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Effect of Feeding Cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) High Black Rice Bran on Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Measurements, Growth Performance and Pork Quality of Pigs

  • Kil, D.Y.;Ryu, S.N.;Piao, L.G.;Kong, C.S.;Han, S.J.;Kim, Y.Y
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.1790-1798
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    • 2006
  • Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of feeding cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) high black rice bran on nutrient digestibility, blood measurements, growth performance and pork quality of pigs. In Exp. I, a total of fifteen pigs (19.91${\pm}$1.80 kg, average initial body weight) were used in assay of nutrient digestibility and blood measurements. All pigs were allotted to 5 treatments with 3 replicates according to a completely randomized design (CRD) in an individual metabolic crate. Treatments included 1) CON: basal diet, 2) BRB-2: basal+brown rice bran 2%, 3) BRB-4: basal+brown rice bran 4%, 4) CRB-2: basal+C3G high black rice bran 2% and 5) CRB-4: basal+C3G high black rice bran 4%. The digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fat (CF), crude ash (CA) and crude fiber (CF) was not affected by dietary treatments. Serum triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were not affected by addition of C3G high black rice bran. However, at the end of experiment, pigs fed rice bran showed decreased tendency in total cholesterol concentration. Especially pigs fed C3G high black rice bran showed significantly lower total cholesterol concentration compared to pigs fed brown rice bran (p<0.03). There was numerically lower total cholesterol concentration with increasing levels of black rice bran in the diet. In terms of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), there were no significant differences among treatments, even though pigs fed CRB-4 showed the lowest GOT concentration compared to other pigs. In Exp. II, sixteen finishing pigs (average initial body weight 89.96${\pm}$0.35 kg) were divided into 4 treatments to investigate the effect of feeding C3G high black rice bran on growth performance and pork quality. There were no significant differences in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) among the treatments. Pigs fed C3G high black rice bran showed numerical decrease in ADG and increase in FCR while not effecting feed intake. There was no significant difference in live weight, carcass weight, carcass rate, backfat thickness and carcass grade. However, pigs fed C3G high black rice bran tended to show lower backfat thickness than pigs fed basal diet. Pigs fed C3G high black rice bran showed a tendency of decreased TBA value than pigs fed basal diet, although there was no overall significant difference among treatments. In conclusion, nutrient digestibility, blood measurements, growth performance and pork quality were not significantly affected by feeding C3G high black rice bran to pigs. However, C3G high black rice bran might have an effect on lowering serum total cholesterol and decrease the TBA value in pork compared to control group and these effects might be due to high concentration of antioxidative compounds in C3G high black rice bran.

Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activities of the Methanolic Extracts from Milling Fractions of Black Rice (흑미의 도정분획 메탄올 추출물의 항산화 성분 및 항산화 효과)

  • Kong, Suh-Yun;Choi, Young-Min;Lee, Seon-Mi;Lee, Jun-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.7
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    • pp.815-819
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    • 2008
  • The colored rice, particularly black rice, has been well characterized to possess antioxidant properties. Rice bran, a by-product of the rice milling process, contains high levels of several phytochemicals which have antioxidant activities as well as health-beneficial properties. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extracts from milling fractions and whole grain of two black rice cultivars. Whole black rice of the two cultivars were milled into rice bran and endosperm using the gradual milling system. These were evaluated for antioxidative activities by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. To determine the antioxidant compounds in the methanolic extract from the milling fractions, the content of polyphenolics, flavonoids, anthocycanins and ${\gamma}$-oryzanol were measured by spectrophotometric methods and vitamin E analysis was carried out by HPLC. The yield of whole black rice, rice bran, and endosperm were 3.1, 15.3, and 0.9% for Heugjinjubyeo and 2.7, 15.5, and 1.1% for Heugkwangbyeo, respectively. The methanolic extracts from rice bran showed generally higher antioxidant activities than the extracts from whole grain and endosperm. In addition, antioxidant compounds distributed much higher contents in rice bran extract than in the extracts from whole grain and endosperm. A significant correlation was also noted between free radical scavenging activity and polyphenolic compounds. The results of this study show that notable antioxidant activity in black rice bran are considered to have significant health benefits.

