• Title, Summary, Keyword: blood glucose regulation

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The Modulatory Role of Spinally Located Histamine Receptors in the Regulation of the Blood Glucose Level in D-Glucose-Fed Mice

  • Sim, Yun-Beom;Park, Soo-Hyun;Kim, Sung-Su;Kim, Chea-Ha;Kim, Su-Jin;Lim, Su-Min;Jung, Jun-Sub;Ryu, Ohk-Hyun;Choi, Moon-Gi;Suh, Hong-Won
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.41-46
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    • 2014
  • The possible roles of spinal histamine receptors in the regulation of the blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were intrathecally (i.t.) treated with histamine 1 (H1) receptor agonist (2-pyridylethylamine) or antagonist (cetirizine), histamine 2 (H2) receptor agonist (dimaprit) or antagonist (ranitidine), histamine 3 (H3) receptor agonist (${\alpha}$-methylhistamine) or antagonist (carcinine) and histamine 4 (H4) receptor agonist (VUF 8430) or antagonist (JNJ 7777120), and the blood glucose level was measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after i.t. administration. The i.t. injection with ${\alpha}$-methylhistamine, but not carcinine slightly caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. In addition, histamine H1, H2, and H4 receptor agonists and antagonists did not affect the blood glucose level. In D-glucose-fed model, i.t. pretreatment with cetirizine enhanced the blood glucose level, whereas 2-pyridylethylamine did not affect. The i.t. pretreatment with dimaprit, but not ranitidine, enhanced the blood glucose level in D-glucose-fed model. In addition, ${\alpha}$-methylhistamine, but not carcinine, slightly but significantly enhanced the blood glucose level D-glucose-fed model. Finally, i.t. pretreatment with JNJ 7777120, but not VUF 8430, slightly but significantly increased the blood glucose level. Although histamine receptors themselves located at the spinal cord do not exert any effect on the regulation of the blood glucose level, our results suggest that the activation of spinal histamine H2 receptors and the blockade of spinal histamine H1 or H3 receptors may play modulatory roles for up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively, of the blood glucose level in D-glucose fed model.

Effect of fructose or sucrose feeding with different levels on oral glucose tolerance test in normal and type 2 diabetic rats

  • Kwon, Sang-Hee;Kim, You-Jin;Kim, Mi-Kyung
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.252-258
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    • 2008
  • This study was designed to determine whether acute fructose or sucrose administration at different levels (0.05 g/kg, 0.1 g/kg or 0.4 g/kg body weight) might affect oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal and type 2 diabetic rats. In OGTT, there were no significant differences in glucose responses between acute fructose- and sucrose-administered groups. However, in normal rats, the AUCs of the blood glucose response for the fructose-administered groups tended to be lower than those of the control and sucrose-administered groups. The AUCs of the lower levels fructose- or sucrose-administered groups tended to be smaller than those of higher levels fructose- or sucrose-administered groups. In type 2 diabetic rats, only the AUC of the lowest level of fructose-administered (0.05 g/kg body weight) group was slightly smaller than that of the control group. The AUCs of fructose-administered groups tended to be smaller than those of the sucrose-administered groups, and the AUCs of lower levels fructose-administered groups tended to be smaller than those fed higher levels of fructose. We concluded from this experiment that fructose has tendency to be more effective in blood glucose regulation than sucrose, and moreover, that smaller amount of fructose is preferred to larger amount. Specifically, our experiments indicated that the fructose level of 0.05 g/kg body weight as dietary supplement was the most effective amount for blood glucose regulation from the pool of 0.05 g/kg, 0.1 g/kg and 0.4 g/kg body weights. Therefore, our results suggest the use of fructose as the substitute sweetener for sucrose, which may be beneficial for blood glucose regulation.

