• Title/Summary/Keyword: bit error rate

Search Result 1,208, Processing Time 0.102 seconds

BER performance analysis of successive interference cancellation(SIC) algorithm for W-CDMA HSDPA receiver (W-CDMA HSDPA수신기의 직렬간섭제거 알고리즘의 오류율 성능해석)

  • Koo Je-Gil
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea TC
    • /
    • v.41 no.1
    • /
    • pp.13-22
    • /
    • 2004
  • This paper drives the exact expression of bit error rate(BER) performance for successive interference cancellation(SIC) algorithm against multipath interference components in a high-speed downlink packet access(HSDPA) system of W-CDMA downlink and the BER performance is evaluated by numerical analysis. Numerical results showed that the average BER performance is rapidly saturated in terms of increasing the number of multipath and is revealed significant improvement for improvement Processing gain(PG). For example, the average BER Performance of the SIC algorithm is superior to the performance of conventional scheme by more than 7dB and 1.4dB for processing gain PG=54 and 128 under the two-path channel and average BER=$1.0{\times}10^{-3}$, respectively. This results also indicated that the average BER saturation is occurred at nearly one weight factor which is assigned to pilot and data channels. Likewise, the average BER performance is greatly degraded due to increasing the interference power in proportional to the number of multipath with increasing multicode K. And the smaller multipath fading channel gain is arrived later, the more the average BER performance is improved. The results of performance analysis in this paper indicated that the multipath interference cancellation is required to improve the BER performance in a HSDPA system under multicode for high-speed packet transmission, low spreading factor, and multipath fading channel.

Design of Binary Constant Envelope System using the Pre-Coding Scheme in the Multi-User CDMA Communication System (다중 사용자 CDMA 통신 시스템에서 프리코딩 기법을 사용한 2진 정진폭 시스템 설계)

  • 김상우;유흥균;정순기;이상태
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
    • /
    • v.15 no.5
    • /
    • pp.486-492
    • /
    • 2004
  • In this paper, we newly propose the binary CA-CDMA(constant amplitude CDMA) system using pre-coding method to solve the high PAPR problem caused by multi-user signal transmission in the CDMA system. 4-user CA-CDMA, the basis of proposed binary CA-CDMA system, makes binary output signal for 4 input users. It produces the output of binary(${\pm}$2) amplitude by using a parity signal resulting from the XOR operation of 4 users data. Another sub-channel or more bandwidth is not necessary because it is transmitted together with user data and can be easily recovered in the receiver. The extension of the number of users can be possible by the simple repetition of the basic binary 4-user CA-CDMA. For example, binary 16-user CA-CDMA is made easily by allocating the four 4-user CA-CDMA systems in parallel and leading the four outputs to the fifth 4-user CA-CDMA system as input, because the output signal of each 4-user CA-CDMA is also binary. By the same extension procedure, binary 64 and 256-user CA-CDMA systems can be made with the constant amplitude. As a result, the code rate of this proposed CA-CDMA system is just 1 and binary CA-CDMA does not change the transmission rate with the constant output signal(PAPR = 0 ㏈). Therefore, the power efficiency of the HPA can be maximized without the nonlinear distortion. From the simulation results, it is verified that the conventional CDMA system has multi-level output signal, but the proposed binary CA-CDMA system always produces binary output. And it is also found that the BER of conventional CDMA system is increased by nonlinear HPA, but the BER of proposed binary CA-CDMA system is not changed.

K-means clustering analysis and differential protection policy according to 3D NAND flash memory error rate to improve SSD reliability

  • Son, Seung-Woo;Kim, Jae-Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
    • /
    • v.26 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1-9
    • /
    • 2021
  • 3D-NAND flash memory provides high capacity per unit area by stacking 2D-NAND cells having a planar structure. However, due to the nature of the lamination process, there is a problem that the frequency of error occurrence may vary depending on each layer or physical cell location. This phenomenon becomes more pronounced as the number of write/erase(P/E) operations of the flash memory increases. Most flash-based storage devices such as SSDs use ECC for error correction. Since this method provides a fixed strength of data protection for all flash memory pages, it has limitations in 3D NAND flash memory, where the error rate varies depending on the physical location. Therefore, in this paper, pages and layers with different error rates are classified into clusters through the K-means machine learning algorithm, and differentiated data protection strength is applied to each cluster. We classify pages and layers based on the number of errors measured after endurance test, where the error rate varies significantly for each page and layer, and add parity data to stripes for areas vulnerable to errors to provides differentiate data protection strength. We show the possibility that this differentiated data protection policy can contribute to the improvement of reliability and lifespan of 3D NAND flash memory compared to the protection techniques using RAID-like or ECC alone.

