• Title, Summary, Keyword: blanched garlic

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Chemical Properties and Biological Activity of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Shoots (마늘종의 화학적 특성 및 생리활성)

  • Kang, Min-Jung;Yoon, Hwan-Sik;Shin, Jung-Hye
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.129-139
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical properties and functional characteristics, such as general composition and bioactivity compounds contents of fresh and blanched (at $95^{\circ}C$, for 5min) garlic shoot from Namhae. Also, evaluated antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of water and ethanol extract of fresh and blanched garlic shoot. The moisture content of fresh garlic steam was $ 85.14{\pm}0.35%$, crude protein and crude lipid were $0.79{\pm}0.26%$ and $2.96{\pm}0.03%$ respectively. Vitamin C content was higher in fresh garlic shoot ($7.07{\pm}0.84mg/100g$) than blanched. Total phenol and total chlorophyll contents were respectively $16.93{\pm}1.17mM/g$ and $6.70{\pm}0.46mg/g$ in fresh garlic shoot. Allicin content of blanched garlic shoot was $128.63{\pm}1.59mM/g$. This content was 1.82 times higher than the fresh garlic shoot. Total pyruvate content was higher in fresh garlic shoot ($24.63{\pm}1.59mM/g$), but thiosulfinate was higher in fresh garlic shoot. Total flavonoide was the highest in water extract of blanched garlic shoot ($3.67{\pm}0.00mM/g$). ABTS radical scavenging activity of water extract form blanched garlic shoot was $85.09{\pm}0.28%$, which was higher than the other extracts. NO radical scavenging activity of ethanol extract from blanched garlic shoot was significantly higher than the extracts from fresh garlic shoot. Antibacterial activity to S. aureus, S. enterica, B. cereus and E. coli was only indicated in water extract of fresh garlic shoot.

Characteristics of Thiosulfinates and Volatile Sulfur Compounds from Blanched Garlic Reacted with Alliinase (Alliinase 첨가에 의한 열처리 마늘로부터 생성된 함황 화합물의 특성)

  • Choi, Yoon-Hee;Shim, You-Sin;Kim, Cheong-Tae;Lee, Chan;Shin, Dong-Bin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.600-607
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    • 2007
  • In this study, attempts were made to develop a method for controlling the volatile sulfur compounds in garlic. Crude alliinase extracted from fresh garlic was applied to garlic pulp blanched far 5 min at $100^{\circ}C$, and the changes in the thiosulfinates and volatile compounds of the blanched garlic pulp reacted with the enzyme were investigated. Eight kinds of thiosulfinates from garlic were separated by HPLC, and identified by LC/MS/MS. When the alliinase was added to the blanched garlic pulp at 100, 200, 300, or 400 units, and reacted for 15 min, respectively, thiosulfinates were generated in the amounts of 37, 68, 77, and 80% of the fresh garlic content (control). Under the same conditions, we analyzed the volatile compounds, where 28 peaks were identified by GC/MSD. Of the 28 peaks, 23 were volatile sulfur compounds. The results of the analysis showed that all the volatile compounds were generated at amounts of 25, 36, 66, and 76% of the content of the control, respectively. These results indicate that the sulfur compound content of garlic can be regulated, depending upon the reaction conditions of allinase.

Changes in the quality characteristics and chemical compounds of garlic shoots for blanching (데치기 처리에 따른 마늘종의 이화학적 품질 특성 변화)

  • Sim, Hye-Jin;Kang, Min-Jung;Shin, Jung-Hye
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.310-318
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    • 2016
  • This study was performed to investigate changes in the quality characteristics and chemical compounds in garlic shoots by blanching for different time (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 min). The color (L, a, and b values), texture profile (hardness, springiness, chewiness, gumminess, and cohesiveness), total vitamin C, total sugar, total polyphenol and flavonoid, chlorophyll a and b contents, total pyruvate and thiosulfinate contents of the blanched garlic shoots were examined. As the blanching time increased, the L and b values decreased, while the a value increased. Hardness, chewiness, springiness and gumminess of the blanched shoots were significantly lowered with the increasing blanching time. Vitamin C content of raw garlic shoot was 1.62 mg/100 g while that of the blanched garlic shoots was 0.16~0.24 mg/100 g, implying vitamin C loss into blanching water and destruction by heat. The total sugar and polyphenol contents were fluctuated during blanching, but over 75% of their initial levels were retained under all blanching conditions. The total flavonoid contents increased as the blanching time increased. The chlorophyll a content did not show significant change with blanching time, but the chlorophyll b content significantly decreased. These results suggest that blanching for 2 min could be the best for retaining beneficial compounds and desirable quality of garlic shoot.

