• Title, Summary, Keyword: bitter substances

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A Sensory Evaluation of the Bitter Compounds from Ixeris dentata Nakai (관능검사를 통한 씀바귀의 쓴맛 연구)

  • 임숙자
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.115-121
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    • 1996
  • Ixeris dentata Nakai (Compositae) is a perennial herb and the young shoots when prepared properly are edible as a bitter appetizing vegetable in the early spring. The whole plant has been used as a folk medicine in treating diabetes in Korea. As a part of our studies on bitter substances, we have investigated the bitterness of the plant through a taste-guided fractionation method. Bitter substances were extracted by the solvent fractionation and the bitterness was evaluated by 10 trained panelists consisted with graduate students of Dept. of Foods and Nutrition. It has been revealed that the bitter compounds were distributed throughout the extracting fractions and the higher intensity of the bitterness was seen in the n-BuOH fractions. The bitter compounds were subfractionated by the silica gel column chromatography and the bitterness was evaluated by the trained panelists. The subfractions which were indicated as the bitter compounds will be further studied to isolate the compounds. The H$_2$O fractions were grouped according to the molecular weight through the ultrafiltration and the group with 1,000 < m.w. < 30,000 was evaluated as the most intense bitter subfraction.

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Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Yuzu(Citrus junos) Treated with Enzyme Complex for Removing Bitter Substance (고미성분 제거를 위한 복합효소처리 후 유자의 이화학적 및 관능적 특성)

  • 김용두;김경제
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.38-41
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    • 2004
  • To obtain basic data for utilizing Yuzu(Citrus junos) as row materials to industrial products, enzyme treatments conditions for removing bitter substances was investigated. The amount of nuringin and hesperidin weve 61.94 and 9.98 mg% in Yuzu juice. When 3% Amorepacific enzyme and Japanese naringinase were treated with the juice for 120 minutes, naringin and hesperidin were decreased to 6.85 and 1.11 mg% ; 8.43 and 0.06 mg%, respectively. The changes in Hunter color value of the juice were negligible by enzyme treatments. However, the redness was increased and lightness was decreased by the enzymes. When Yuzu-juice was treated with the enzymes, sensory scores were increased. The optimum amount of Amorepacific for reducing bitter taste was determined to 3%.

Research on the Correlation of the Surface Tension and Sensory Quality of Bitter Substances (쓴 맛 물질의 표면 장력과 쓴 맛의 상관 관계)

  • Kim, Jeong-Mee;Pfeilsticker, Konrad
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.646-651
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    • 1995
  • The correlation between the bitter taste and the surface tension was found for bitter tasting, aqueous solutions. By the Szyszkowski's equation, the surface tension (STR) and taste curves (JND) were derived more clearly using the Techplot program. The specific capillary activity (log b values) for bitter tasting solutions are negatively correlated to the recognition threshold. It was shown that a more bitter substances has greater capillary activity. The correlation between the recognition threshold $(log\;C_{1})$ and the substance specific constant (a and b values) of sensory (JND) and surface tension values indicates good agreement. This means that the model of surface area adsorption in the solution/air system can apply also for the sensory model microvillus membrane in the mouth.

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Bitter Taste, Rising New Functions and Significance of Extra-oral Expressions

  • Ki, Su-Young;Kim, Kyung-Nyun
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.113-121
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    • 2018
  • Taste is closely related to intake of food. Taste perception is also influenced by type of food ingested, and nutrition and health status. Bitter taste plays an important role in the survival of human and animals to avoid probable toxic and harmful substances. Vertebrate animals recognize bitter taste through type 2 taste receptors (T2Rs). Several T2Rs have been expressed extra-oral such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, urogenital tract, brain and immune cells, and parts of their functions are being revealed. This review will discuss physiological roles of T2Rs in relation to innate immunity, secretion and smooth muscle contraction expressed in extra-oral cells and tissues, and we summarize relationships between polymorphisms in T2Rs and general or oral diseases. It is not a coincidence that animals pay much genetic costs for taste and smell during evolution.