Accuracy Evaluation of the Alternative Site Blood Glucose Test Using Error Grid (에러그리드를 사용한 대체부위 혈당검사의 유용성 검증)

  • Park, Kyung-Soon;Cha, Eun-Jong
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.25-31
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    • 2011
  • Blood glucose information is important for self regulation in daily life, but the frequency of self test remains to be only 17%(9 tests/month) in Korea, mainly due to pain during blood sampling. The present study tried to validate the clinical efficacy of the forearm as an alternative sampling site with minimized pain. Capillary blood was sampled both on the index finger($G_F$) and the forearm($G_A$), immediately followed by glucose measurements in 531 subjects, 25 who visited the Health Enhancement Center of C University Hospital, then venous blood($G_V$) was sampled for glucose test. The blood glucose concentration measured on the forearm was closer to the venous glucose than on the finger. The mean difference between $G_V$and $G_F$ was only 10 mg/dL well within the internationally accepted error limit. Error grid analyses of $G_F-G_V$, $G_A-G_V$ and $G_A-G_F$ revealed that the number of data points in regions A and B took 100%, 99.8%, and 97.9%, respectively. These results demonstrate the forearm blood glucose test is not only accurate but also clinically valid. Therefore, the forearm blood glucose test can be a useful way of self managing the chronic diabetes with minimized sampling pain.

Effect of Alpha-2 Adrenergic Agonist on Beta Adrenoceptor-Nediated Control of Blood Glucose in the Fasted Mouse

  • Han, Guie-In;Kim, Mie-Young
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.219-222
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    • 1986
  • Dose-dependent increasesin blood glucose were produced by epinephrine and clonidine in fasted male mice. Isoproterenol was ineffective in increasing blood glucose at lower doses ($10^{-8}M$/kg-$10^{-7}M$/kg); with higher dose ($10^{-6}M$/kg) the glucose level was increased. The hyperglycemia induced by epinephrine was inhibited by yobimbine, prazosin and propranolol, indicating that the hyperglycemic effect of epinephrine is mediated by alpha-1, alpha-2 and beta adrenoceptor. When clonidine (10$^{-6}$ M/kg) was administered simultaneously with sioproterenol ($10^{-6}M$/kg), an enhenced hyperglycemic effect was observed. The increment produced by clonidine plus isoproterenol was higher than that by clonidine alone. These increment produced by clonidine plus isoproterenol was higher than that by clonidine alone. These results suggest that stimulation of alpha-2 adrenoceptor may be reponsible for the exertion of the hyperglycemic effect by beta agonists in fasted mice.

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Association Analysis between Genes' Variants for Regulating Mitochondrial Dynamics and Fasting Blood Glucose Level

  • Jung, Dongju;Jin, Hyun-Seok
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.107-114
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    • 2016
  • Maintenance of fasting blood glucose levels is important for glucose homeostasis. Disruption of feedback mechanisms are a major reason for elevations of glucose level in blood, which is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus that is mainly caused by malfunction of pancreatic beta-cell and insulin. The fasting blood glucose level has been known to be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Mitochondria have many functions for cell survival and death: glucose metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, ATP generation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, calcium handling, and apoptosis regulation. In addition to these functions, mitochondria change their morphology dynamically in response to multiple signals resulting in fusion and fission. In this study, we aimed to examine association between fasting blood glucose levels and variants of the genes that are reported to have functions in mitochondrial dynamics, fusion and fission, using a cohort study. A total 416 SNPs from 36 mitochondrial dynamics genes were selected to analyze the quantitative association with fasting glucose level. Among the 416 SNPs, 4 SNPs of PRKACB, 13 SNPs of PPP3CA, 6 SNPs of PARK2, and 3 SNPs of GDAP1 were significantly associated. In this study, we were able to confirm an association of mitochondrial dynamics genes with glucose levels. To our knowledge our study is the first to identify specific SNPs related to fasting blood glucose level.