Quality Characteristics of Tteokgalbi with Black Rice Bran and Organic Acid to Substitute Synthetic Caramel Colorant

  • Kim, Tae-Kyung;Hong, Seung-Hee;Ku, Su-Kyung;Kim, Young-Boong;Jeon, Ki-Hong;Choi, Hee-Don;Park, Jong-Dae;Park, Kwoan-Sik;Choi, Yun-Sang
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.552-560
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    • 2017
  • This study aimed to evaluate the quality characteristics of Tteokgalbi with 1% (w/w) black rice bran only (T1), or with black rice bran and one of the following four types of organic acid: ascorbic acid (T2), citric acid (T3), tartaric acid (T4), or maleic acid (T5) as a substitute for caramel colorant. Tteokgalbi with only black rice bran showed the highest (p<0.05) values of moisture content and water holding capacity (WHC), while there were no significant differences in protein content, fat content, ash content, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values in treatments and controls (p>0.05). All the treated samples with any one of the four organic acids showed lower pH than controls (p<0.05). The lightness and redness of Tteokgalbi treated with any one of the four organic acids and black rice bran were higher than those of T1. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) values of T4 and T5 were higher than those of the other treatments (p<0.05). With regards to sensory characteristics, T1 and T2 showed overall acceptability similar to that of the controls (p>0.05). The results reported in this study show that Tteokgalbi with black rice bran and any one of the four organic acids listed above not only improved quality characteristics in cooking loss, WHC, lipid oxidation but also could successfully replace the synthetic caramel colorant. Overall, the most satisfactory results were obtained by adding black rice bran and ascorbic acid.

Antioxidant Activity and Quality Characteristics of Black Rice Bran Cookies (흑미 미강 쿠키의 항산화활성 및 품질특성)

  • Joo, Shin-Youn;Choi, Hae-Yeon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.182-191
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    • 2012
  • Black rice bran powder has potential medical uses and functionality. In this study, we assessed the antioxidant activity and quality characteristics of cookies containing various concentrations (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9%) of black rice bran powder. To analyze quality characteristics, proximate composition, fatty acid composition, amino acid composition, bulk density and pH of the dough, spread factor, loss rate, leavening rate, color, texture profile analysis, and sensory evaluations were measured. Black rice bran cookies (7%) contained more crude protein ($10.67{\pm}0.33$%) compared to control ($5.84{\pm}0.06$%). The total unsaturated fatty acid contents of the control and 7% black rice bran cookies were 30.44 and 30.81%, respectively. The amino acid content of 7% black rice bran cookie was higher than that of control. Bulk density of the dough, moisture, spread factor, total polyphenol content, and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the cookies significantly increased with increasing content of black rice bran powder, whereas pH of the dough, loss rate, leavening rate, and L values of the cookies decreased. Additionally, consumer acceptability scores for the 7% black rice bran cookie group ranked significantly higher than those of the other groups in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, texture, and overall preference. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that black rice bran powder is an effective ingredient for increasing the consumer acceptability and functionality of cookies.

Natural Dyeing of Silk Fabrics with Black Rice Bran Extract (흑미 왕겨 추출물을 이용한 견직물의 천연염색)

  • Lee, Geun Souk;Bae, Do Gyu
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.27
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    • pp.13-19
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was the efficient use of the black rice bran for dyeing textiles. For this purpose, we investigated proper extracting conditions of black rice bran, dyeability and dyeing fastness of dyed silk fabrics. To find proper extracting condition of black rice bran, we extracted black rice bran with water at different temperatures($40^{\circ}C$, $60^{\circ}C$, $80^{\circ}C$), different extracting pH(pH3, pH4, pH5, pH6) and extracting time(20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180min.). Also we investigated the effect of dyeing time(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6hr.), dyeing temperature($40^{\circ}C$, $60^{\circ}C$, $80^{\circ}C$) and mordanting method(non, pre, sim, post) to examine dyeability and dyeing fastness of dyed silk fabrics. As a result, when the extracting temperature and time were $80^{\circ}C$, 3hr., respectively, extracting was best. And the higher the extracting concentration, the more the extracting amount. As the dyeing temperature and time were higher and longer, the dyeability of silk fabrics was better. With mordant, the dyeability was improved and when using premordant method better, the K/S value was maximized. The laundering fastness of the silk fabrics dyed with black rice bran was estimated to have a good grade of 3~4, however, the light fastness was poor to have a grade of 1~2.

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Optimal Conditions for Anthocyanin Extraction from Black Rice Bran and Storage Stability of Anthocyanin Extract (흑미 미강으로부터 안토시아닌의 최적 추출 조건 및 안토시아닌 추출 분말의 저장 안정성)

  • Kim, Hyo Ju;Wee, Ji-Hyang;Yang, Eun Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.10
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    • pp.1543-1549
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    • 2015
  • Black rice bran, a by-product from rice milling process, is a good natural source of anthocyanin pigment. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum conditions for anthocyanin extraction from black rice bran as well as the stability of anthocyanin extract according to different storage temperatures. The main anthocyanin in 'Heugkwang' rice bran was identified as cyanidine-3-glucoside (C3G) by HPLC and LC-MS/MS. The yield and C3G content of black rice bran extract were investigated with various extraction solvents, temperatures, and times. The results indicate that the optimum extraction solvent, temperature, and time were 50% ethanol, $70^{\circ}C$, and 2 h, respectively. The stability of anthocyanin extract was studied during a storage period of 168 days at various temperatures ($-20^{\circ}C$, $4^{\circ}C$, and room temperature). Hunter's values (L, a, and b) of anthocyanin extract increased, whereas C3G content continuously decreased up to 168 days. Variations in Hunter's values and C3G content become larger as storage temperature increased. Anthocyanin extract from black rice bran was very stable, as C3G content after storage at all temperatures was maintained at more than 90% of initial content. These results suggest that anthocyanin extract from black rice bran may be useful as a natural food colorant.

