• Title, Summary, Keyword: block

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On the construction of some E-optimal block designs with multiple block sizes (다수 blocksize를 갖는 E-optimal Block Design의 설계에 관한 연구)

  • 이광영
    • The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.55-77
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    • 1990
  • In this paper we descuss some E-optimal block designs having unequal block sizes, and give a table of E-optimal designs with 2 different block sizes which can be constructed using the method described in Theorem 3. 2, Theorem 3. 4 and Theorem 3. 5 proved by Lee and Jacroux (1987). All of source designs used are Group Divisible designs which can be found in Clathworthy(1973) or Balanced Incomplete block designs in Raghavarar(1971).

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Dosimetric Consideration of the Lung Block in the Mantle Field (Mantle Field에서 Lung Block의 선량분포 고려)

  • Yoo Myung-Jin;Sin Byung-Chul;Moon Chang-Woo;Jeung Tae-Sig;Yum Ha-Yong
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.199-203
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    • 1995
  • Purpose: To evaluate the dose under lung block as a function of depth and the effectiveness of a block as a function of block width. Materials and Methods : Field size of mantle field was $22.8{\times}32.4cm^2.$ Dose distribution of the mantle field was measured with two dimensional water phantom system. To analyze the effectiveness of the lung block. central axis plane, 5cm off-axis plane, and 10cm off-axis plane were studied. Results: The dose under the lung block was recorded with maximum at the depth between 5cm and 10cm. In the central axis plane, dosimetric block width was $10-15\%$ less than physical block width. In the 5cm off-axis plane, dosimetric block width was $4-9\%$ less than physical block width. In the 10cm off-axis plane, dosimetric block width was $2\%$ less than physical block width. Conclusion: Depth dependence of the dose under the lung block was founded. Also, block width dependence of the lung block was founded. To induce the accurate relation between the physical block width and the 'effective' block width, it needs more detailed understanding of the variables involved.

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Comparison of the Effect of Continuous Femoral Nerve Block and Adductor Canal Block after Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty

  • Seo, Seung Suk;Kim, Ok Gul;Seo, Jin Hyeok;Kim, Do Hoon;Kim, Youn Gu;Park, Beyoung Yun
    • Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.303-309
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    • 2017
  • Background: This study aimed to compare the effects of femoral nerve block and adductor canal block on postoperative pain, quadriceps strength, and walking ability after primary total knee arthroplasty. Methods: Between November 2014 and February 2015, 60 patients underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. Thirty patients received femoral nerve block and the other 30 received adductor canal block for postoperative pain control. Before spinal anesthesia, the patients received nerve block via a catheter (20 mL 0.75% ropivacaine was administered initially, followed by intermittent bolus injection of 10 mL 0.2% ropivacaine every 6 hours for 3 days). The catheters were maintained in the exact location of nerve block in 24 patients in the femoral nerve block group and in 19 patients in the adductor canal block group. Data collection was carried out from these 43 patients. To evaluate postoperative pain control, the numerical rating scale scores at rest and $45^{\circ}$ flexion of the knee were recorded. To evaluate quadriceps strength, manual muscle testing was performed. Walking ability was assessed using the Timed Up and Go test. We also evaluated analgesic consumption and complications of peripheral nerve block. Results: No significant intergroup difference was observed in the numerical rating scale scores at rest and $45^{\circ}$ flexion of the knee on postoperative days 1, 2, 3, and 7. The adductor canal block group had significantly greater quadriceps strength than did the femoral nerve block group, as assessed by manual muscle testing on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3. The 2 groups showed no difference in walking ability on postoperative day 1, but on postoperative days 2, 3, walking ability was significantly better in the adductor canal block group than in the femoral nerve block group. No significant intergroup difference was observed in analgesic consumption. Conclusions: The groups showed no difference in postoperative pain control. Adductor canal block was superior to femoral nerve block in preserving quadriceps strength and walking ability. However, adductor canal block was inferior to femoral nerve block in maintaining the exact location of the catheter.

Block layout method in the block stockyard based on the genetic algorithm

  • Roh, Myung-Il
    • Ocean Systems Engineering
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.271-287
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    • 2012
  • Due to its large size, a ship is first divided into scores of blocks and then each block is constructed through various shops, such as the assembly shop, the painting shop, and the outfitting shop. However, each block may not be directly moved to the next shop and may be temporarily laid at a block stockyard because the working time in each shop is different from each other. If blocks are laid at the block stockyard without any planning, the rearrangement of the blocks by a transporter is required because the blocks have the different in and out time. In this study, a block layout method based on the genetic algorithm was proposed in order to minimize the rearrangement of the blocks in the block stockyard. To evaluate the applicability of the proposed method, it was applied to simple layout problems of the block stockyard. The result shows that the proposed method can yield a block layout that minimizes the total relocation cost of moving obstacle blocks in the block stockyard.