Performance Analysis of Adaptive SC/MRC Diversity Combining using in AWGN (AWGN환경에서 적응형 SC/MRC 다이버시티 컴바이너 성능분석)

  • Yun, Deok-Won;Huh, Sung-Uk;Kim, Chun-Won;Choi, Yong-Tae;Lee, Won-Cheol
    • The Journal of Korea Institute of Information, Electronics, and Communication Technology
    • /
    • v.11 no.6
    • /
    • pp.757-763
    • /
    • 2018
  • It is very difficult to achieve sufficient data rate and required quality of service due to the time-varying nature of the radio channel and various jammers such as path loss, delay, Doppler, shadowing and interference. Especially, the propagation path between the transmitting antenna and the tracking antenna mounted on the fuselage during the test and evaluation of the projectile system considered in this paper is based on the rapid movement of the projectile, the interference due to multipath fading due to the terrain, The propagation path may be blocked. In order to effectively improve the multipath fading occurring in the wireless communication system, a diversity combiner technique is required. In this paper, to derive the design and improvement schemes for the space diversity combiner technique among the diversity combiner schemes, the BER performance of maximum ratio combining (MRC) and selection combining (SC) In an adaptive SC / MRC diversity combiner that operates with MRC when it is lower than the specified threshold criterion when comparing the SNR between two signals received from the channel and operates with SC at high and combines the two received signals The BER performance of the system was compared and analyzed.

In-Band Full-Duplex Wireless Communication Using USRP (USRP 장치를 이용한 동일대역 전이중 무선통신 연구)

  • Park, Haeun;Yoon, Jiyong;Kim, Youngsik
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
    • /
    • v.30 no.3
    • /
    • pp.229-235
    • /
    • 2019
  • The implementation of an in-band full-duplex wireless communication system is demonstrated in this study. In the analog/RF domain, the self-interference(SI) signal is reduced using a separate antenna for the transmitter and receiver paths, and most of the SI signal is canceled in the digital domain. A software defined radio(SDR) is used to implement the in-band full-duplex wireless communication system. The USRP X310 device uses transmitting and receiving antennas. By adjusting the gain of the transmitting and receiving ends of the SDR device, the magnitude of the SI signal entering the receiving antenna, and the size of the received signal from the outside, are both set to -64 dB. To verify the in-band full-duplex wireless communication performance, the source data is image and orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing is used for modulation. A WiFi standard frame with a carrier frequency of 2.67 GHz and bandwidth of 20 MHz is used. In the received signal, the SI signal is canceled by digital signal processing and the SI signal is attenuated by up to 34 dB. OFDM demodulation was impossible when the SI signal was not removed. However, the bit error rate is reduced to $2.63{\times}10^{-5}$ when the SI signal is attenuated by 34 dB, and no error is detected in the 100 Mbit data output as a result of passing through the Viterbi decoder.

Detection Scheme Based on Gauss - Seidel Method for OTFS Systems (OTFS 시스템을 위한 Gauss - Seidel 방법 기반의 검출 기법)

  • Cha, Eunyoung;Kim, Hyeongseok;Ahn, Haesung;Kwon, Seol;Kim, Jeongchang
    • Journal of Broadcast Engineering
    • /
    • v.27 no.2
    • /
    • pp.244-247
    • /
    • 2022
  • In this paper, the performance of the decoding schemes using linear MMSE filters in the frequency and time domains and the reinforcement Gauss-Seidel algorithm for the orthogonal time frequency space (OTFS) system that can improve robustness under high-speed mobile environments are compared. The reinforcement Gauss-Seidel algorithm can improve the bit error rate performance by suppressing the noise enhancement. The simulation results show that the performance of the decoding scheme using the linear MMSE filter in the frequency domain is severely degraded due to the effect of Doppler shift as the mobile speed increases. In addition, the decoding scheme using the reinforcement Gauss-Seidel algorithm under the channel environment with 120 km/h and 500 km/h speeds outperforms the decoding schemes using linear MMSE filters in the frequency and time domains.

