• Title/Summary/Keyword: blocking effects

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Implementation of Presence and Absence of Blocking Effects: A Categorial Grammar Approach to Chinese and Korean

  • Lee, Yong-Hun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Language and Information Conference
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    • pp.275-284
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    • 2007
  • Among the languages that allow long-distance reflexives, some languages have blocking effects, whereas others don't. The goal of this paper is to provide computational algorithms that can handle presence and absence of blocking effects of long-distance reflexives. We will examine the blocking effects in Chinese and Korea and develop computational algorithms for handling blocking effects in those two languages. The algorithms will be developed by incorporating Chierchia's Binding Theory into Steedman's Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG). Through the analyses and implementations, this paper illustrates how blocking effects can be implemented computationally.

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New Appraisal Method for Blocking Effects in Subimage Coding

  • Park, Jae-Ho;Kwak, Hoon-Sung
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and information Science
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.77-81
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    • 1996
  • Considering the human visual masking property, a modified relationship between the activity function and the visibility threshold is developed. This leads to a novel objective appraisal method for blocking effects in a lossy subimage coding by virtue of the human visual sensitivity. The appraisal criterion is examined using a series of reconstructed images that are DCT-coded at various bit rates. Experimental results show that the presented blocking effect measure well agrees with the subjective ranking.

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Effects of Chronic Lead Exposure on Glutamate Release and Uptake in Cerebellar Cells of Rat Pups

  • Yi, Eun-Young;Lim, Dong-Koo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.113-119
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    • 1998
  • Changes in the release and uptake of glutamate in cerebellar granule and glial cells of offspring of lead-exposed mothers were determined. In cultured cerebellar granule cells exposed to lead for 5 days, glutamate release was less influenced upon N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) stimulation than that in the control. Although the NMDA-stimulated release of glutamate in cerebellar granule cells prepared from lead-exposed first generation pups was not different from that of the control group, the S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP)-stimulated release of glutamate in cerebellar granule cells obtained from lead-treated pups was less elevated than that in the control. Furthermore, in cerebellar granule cells obtained from lead-exposed second generations pups, glutamate release did not respond to both NMDA and SNAP stimulation. In cerebellar glial cells exposed to lead, the basal glutamate uptake was not changed. However, the L-trans-pyrollidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (PDC)-blocking effects was significantly reduced. In glial cells obtained from lead-exposed pups, the glutamate uptake was also less blocked by PDC than that in the control. Further decreases in PDC-blocking effects were observed in cerebellar glial cells obtained from lead-treated second generation pups compared to those from the control group. These results indicate that lead exposure induces the changes in the sensitivities of the glutamate release and uptake transporter. In addition, these results suggest that lead exposure might affect the intracellular signalling pathway and transmission in glutamatergic nervous system.

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저전송률 영상압축에 있어서의 후처리 기법

  • 이주흥;정제창;최병욱
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Broadcast Engineers Conference
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    • pp.233-236
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    • 1996
  • A new method of blocking effects reduction is proposed in this paper for use in low bitrate image coding. We use 28 DCT kernel functions of which boundary values are linearly independent, and Gram-Schmidt process is applied to the boundary values in order to obtain 28 boundary-orthonormal basis images. Then we use these basis images to obtain the correction terms for blocking artifacts reduction. A threshold of block discontinuity is introduced for improvement of visual quality by reducing image blurring. We also investigate the number of basis images needed for efficient blocking artifacts reduction when the compression ratio changes.

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A blocking effect reduction method for disparity computation under the block matching algorithm (블록 매칭 기반에서 디스페리티의 블록킹 현상을 줄이는 알고리즘)

  • 송원석;유용현;문정환;김민기
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.1996-1999
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    • 2003
  • Stereo matching is an important technique in the are of computer vision. There are already many theorems to find disparity map using stereo images. Usually, disparity is searched by using block matching. However block matching result in blocking effects caused by using fixed size window for computing pixel correlations. This paper suggests an efficient method to remove the blocking effect in stereo matching procedures.

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The Improved Deblocking Filter for Low-bit Rate H.264/AVC Video (저해상도 H.264/AVC 비디오를 위한 개선된 디블럭킹 필터)

  • Kwon, Dong-Jin;Ryu, Sung-Pil;Kwak, Nae-Joung;Ahn, Jae-Hyeong
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.284-289
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    • 2008
  • H.264/AVC among moving picture compression standard is the standard format for high compression rate and reliable video transimission. It generates blocking effects in video due to compressing video using block-based DCT and includes de-blocking filter to reduce blocking effect. Therefore, the filter makes the video over-smoothing and the quality of it is reduced. In this paper, we propose a improved de-blocking filter to solve the demerit. The proposed de-blocking filter redetermine the block boundary strength and apply the comer filtering to eliminate artifacts in low frequency domain. To evaluate the performance, we apply the proposed deblocking filter and exiting method to various video and evaluated the quality of image subjectively and objectively by analyzing the result. The simulation result shows the proposed method preserves the edge of video, reduces blocking effects and improves PSNR than the existing method.

Study on the Ophthalmic Lens Materials with High Refractive Index Containing Vinylanisole (Vinylanisole을 포함한 고굴절률 안의료용 렌즈 재료에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Tae-Hun;Sung, A-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.54 no.6
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    • pp.755-760
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    • 2010
  • This study used 3-vinylanisole and 4-vinylanisole with the cross-linker EGDMA (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate), HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), MMA (methyl methacrylate), NVP (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and the initiator AIBN (azobisisobutyronitrile) for copolymerization. Measurement of the physical characteristics of the copolymerized material showed that the refractive index is 1.4496 - 1.4894, water content 22.93 - 35.50%, visible transmittance 88.8 - 90.8%. Also, measurements showed that the refractive index increased while the water content decreased as the ratio of 3-vinylanisole and 4-vinylanisole increased. And in cases of copolymer with 3-vinylanisole, 4-vinylanisole (added 15%) the results showed transmittance of 52.8 - 82.2%, 13.2 - 26.2% respectively for UV-A and UV-B showing that they have UV-blocking effects. Based on the results of this study, the produced copolymer can be estimated to be suitable for use as ophthalmic lens material for high refractive index and UV- blocking effects.

Adaptive Postprocessing Technique for Compressed Images using Directional Activity-based Block Analysis (방향성 활동도 기반 블록 분석을 통한 압축 영상의 적응적 후처리 기법)

  • Kim, Jongho
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.1687-1693
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    • 2013
  • This paper addresses an adaptive postprocessing technique to remove blocking effects of the highly compressed images. The proposed technique removes blocking effects selectively by applying filters with different strength according to block analysis based on the directional activity. One-dimensional filters which are used to remove grid noises accomplish the adaptive filtering to the signal itself as well as to the directionality of the block. Moreover, we propose a detection method of the staircase noises and corner outliers and a two-dimensional directional filter to remove them. Experimental results for various images and bitrates show that the proposed method outperforms the conventional methods in PSNR for the objective performance and GBIM for the subjective quality evaluation.

Progressive Image Coding using Wavelet Transform (웨이블릿 변환을 이용한 순차적 영상 부호화)

  • Kim, Yong-Yeon
    • The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.33-40
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    • 2014
  • In this paper we propose new image coding using wavelet transform. The new method constructs hierarchical bit plane and progressively transports each bit plane. The Proposed algorithm not only supports multi-resolution, dividing original image into special band and various resolution using Antonini's wavelet basis function but also reduces blocking effects that come into JPEG. In encoding time this algorithm considers each band characters and priority of transport order, and applies to fast search of image.