Expression of Bitter Taste Receptors in Human Nasal Respiratory Epithelium

  • An, Jeong-Mi;Wu, Hee-Won;Kim, Hyun-Jun;Kim, Chang-Hoon;Moon, Seok-Jun
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.57-62
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    • 2012
  • The nasal cavity encounters various irritants during inhalation such as dust and pathogens. To detect and remove these irritants, it has been postulated that the nasal mucosa epithelium has a specialized sensing system. The oral cavity, on the other hand, is known to have bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) that can detect harmful substances to prevent ingestion. Recently, solitary chemosensory cells expressing T2R subtypes have been found in the respiratory epithelium of rodents. In addition, T2Rs have been identified in the human airway epithelia. However, it is not clear which T2Rs are expressed in the human nasal mucosa epithelium and whether they mediate the removal of foreign materials through increased cilia movement. In our current study, we show that human T2R receptors indeed function also in the nasal mucosa epithelium. Our RT-PCR data indicate that the T2R subtypes (T2R3, T2R4, T2R5, T2R10, T2R13, T2R14, T2R39, T2R43, T2R44, T2R 45, T2R46, T2R47, T2R48, T2R49, and T2R50) are expressed in human nasal mucosa. Furthermore, we have found that T2R receptor activators such as bitter chemicals augments the ciliary beating frequency. Our results thus demonstrate that T2Rs are likely to function in the cleanup of inhaled dust and pathogens by increasing ciliary movement. This would suggest that T2Rs are feasible molecular targets for the development of novel treatment strategies for nasal infection and inflammation.

Removal of the Bittering Substances from Brewer's yeast by Supercritical Carton Dioxide (초임계 이산화탄소를 이용만 맥주효모로부터 고미성분 제거)

  • 전병수;윤성옥;김석규;최승태
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.68-72
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    • 2002
  • Supercritical Carbon Dioxide was evaluated and optimized for the enrichment and fractionation of the essential oil and the bitter principles of hops, both of which contribute to the flavor of beer, Selected conditions of extraction(pressure, temperature and co-solvent) influenced the composition, the olfactory results and the colour of the extract. Optimal extraction conditions were 30 min, 1800 psia and $ >45^{\circ}C $ with co-solvent. Under these conditions, yield was 65% from brewer's yeast. The bittering substances from brewer's yeasts almost were removed.

Optimum Condition for Removing Bitter Substance of Yuzu(Citrus junos) by Enzyme Treatment (효소처리에 의한 유자 고미성분 제거의 최적 조건 연구)

  • 김용두;김경제
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.53-56
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    • 2004
  • The content of naringin and hesperidin of Yuzu were 95.54 and 103.99 in peel ; 65.77 and 77.18 in flesh ; 16.49 and 15.88mg% in seed, respectively. When 10 mg% of naringin and 5 mg% hesperidin were treated with 10.0 units naringinase and 2.0 units of hesperidinase, they were decreased to 0.11 and 0.45 mg%, respectively. One percent of Japanese naringinase digested naringin and hesperidin that their final concentration were 0.54 and 0.09 mg% in 30 minutes, while 5% Amorepacific enzyme did until 0.26 and 0.04 mg%, respectively.

The Comparison between the Tastes of Food in "Naekyeong(內經)" and them in "Euhakibmun(醫學入門)", "Dongeuibogam(東醫寶鑑)" ("내경(內經)"과 "의학입문(醫學入門)", "동의보감(東醫寶鑑)" 에 나타난 식이(食餌)의 오미(五味) 비교)