Implant Isolation Characteristics for 1.25 Gbps Monolithic Integrated Bi-Directional Optoelectronic SoC (1.25 Gbps 단일집적 양방향 광전 SoC를 위한 임플란트 절연 특성 분석)

  • Kim, Sung-Il;Kang, Kwang-Yong;Lee, Hai-Young
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
    • /
    • v.44 no.8
    • /
    • pp.52-59
    • /
    • 2007
  • In this paper, we analyzed and measured implant isolation characteristics for a 1.25 Gbps monolithic integrated hi-directional (M-BiDi) optoelectronic system-on-a-chip, which is a key component to constitute gigabit passive optical networks (PONs) for a fiber-to-the-home (FTTH). Also, we derived an equivalent circuit of the implant structure under various DC bias conditions. The 1.25 Gbps M-BiDi transmit-receive SoC consists of a laser diode with a monitor photodiode as a transmitter and a digital photodiode as a digital data receiver on the same InP wafer According to IEEE 802.3ah and ITU-T G.983.3 standards, a receiver sensitivity of the digital receiver has to satisfy under -24 dBm @ BER=10-12. Therefore, the electrical crosstalk levels have to maintain less than -86 dB from DC to 3 GHz. From analysed and measured results of the implant structure, the M-BiDi SoC with the implant area of 20 mm width and more than 200 mm distance between the laser diode and monitor photodiode, and between the monitor photodiode and digital photodiode, satisfies the electrical crosstalk level. These implant characteristics can be used for the design and fabrication of an optoelectronic SoC design, and expended to a mixed-mode SoC field.

Image Watermarking for Copyright Protection of Images on Shopping Mall (쇼핑몰 이미지 저작권보호를 위한 영상 워터마킹)

  • Bae, Kyoung-Yul
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
    • /
    • v.19 no.4
    • /
    • pp.147-157
    • /
    • 2013
  • With the advent of the digital environment that can be accessed anytime, anywhere with the introduction of high-speed network, the free distribution and use of digital content were made possible. Ironically this environment is raising a variety of copyright infringement, and product images used in the online shopping mall are pirated frequently. There are many controversial issues whether shopping mall images are creative works or not. According to Supreme Court's decision in 2001, to ad pictures taken with ham products is simply a clone of the appearance of objects to deliver nothing but the decision was not only creative expression. But for the photographer's losses recognized in the advertising photo shoot takes the typical cost was estimated damages. According to Seoul District Court precedents in 2003, if there are the photographer's personality and creativity in the selection of the subject, the composition of the set, the direction and amount of light control, set the angle of the camera, shutter speed, shutter chance, other shooting methods for capturing, developing and printing process, the works should be protected by copyright law by the Court's sentence. In order to receive copyright protection of the shopping mall images by the law, it is simply not to convey the status of the product, the photographer's personality and creativity can be recognized that it requires effort. Accordingly, the cost of making the mall image increases, and the necessity for copyright protection becomes higher. The product images of the online shopping mall have a very unique configuration unlike the general pictures such as portraits and landscape photos and, therefore, the general image watermarking technique can not satisfy the requirements of the image watermarking. Because background of product images commonly used in shopping malls is white or black, or gray scale (gradient) color, it is difficult to utilize the space to embed a watermark and the area is very sensitive even a slight change. In this paper, the characteristics of images used in shopping malls are analyzed and a watermarking technology which is suitable to the shopping mall images is proposed. The proposed image watermarking technology divide a product image into smaller blocks, and the corresponding blocks are transformed by DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform), and then the watermark information was inserted into images using quantization of DCT coefficients. Because uniform treatment of the DCT coefficients for quantization cause visual blocking artifacts, the proposed algorithm used weighted mask which quantizes finely the coefficients located block boundaries and coarsely the coefficients located center area of the block. This mask improves subjective visual quality as well as the objective quality of the images. In addition, in order to improve the safety of the algorithm, the blocks which is embedded the watermark are randomly selected and the turbo code is used to reduce the BER when extracting the watermark. The PSNR(Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) of the shopping mall image watermarked by the proposed algorithm is 40.7~48.5[dB] and BER(Bit Error Rate) after JPEG with QF = 70 is 0. This means the watermarked image is high quality and the algorithm is robust to JPEG compression that is used generally at the online shopping malls. Also, for 40% change in size and 40 degrees of rotation, the BER is 0. In general, the shopping malls are used compressed images with QF which is higher than 90. Because the pirated image is used to replicate from original image, the proposed algorithm can identify the copyright infringement in the most cases. As shown the experimental results, the proposed algorithm is suitable to the shopping mall images with simple background. However, the future study should be carried out to enhance the robustness of the proposed algorithm because the robustness loss is occurred after mask process.