of antifungal mechanism that can be caused by the antibiotic of Phenazin, a siderophore and a auxin like subThe selected strain was identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens (biotype A) 4059 by biochemical tests, API $\textregistered$ test, MicroLog TM system and 16S rDNA analysis. The selected antagonistic microorganism, Pseudomosp. 4059 had an antifungal mechanism of antifungal antibiotic and sidrophore. And we were confirmed the antagonistic activity of P fluorescens 4059 with in vitro antifungal test against Phytophthora capsici and in vivo by red-pepper.

Three dimensional analysis of Korean dentogingival complex (한국인 치아치은 집합체구조의 삼차원적인 분석)

  • Park, Yeong-Suk;Lee, Seung-Pyo;Kim, Tae-Il
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.199-206
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: Variation in the morphology of gingival papilla may be determined by the shape and position of anatomic crown as well as contact area and embrasure form of individual teeth. However, periodontal biotype classification is regarded to be subjective because of the lack of definite criteria. In this study, we defined the objective parameters which constitute the periodontal biotype and measured their relationship. Materials and Methods: 109 of dental casts were prepared using three dimensional scanner and specialized reconstruction software, then acquiredvirtual models were sent to the 20 professional dentists to define the specific periodontal biotypes. Several parameters around periodontal structures were measured from the virtual models; facial surface area of the anterior tooth (AT), anterior papillary area (AP), proportion of the dento-papillary complex, clinical papillary length (PL), and clinical papillary angle (PA). Statistical analysis was performed to confirm the relationship among parameters. Results: Coincidence rate of periodontal biotype within observers was $63.77{\pm}16.05%$. Coincidence rate between observers was $76.15{\pm}16.43%$. Among the parameters measured, PL showed the most positive correlations and PA presented the most negative correlations. The parameter of the AP and PL of six maxillary anterior teeth showed significant correlation coefficient. Conclusion: Anterior papillary area and clinical papillary length would be objective parameters for determining the consistent periodontal biotypes.