  • Jo, Hak-Jun
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.27-44
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    • 2010
  • In order to setup the diet guideline of five grains, five meats, five fruits, and five vegetables for the diseases of five organs, I reviewed the their tastes by comparing "Naekyeong" with "Euhakibmun", "Dongeuibogam". 'Ma(麻)' in "Naekyeong" means not a hemp, a ramie or a jute, but a sesame(胡麻;참깨). 'Maik(麥)' in it means both a barley(大麥;보리) and a wheat(小麥;밀). 'Guak(藿)' in it means bean leaves(콩잎), leaves of a red-bean(팥잎) or brown seaweed(海藻;미역). 'Gyu(葵)' in "Euhakibmun Jangbujobun(臟腑條分)" is a miswritten word for 'Welsh onion' caused by similarity of shape of word. Food of a salty taste according to five elemental arrangement in "Naekyeong" is really salty according to "Euhakibmun" and "Dongeuibogam". But a barley(大麥) and a wheat(小麥) of sour taste are bitter, a chicken of sour taste or hot taste is sweet, nonglutinous millet of sour taste is sweet, an apricot of bitter taste is hot, a sesame seed of sweet taste is sour, a nonglutinous rice of hot taste is sweet, and a horsemeat of hot taste is bitter according to them. There are two ways to recommend the food for diseases of five organs. One way is to promote or control the Qi(氣) of five organs according to "Somun(素問)" and "Euhakibmun Jangbujobun", the other way is to build up the Yin(陰血) of five organs according to "Yungchu(靈樞) five tastes(五味)". The two different ways are not contradictory to each other, but complement on the view point of their substances(體) or actions(用).

Studies on the Taste Describing Terms of Monosodium Glutamate and the Interactions Between MSG and Other Basic Taste Substances (Monosodium Glutamate의 맛표현 용어와 기본맛 성분과의 상호작용에 관한 연구)

  • Hong, Hae-Kyung;Lee, Hyun-Duck;Lee, Cherl-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.425-430
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    • 1990
  • The taste describing terms of Monosodium glutamate(MSG) was surveyed by questionnaires, and the sensory threshold value of MSG solution was compared to those of other basic taste substances. The effects of MSG addition to the other basic tastes were also evaluated. From the 96 responders, the taste of MSG itself was expressed as greasy(58%) or nauseous(24%), but the taste expected when MSG was added to food was expressed as sapidity and relish(79%). From the sensory evaluation, the panel expressed greasy, bitter or sweet at the absolute threshold level(0.002 M) of MSG solution, but changed to greasy and salty at the recognition threshold level(0.006 M). When MSG was added to salt solution, it expanded the salty taste, but with citric acid solution it suppressed the sourness. When MSG was added to sugar solution, it expanded sweet taste at the lower concentration of MSG(0.01 M), but suppressed the sweet taste as MSG concentration increased.

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Safety Evaluation of Ethanol Extract from Unripe Fruit of Bitter Melon (Momordica Charantia L.) in Sprague-Dawley Rats (랫드를 이용한 여주 추출물의 안전성 평가)

  • Ryu, Hyeon Yeol;Lee, Somin;Ahn, Kyu Sup;Yong, Yeon;Kim, Hye Jin;Kim, Seong-Eun;Lee, Hak Sung;Hong, Su-Young;Kim, Hyun-Kyu;Hwang, In Guk;Song, Kyung Seuk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.490-500
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    • 2017
  • This study was performed to evaluate repeated dose oral toxicity upon administration of the test substance 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one for 90 days and to determine NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) and target organs in Sprague-Dawley rats. Single, 2-week repeated, and 13-week repeated oral dose toxicity studies were conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. The dose levels of groups were 1,250, 2,500, and 5,000 mg/kg/d. All dose groups were compared with the vehicle control group. The animals were observed for clinical signs and weekly body weight. Urinalysis, hematology, and serum biochemistry analyses were conducted. Subsequently, animals were sacrificed and subjected to histopathological examination. For the result, NOAEL of ethanol extract from unripe fruit of bitter melon had an optimal dose of 5,000 mg/kg/d and acceptable daily intake up to 3,000 mg/man. There was no target organ detected. Therefore, bitter melon, which contains a variety of bioactive substances, could be widely used as a health functional food ingredient.