Cholesterol-lowering Efficacy of Unrefined Bran Oil from the Pigmented Black Rice (Oryza sativa L cv. Suwon 415) in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

  • Nam, Yean-Ju;Nam, Seok-Hyun;Kang, Mi-Young
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.457-463
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    • 2008
  • The effects of dietary supplementation of the unrefined rice bran oil from 'Suwon 415' pigmented black rice (BRBO) on cholesterol metabolism and cellular antioxidant status were investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. The significant reduction of total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations was observed in the plasma of rats fed BRBO. BRBO also decreased plasma and hepatic oxidative stress as a result of increased levels of hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels associated with the elevations of hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities together with increased plasma level of tocopherol. This study indicates that dietary BRBO supplement can leads to the improvement of overall cholesterol metabolism and antioxidant status even more effectively than 'Chuchung' white rice (WRBO). Consumption of BRBO may also protect the liver from oxidative damage caused by lipid peroxidation.

Application of Rice Polishing By-products to Processed Rice Food (I) - Antioxidative Effect of Black Rice Bran Pigment Fraction on Rice Embryo Lipid Oxidation - (쌀 가공식품 제조용 소재로서의 도정 부산물 활용 방안 (I) - 흑미 미강 색소 분획의 쌀 배아 산패 억제 효과 -)

  • Cho, Min-Kyung;Kim, Sung-Hong;Kang, Mi-Young
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.361-367
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    • 2008
  • This study examined the physicochemical properties of rice embryo in order to investigate the antioxidative effect of black rice bran pigment fraction on rice embryo lipid oxidation. Color stability of rice bran pigment fraction and acid value of added rice embryo were determined at various conditions of pH, temperature, and storage time. Rice embryo contained more crude protein (22.1%) compared to the rice bran (9.4%). However, rice embryo had a higher lipid content than rice bran, causing lipid oxidation during storage. Pigment fraction were relatively stable in acidic pH of 3.0 stored at $4^{\circ}C$ for 9 days. Rice embryo showed increased acid value with increased storage time and temperature. Furthermore, rice embryo with pigment fraction resulted in lower acid value compared to the control group. Therefore, addition of black rice bran pigment fractions to rice embryo improved storage capacity.

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Characteristics of Seedling Establishment and Yield of Platycodon grandiflorus by Ridge Width and Mulching Materials (이랑폭과 피복재에 따른 도라지의 입모율 및 수량특성)

  • Cho, Young-Son
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.233-237
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    • 2011
  • This study was carried out to investigate the seedling establishment and yield of direct-sown Platycodon grandiflorus seeds cultured by three ridge width, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 m and four mulching materials, rice straw, rice bran, black plastic film, and no mulching in upland. Seedling establishment rate (70%) was the highest in rice straw mulched plot of 500 seeds/$m^2$ sowed and root yield after one year was also the highest in rice straw mulched treatment and followed by rice bran, no mulching, and black plastic film treatment. In this result, ridge width 120cm and rice straw mulching combined treatment was best for getting the highest seedling establishment ratio and seedling numbers per area. However, ridge width and mulching materials should be considered soil moisture content and weed population for saving labor cost.

Evaluation of Biological Activities of Fermented Rice Bran from Novel Black Colored Rice Cultivar SuperC3GHi (슈퍼자미(SuperC3GHi) 미강 발효물의 생리활성)

  • Kim, Dong-Ju;Choi, Su-Min;Kim, Hwa-Young;Kim, Joong-Hark;Ryu, Su-Noh;Han, Sang-Jun;Hong, Seong-Gil
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.56 no.4
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    • pp.420-426
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    • 2011
  • Rice bran is by-product from the dehulling process of rice, an important staple food in Korea. Various studies have been reported immune-enhancing effects of rice bran cultured with Lentinus edodes. In particular black rice bran that contains anthocyanin has the beneficial effects on immune system. SuperC3GHi, a recently released black colored rice cultivar, has higher contents of cyanidine-3-glucoside (C3G), a strong antioxidant than those of currently cultivated black rice cultivars. In this study, we investigate the beneficial effects of fermented SuperC3GHi rice bran (C3G-F) with Lentinus edodes. Using in vivo and in vitro model for inflammation and allgergy, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects of C3G-F were determined. C3G-F induced tumor suppressive effect on Sarcoma-180 cell and B16 melanoma cell injected to mice. These results suggest that the capacity of C3G-F seems to act as a potent immunomodulator and with the absence of notable side-effects, C3G-F could be used as a novel functional food ingredient having possible therapeutic effects against immunological disorders.