• Title, Summary, Keyword: blend mode

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Influence of Blend Mode of Extender Oil on the Properties of EPDM/PP-Based Thermoplastic Vulcanizates (이피디엠/폴리프로필렌 열가소성 경화물에서 오일의 블렌드 방식이 경화물의 물성에 미치는 영향)

  • Na, Sung-Su;Song, Ki-Chan;Kim, Su-Kyung
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.315-322
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    • 2009
  • Influence of blend mode of extender oil on the properties of thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs), based on an ethylene-propylene-diene copolymer (EPDM) and a polypropylene (PP), was studied. The EPDM/PP TPVs were prepared in an open roll mill using two different modes in blending sequence of paraffinic oil and phenolic curative, i.e., Oil-Cure and Cure-Oil modes. Degree of cross-linking by gel fraction and properties such as hardness, tensile strength, elongation at break, and melt flow rate were investigated as a function of extender oil content for the two modes. Little influence of the blend mode of extender oil on the degree of cross-linking and mechanical behaviors was observed. However, the use of Cure-Oil mode in the preparation of EPDM/PP TPVs resulted in a marked increase in the level of processability as reflected by melt flow index, as compared to the use of Oil-Cure mode.

Performance and emission characteristics of biodiesel blends in a premixed compression ignition engine with exhaust gas recirculation

  • Kathirvelu, Bhaskar;Subramanian, Sendilvelan
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.294-301
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    • 2017
  • This paper is based on experiments conducted on a stationary, four stroke, naturally aspirated air cooled, single cylinder compression ignition engine coupled with an electrical swinging field dynamometer. Instead of 100% diesel, 20% Jatropha oil methyl ester with 80% diesel blend was injected directly in engine beside 25% pre-mixed charge of diesel in mixing chamber and with 20% exhaust gas recirculation. The performance and emission characteristics are compared with conventional 100% diesel injection in main chamber. The blend with diesel premixed charge with and without exhaust gas recirculation yields in reduction of oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter. Adverse effects are reduction of brake thermal efficiency, increase of unburnt hydrocarbons (UBHC), carbon monoxide (CO) and specific energy consumption. UBHC and CO emissions are higher with Diesel Premixed Combustion Ignition (DPMCI) mode compared to compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) mode. Percentage increases in UBHC and CO emissions are 27% and 23.86%, respectively compared to CIDI mode. Oxides of nitrogen ($NO_x$) and soot emissions are lower and the percentage decrease with DPMCI mode are 32% and 33.73%, respectively compared to CIDI mode.

Characteristics of Exhaust Emissions and Particle Size Distribution using Biofuel Blended Diesel Fuel in CRDI Diesel Engine with CPF (CPF를 장착한 CRDI 디젤엔진에 바이오 혼합연료 사용에 따른 배출가스 특성 및 입자수분포 특성)

  • Kim, H.N.;Sung, Y.H.;Kim, T.J.;Choi, B.C.;Lim, M.T.;Suh, J.J.
    • Journal of Power System Engineering
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.5-12
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    • 2008
  • We measured emission characteristics of CRDI diesel engine equipped with a commercial CPF. Experimental parameters adopted a neat diesel fuel, a blend of diesel fuel with 20% biodiesel, a blend of diesel fuel with 15% biodiesel and 5% ethanol. The experiments were carried out to measure the emission and engine performance according to ESC 13-mode cycles. The maximum torque with biodiesel blend fuel is slightly lower than that of neat diesel fuel in the entire the 13-mode cycles, and 5% ethanol and 15% biodiesel blend fuel is slightly higher than that of neat diesel fuel. THC and CO emissions of the biofuel blended diesel fuel were slightly increased and decreased, and mean conversion efficiencies of THC and CO on the commercial CPF were achieved about 70$\sim$87% in the ESC 13-mode. From the measurement by the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer(SMPS), the total number and mass of nano-sized particles by a commercial CPF were decreased about 97.8% and 96.8 % in the range of the nano-size from 10.6 to 385nm, respectively.