Microbiological Quality Evaluation of Foods(Ojingeochaesomoochim : Vegetable Salad with Blanched Squid) That Went through Cooking Process after Heating Treatment in School Food Services (학교급식의 가열조리후처리 음식(오징어채소무침)에 대한 미생물학적 품질 평가)

  • Kim, Yang-Sook;Moon, Hye-Kyung
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.51-63
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    • 2014
  • A microbiological quality evaluation on cooked food, food materials and cooking equipment was conducted in 14 school food services in Changwon area, South Korea for Ojingeochaesomoochim (vegetable salad with blanched squid) which went through cooking process after heating treatment. Only 5 schools out of the 14 (35.7%) observed the sanitization criteria of the Korean School Meals Sanitization Management for raw vegetables (concentration of chlorine solution: 100ppm, immersion time of sanitizing: 5 min). The acceptance rates regarding the microbial standards for Korean school meals showed improvement before and after of sanitization: for onions 57.1% vs 71.4%; cucumber 42.9% vs. 78.6%. However, garlic showed adverse sanitizing effect as the acceptance rate went down from 42.9% to 35.7%. Blanched squid and red pepper paste was acceptable in all 14 schools (100%), while squid seasoned with red pepper powder was acceptable in only 42.9% of the schools. Microbial results for knives, cutting boards, mixing bowls were satisfactory, however 35.7% of sanitary gloves that were put on right before the seasoning showed poor sanitization, and this indicated high probability of cross-contamination from the gloves. We calculated that 57.1% of the cooked foods were in accordance with the microbial standards for Korean school meals. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to have verification process, especially on the effectiveness of sanitization of raw vegetables, in cooking foods through cooking process after heating treatment in HACCP system of school food service.

Isolation and Purification of Garlic Specific Organic Compounds (마늘 특이 유기화합물의 분리 및 정제)

  • Oh, Tae-Young;Kyung, Kyu-Hang
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.553-557
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    • 2011
  • Garlic specific organic compounds were separated and purified using a recycling preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from blanched garlic cloves. Identification of the compounds involved comparing the previously reported HPLC retention times as well as other identification methods including $^1H$- and $^{13}C$-nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The yields of garlic specific organic compounds were 12.2, 42.5, 1.6, 1.2, and 4.8% on wet weight basis of garlic for alliin(S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide), isoalliin(S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide), ${\gamma}$-glutamyl-S-allylcysteine, ${\gamma}$-glutamyl-S-1-propenylcysteine and ${\gamma}$-glutamyl-phenylalanine, respectively. All the compounds, except for ${\gamma}$-glutamylphenylalanine, contained sulfur.

Comparison of Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity between Raw and Heat-Treated Vegetables (열처리한 채소류의 이화학적 특성 및 항산화 활성 비교)

  • Kim, So-Young;Lee, Young-Min;Kim, Jong-Bong;Park, Dong-Sik;Go, Jeong-Sook;Kim, Haeng-Ran
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.5-18
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    • 2014
  • This study examines the changes in the physicochemical property and antioxidant activity of six types of vegetables (carrots, crown daisy, mugwort, cabbages, onions, and garlic) based on heat-treated cooking. According to the results, proximate contents (crude protein, fat, and ash) were lower in blanched samples than in untreated samples. Untreated cabbages showed the highest level of total dietary fiber content, which decreased by blanching and increased by high-temperature/high-pressure (HTHP) treatment. Noteworthy is that, in the case of soluble dietary fiber, blanched crown daisy and mugwort showed significantly high levels of 12.0 g and 7.3 g per 100 g(dry basis). There was no significant change in tocopherol content in heat-treated samples. The highest levels of total polyphenol and flavonoid content were 6.73 g and 5.51 g per 100 g, respectively, in the mugwort sample with HTHP treatment at $130^{\circ}C$ for 2 h. The water extract of mugwort with HTHP treatment had the strongest antioxidant effect based on three bioassays (SOD, DPPH, and ABTS). These results indicate the relative correlation between the level of physiologically active content and antioxidant activity and suggest new insights into ingredients for developing functional foods.