Resistivity Analysis of Model Block for Grounding Electrodes (접지전극을 고려한 모형블록의 저항률 분석)

  • Koh, Hee-Seog;Kim, Sung-Sam;Choi, Jong-Kyu
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of IIIuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers Conference
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    • pp.437-439
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    • 2007
  • This paper was analyzed the resistivity change characteristic of mortar model block and concrete that was made earth electrode that's used concrete or basic concrete of building for 1 year. The early resistivity measurement value of concrete model block is higher than mortar model block. But after 1 year the resistivity measurement value of mortar model block is significantly higher than concrete model block. Because depends on time elapsed complete dryness factor of mortar model block that has not gravel is higher than concrete model block. And absorptance and function of mortar mode block was by far outstanding than concrete model block in the data for verification of the amount of contained water and the amount of dryness of mortar model block and concrete model block.

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An Efficient In-Place Block Rotation Algorithm and its Complexity Analysis (효율적 In-Place Block Rotation 알고리즘과 복잡도 분석)

  • Kim, Pok-Son;Kutzner, Arne
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.428-433
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    • 2010
  • The notion "block rotation" denotes the operation of exchanging two consecutive sequences of elements uv to vu. There are three already well-known block rotation algorithms called BlockRotation, Juggling and Reversal algorithm. Recently we presented a novel block rotation algorithm called QuickRotation. In this paper we compare QuickRotation to these three known block rotation algorithms. This comparison covers a complexity analysis as well as benchmarking and shows that a switch to QuickRotation is almost always advantageous.

The Changes of Intraocular Pressure by Stellate Ganglion Block in Glaucoma Patients (녹내장 환자에서 성상신경절 차단에 의한 안압의 변화)

  • Roh, Seon-Ju;Cheon, Ym-Soon;Min, Byung-Woo;Goh, Joon-Seock;Kim, Hyun-Chul;Kim, Kwang-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.133-136
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    • 1991
  • Stellate ganglion block was performed in 15 patients with intractable glaucoma by injection of 8 ml of 1y lidocaine. The followings are the changes of intraocular pressure(mmHg): Pre -block $32.26{\pm}4.44$ 10 minutes after block $36.80{\pm}4.60$ 20 minutes after block $32.61{\pm}4.41$ 30 minutes after block $28.87{\pm}4.30$ 60 minutes after block $24.73{\pm}4.37$ 120 minutes after block $26.87{\pm}3.18$ 180 minutes after block $31.40{\pm}3.76$ The pressure rose up to 10 minutes post block and significant pressure descent was noticed from 30 minutes post-block. Maximum descent was seen by 60 minutes post-block and pre-block pressure was restored by 180 minutes post-block. For the purpose of cheeking the treatment effect, similar blocks were performed in 15 patients, one time daily for 5~8 days 3 times every othor day.

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Postprocessing Method for Quantization Noise Reduction Using Block Classification and Adaptive Filtering (블록 분류와 적응적 필터링을 이용한 후처리에서의 양자화 잡음 제거 기법)

  • 이석환;권성근;이종원;이승진;이건일
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.66-69
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    • 2000
  • In this paper, we proposed a postprocessing algorithm for quantization effects reduction in block coded images using the block classification and adaptive filtering. The proposed method consists of classification, adaptive inter-block filtering, and intra-block filtering. First, each block is classified into one of seven classes based on the characteristics of 8${\times}$8 DCT coefficients. Then each block boundary is filtered by adaptive inter-block filters according to the block classification. Finally for blocks which are classified into edge block, intra-block filtering is peformed. Experimental results show that the proposed method gives better results than the conventional methods from both a subjective and an objective viewpoint.

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Experimental Study on the Dynamics of Piled Multi- Block Systems (적층 구조물의 동적 거동에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 김재관;채윤병;조문형
    • Proceedings of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.275-283
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    • 2002
  • In this study, the shaking table tests of block systems on the rigid base have been performed to identify the seismic response and the dynamic behavior of the piled multi-block systems. To understand the characteristics of seismic response of piled multi-block systems, it is necessary to understand the dynamic behavior of single block system. Therefore, the skating table test of the single block system has been performed first. Moreover, by performing the shaking table tests of multi-block systems, the characteristics of dynamic behavior of piled multi-block systems have been analyzed. Also in this study, the distinct element method(DEM) has been used to analyze the nonlinear behavior of the piled multi-block systems. The results of the shaking table tests show that the response of the multi-block systems is very complicated. But by using DEM, the behavior of piled multi-block systems has been predicted and described well.

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A Clinical Survey of Patients of Neuro-Pain Clinic (신경통증과 환자의 임상통계 고찰)

  • Shin, So-Hyun;Chung, Young-Pyo;Lim, Jae-Jin;Yoon, Kyung-Bong;Kim, Chan
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.84-87
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    • 1994
  • Retrospective analysis, of 1,734 patients treated for nerve block from October 1991 to March 1994. Largest percentage of patients were in the 50 year old range, with a distribution of 44.9% male and 55.1% female. Treatments were for ailments of: Low Back Pain 17.3%, Multiple Contusion 10.5%, and Cancer 10%. Most common nerve block was epidural block 38.6%, followed by stellate ganglion block 38.4%, intercostal block 5.4%, and suprascapular nerve block 5.2%. Nerve block under fluorscopic guide were as follows: facet joint block 34.1%, lumbar sympathetic ganglion block 13.6%, and celiac plexus block 12.9%.

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