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Fourier-Transform Infrared Studies of Ionomeric Blend and Ionic Aggregation

  • Lee, Sang-Koog;Jeon, Seung-Ho;Ree, Tai-Kyue;Sohn, Jeong-In
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.267-271
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    • 1986
  • The ionomeric blend and the ionic aggregation studies by using a Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR) are presented. Two ionomers were prepared, one is barium polyacrylate and the other is barium polystyrenesulfonate. The blend of the two ionomers of the barium salts shows intermolecular ionic interaction between the carboxylated ionomer and the sulfonated ionomer. This interaction leads to considerable differences between the spectrum of the blend and the sum of the spectra of the pure ionomers. From our results, it is shown that ionic interactions must play an important role in the compatibility of the two ionomers. In the ionic aggregation study, the bands due to asymmetric stretching mode of carboxylate anion(COO-) in the carboxylated ionomer and the ionomer blend increase in intensity with increasing the divalent barium cations. These results indicate the formation of ion pairs. The doublet due to the asymmetric stretching modes of the carboxylate anion(COO-) is concerned with a sort of local structure found in the ion aggregation. By considering a possible structure for multiplets in the blend, the spectral splitting and the frequency shift are well explained.

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Peel Stength of the Acrylic Copolymer and Pressure Sensitive Adhesives (아크릴계 점착제의 박리강도와 점착부여제)

  • 김현중
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.79-88
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    • 1999
  • The stability and performance (peel strength) of the acrylic copolymer and various modified rosin systems were investigated. The peel strength was measured over a wide range of scaling rates, and the influence of the viscoelasticity of the PSA(pressure sensitive adhesive) was considered. In the case of miscible systems, the peak of peel strength (PSA performance) over wide peel rates was changed and modified systematically with increasing glass transition temperature of the blends. The peak of the peel strength for blended systems shifts toward the lower rate side as glass transition temperature ($T_g$) of the blend increased. The influence of esterification of the rosin on performance and stability against deterioration was greatly modified by blending with rosin of glycerol ester and rosin pentaerythritol ester. The failure mode of the blend varies with the combination with acrylic copolymer and modified rosin, and cohesive failure was found at a lower peel rate while interfacial failure was found at a high peel rate. A few systems where a single Tg could be measured, despite the fact that two phases were observed microscopically, were detected.

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No-bias-bend pi cell using the rubbed polyimide mixture

  • Kim, Dae-Hyeon;Park, Hong-Gyu;Kim, Yeong-Hwan;Kim, Byeong-Yong;Ok, Cheol-Ho;Han, Jeong-Min;Seo, Dae-Sik
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.186-186
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    • 2009
  • Most liquid crystal display modes, including the twisted nematic (TN) $mode^1$, the in-plane switching (IPS) $mode^2$, the fringe field switching (FFS) $mode^3$, and the vertically aligned (VA) $mode^4$ are based on either a horizontal or a vertical alignment. However, for some applications, such as no-bias-bend (NBB) pi cell or bistable bend-splay display, an intermediate pretilt angle is essential$^5$. NBB pi cells have been a focus of interest because of their fast response time; however, the reliable control of the intermediate pretilt angle of liquid crystals that is required for the fabrication of NBB pi cells is challenging. The controllable pre-tilt angle of liquid crystals was investigated using a blend of horizontal and vertical polyimide prepared by a rubbing method. Various pretilt angles in the range from 0^{\circ}$ to 90^{\circ}$ were achieved as a function of the vertical polyimide content. We observed uniform liquid crystal alignment on the rubbing-treated blended polyimide layer. A NBB pi cell with an intermediate pretilt angle of 47.8^{\circ}$ was manufactured. This cell had no initial bias voltage and a low threshold voltage, which indicates that it has low power consumption. In addition, the response time of the NBB pi cell was rapid.

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How to Detect Viscoelastic Properties of Polymeric Materials by Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy

  • Nakajima, Ken;Fujinami, So;Nishi, Toshio
    • Proceedings of the Polymer Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.346-346
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    • 2006
  • Several types of dynamic atomic force microscopy such as tapping-mode, force modulation-mode are commonly cooperated by phase-contrast imaging techniques, which were interpreted as elastic contrast by mistake in the past and are nowadays regarded as the representation of energy dissipative processes. However, as theoretically reported, the situation is not so simple when the strong adhesive interaction is involved. Furthermore, elastic and viscous contributions are not easily divided in the case of polymeric systems. Thus, the interpretation of image contrast for them must be very carefully treated. In this study, we will demonstrate how such contrast mechanisms are complicated, using several miscible and immiscible polymer blend systems as model samples.