Effect of Soaking of Sub-ingredients on Odor and Fermentation Characteristics of Kimchi (부재료 침지처리가 김치의 냄새 및 발효 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, A-Reum;Park, Dong-Il;Yoo, Gui-Jae;Kim, So-Young;Jang, Jae-Bum;Chae, Hee-Jeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.11
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    • pp.1564-1570
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    • 2009
  • The volatile flavor compounds of kimchi and its sub-ingredients were analyzed using GC/MS. The major volatile compounds of kimchi were identified as sulfide compounds, organic acids and alcohols. It was confirmed that the major volatile flavor compounds of kimchi originated from sub-ingredients such as garlic, ginger, onion and reek. To reduce the characteristic odor of kimchi, the sub-ingredients (garlic, ginger, onion and reek) were chopped into a length of 5 mm and a thickness of 0.3 mm, blanched at 100${^{\circ}C}$ for 2 min, and then soaked in water at 4${^{\circ}C}$ for 12 hr. The effects of soaking of the sub-ingredients on sensory evaluation with regard to characteristic odor of kimchi such as sour and moldy odor were investigated. The sour and moldy odors of kimchi were significantly reduced by the soaking of sub-ingredients. Additionally the addition of soaked sub-ingredients in kimchi had influences on the change of pH, total acidity and lactic acid bacterial count of kimchi during fermentation.

A Survey of Purchasing Management for School Foodservice Foods in Daegu and Gyeongbuk Province (대구.경북지역 학교급식 식재료 구매 관리 실태 조사)

  • Kim, Yun-Hwa;Lee, Yeon-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.376-384
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to investigate the food purchasing management of school food services. The subjects consisted of 271 school dietitians in the Daegu and Gyeongbuk area. The percentages of ready-to-use vegetables actually being used were as follows: root of balloon flowers, 88.4%; garlic, 87.8%; blanched bracken, 80.1%; raw lotus root, 65.7%; burdock, 63.5%; small green onion, 63.5%; stem of taro, 57.6%; ginger, 35.1%; radish root, 30.6%; blanched asterscaber, 29.2%; large type welsh onion, 25.8%; carrot, 25.5%; onion, 21.4%; and potato, 8.9%. The percentages of HACCP-certified products being used were as follows: meat, 75.9%; eggs, 66.7%; soybean curds, 65.5%; ready-to-use seafood, 55.1%; starch jellies, 49.9%; spice, 44.9%; kimchi, 30.9%; ready-to-use vegetables, 22.7%; and fruits, 6.9%. The percentages of environment-friendly food items being used were as follows: eggs, 31.0%; meat, 28.7%; soybean curds, 22.1%; and fruits, 17.7%. Of these food items, meat and ready-to-use seafood were being used the most in the elementary schools. The percentages of imported food items being used were as follows: starch jelly, 29.2%; ready-to-use seafood, 24.7%; soybean curds, 20.5%; spice, 15.9%; and fruits, 10.1%. The food items requiring HACCP certification were as follows: beef and pork, 81.5%; chicken, 80.1%; ready-to-use seafood, 78.6%; frozen dumplings, 73.8%; soybean curds, 71.6%; peeled eggs, 70.8%; fish paste, 69.4%; starch jelly, 65.7%; milk, 63.1%; kimchi, 54.6%; spice, 50.6%; frozen noodle, 45.4%; ready-to-use vegetables, 44.3%; and bean sprouts, 29.5%. It was confirmed that 8.1% of the sanitation monitoring results were intentionally misreported. Therefore, to supply good and safe foods to schools, active management is needed in schools and food manufacturing and delivery companies.

Analysis Study on the use of Frequency and the Cooking Method of Leaf and Stem Vegetables in High School Foodservice (고등학교 급식식단의 엽경채류 식재료 사용 빈도 및 조리방법 분석 연구)

  • Min, Ji-Hyeon;Lee, Jong-Kyung;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Yoon, Ki-Sun
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.250-257
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to extract the factors affecting the microbial safety of leaf and stem vegetables in the high school foodservice and to provide information for supplying the safe foodservice menu. The lunch and dinner menu (1,945 data) of the total 6 high schools at the Central and the South Region in March, June, September, and December were collected. The frequency analysis and the multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) based on the 3 factors (potentially hazardous food (PHF), leafy and stem vegetables in the menu, the cooking methods) were conducted. The most frequent PHF was the menu of blanched vegetables, salads, seaweeds and fried chicken. The most frequent consumed leaf and stem vegetables were spinach, chive, lettuce, Western cabbage, perilla leaf, iceberg lettuce, chicory, leek and broccoli. MCA based on the leaf and stem vegetables, the region, and the cooking method (cooked/non-cooked) showed that garlic stem and spinach were more used in the Central Region, while water drop-wort were more used in the South Region. Iceberg lettuce, Bok choy and leek were included frequently in the PHF menu. Plant products frequently used in PHF menu requires the food safety system such as Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) to reduce the microbial risk. The menu database according to raw materials based on cooking methods (heating or mixing) as well as the development and verification of menu based on the microbial safety will be contributed to provide the safer foodservice menu.