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A Study on Blend Effect of Fuel in Flame Spread Along An One-Dimensional Droplet Array (일차원 액적 배열의 화염 퍼짐에 있어서 연료의 혼합 효과에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Jeong;Kobayashi, Hideaki;Niioka, Takashi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Combustion
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 1998
  • Experimental investigation on flame spread of blended fuel droplet arrays has been conducted for droplet diameters of 1.0mm and 0.75mm using high-speed chemiluminescence images of OH radical. The flame spread rate is measured with blended fuel composition, droplet diameter, and droplet spacing. Flame spread is categorized into two: a continuous mode and an intermittent one. There exist a limit droplet spacing, above which flame does not spread, and a droplet spacing of maximum flame spread, which is closely related to flame diameter. It is seen that flame spread rate is mainly dependent upon the relative position of flame zone within a droplet spacing. In case of large droplet, the increase of % volume of Heptane induces the shift of limit droplet spacing to a larger spacing since volatile Heptane plays a role of an enhancer of flame spread rate. In case of small droplet, the increase of % volume of Heptane leads to the shift of limit droplet spacing to a smaller droplet spacing. This is so because of the delayed chemical reaction time by the rapid increase of mass flux of fuel vapor for small droplet.

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A Comparative Study on the Performance and Emission Analysis of a Dual Fuelled Diesel Engine with Karanja Biodiesel and Natural Gas

  • Singh, Ashish Kumar;Kumar, Naveen;Amardeep, Amardeep;Kumar, Parvesh
    • International Journal of Advanced Culture Technology
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.10-18
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    • 2016
  • In the present study, a single cylinder four stroke dual fuel diesel engine was tested to investigate the performance and emission characteristics of various test fuels. The engine was tested in dual fuel mode using diesel and Karanja biodiesel blends as pilot fuel along with Natural gas as primary fuel with a constant gas flow rate under different loading conditions. From the experimentation it was found that smoke opacity and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are at low level for all the prepared test fuels in dual fuel mode but the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide ($CO_2$) and hydrocarbon (HC) were found higher. In comparison to diesel fuel, by increasing the blend percentage different emission parameters are found to be reduced. At different loading conditions all the test fuels show poor performance in dual fuel mode of operation when compared with single mode of operation with diesel and biodiesel. With increase in gas flow rates, except (NOx) and smoke emissions, the other emission parameters like CO, HC and $CO_2$ values increased for all test fuels. Again, all blended fuels showed lower performance compared to diesel. The maximum pilot fuel savings for diesel was found decreasing with the increase in karanja biodiesel. From the present work it may be concluded that Karanja biodiesel with Natural gas in dual mode can be can used as promising alternative for diesel with some required engine modifications and further research must be carried out to minimize the emissions of CO, HC and $CO_2$.

EO Characteristics in the Vertical Alignment (VA)-$\pi$ mode LCD Using the Tilt Angle Decrease Effect on the Blended Polymer (혼합된 polymer에서의 틸트 감소 효과를 이용한 VA-$\pi$ mode LCD의 전기광학 특성)

  • Lee, Kyung-Jun;Hwang, Jeoung-Yeon;Seo, Dae-Shik
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.53-56
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    • 2003
  • Blending effects for generating a pretilt angle in nematic liquid crystal (NLC) with negative dielectric anisotropy on the blended polyimide (PI) of homeotropic and homogeneous alignment surface were studied. Also, we investigated the EO performances for the advanced VA-$\pi$ cell using this homeotropic blended PI surface. A many decrease of tilt angle on the polymer surface to blend homeotropic PI and homogeneous PI with side chain type was measured, and the tilt angle decreased as blended ratio and rubbing strength increase. The blended effects for generating a pretilt angle were clearly observed, and the many decrease of tilt angle can be achieved by using the blended PI surface. The electro-optical (EO) characteristics using the advanced VA-$\pi$ cell using the homeotropic blended PI surface than that of conventional VA cell can be improved. We suggest that the developed advanced VA-$\pi$ cell on a homeotropic blended PI surface is a promising technique for the achievement of a fast response time, and a high contrast ratio.

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