Effect of pertussis toxin pretreated centrally on blood glucose level induced by stress

  • Suh, Hong-Won;Sim, Yun-Beom;Park, Soo-Hyun;Sharma, Naveen;Im, Hyun-Ju;Hong, Jae-Seung
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.467-476
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    • 2016
  • In the present study, we examined the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) administered centrally in a variety of stress-induced blood glucose level. Mice were exposed to stress after the pretreatment of PTX (0.05 or 0.1 mg) i.c.v. or i.t. once for 6 days. Blood glucose level was measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after stress stimulation. The blood glucose level was increased in all stress groups. The blood glucose level reached at maximum level after 30 min of stress stimulation and returned to a normal level after 2 h of stress stimulation in restraint stress, physical, and emotional stress groups. The blood glucose level induced by cold-water swimming stress was gradually increased up to 1 h and returned to the normal level. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with PTX, a $G_i$ inhibitor, alone produced a hypoglycemia and almost abolished the elevation of the blood level induced by stress stimulation. The central pretreatment with PTX caused a reduction of plasma insulin level, whereas plasma corticosterone level was further up-regulated in all stress models. Our results suggest that the hyperglycemia produced by physical stress, emotional stress, restraint stress, and the cold-water swimming stress appear to be mediated by activation of centrally located PTX-sensitive G proteins. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX appears to due to the reduction of plasma insulin level. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX was accompanied by the reduction of plasma insulin level. Plasma corticosterone level up-regulation by PTX in stress models may be due to a blood glucose homeostatic mechanism.

Contents of $\beta$-Glucan in Various Cereals and Its Functional Properties

  • Whang, Key
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.382-386
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    • 1998
  • A soluble dietary fiber, $\beta$-glucan, contained in oat and barley has nutritional benefits such as hypocholesterolemic effects and influences blood glucose regulation. The contents of $\beta$-glucan in both cereals range from 3 to 7% with the exception of a certain barley genotype which contains up to 16% $\beta$-glucan. $\beta$-Glucan is distributed mainly in the cell walls of endosperm and the distal (bran) portion of kernel. Various procedures have been developed for increasing the extraction yield of $\beta$-glucan. Oat gum prepared with weak alkali extractionand alcohol proecipitation following protein removal usually contains 80% $\beta$-glucan.The most commonly used method for $\beta$-glucan quantitiation is an enzymatic procedure combining lichenase plus $\beta$-glucosidase followed by measuring the amount of glucos released by glucose oxidase-peroxidase treatment. The increase in foam-and emulsion-stabilizing capacity of $\beta$-glucan is due to the increase in viscosity of the aqueous phase. Therefore, $\beta$-glucan shows great potentials as a thickener and a stabilizer.

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Effect of Cholera Toxin Administered Supraspinally or Spinally on the Blood Glucose Level in Pain and D-Glucose Fed Animal Models

  • Sim, Yun-Beom;Park, Soo-Hyun;Kang, Yu-Jung;Kim, Sung-Su;Kim, Chea-Ha;Kim, Su-Jin;Jung, Jun-Sub;Ryu, Ohk-Hyun;Choi, Moon-Gi;Choi, Seong-Soo;Suh, Hong-Won
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.163-167
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    • 2013
  • In the present study, the effect of intrathecal (i.t.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration with cholera toxin (CTX) on the blood glucose level was examined in ICR mice. The i.t. treatment with CTX alone for 24 h dose-dependently increased the blood glucose level. However, i.c.v. treatment with CTX for 24 h did not affect the blood glucose level. When mice were orally fed with D-glucose (2 g/kg), the blood glucose level reached to a maximum level at 30 min and almost returned to the control level at 120 min after D-glucose feeding. I.c.v. pretreatment with CTX increased the blood glucose level in a potentiative manner, whereas i.t. pretreatment with CTX increased the blood glucose level in an additive manner in a D-glucose fed group. In addition, the blood glucose level was increased in formalin-induced pain animal model. I.c.v. pretreatment with CTX enhanced the blood glucose level in a potentiative manner in formalin-induced pain animal model. On the other hand, i.t. pretreatment with CTX increased the blood glucose level in an additive manner in formalin-induced pain animal model. Our results suggest that CTX administered supraspinally or spinally differentially modulates the regulation of the blood glucose level in D-glucose fed model as well as in formalin-induced pain model.

Effects of Barley Noodles Contained Mulberry Leave Extracts on Blood Glucose Regulation in Diabetic Mice (당뇨 쥐에서 상엽추출물을 첨가한 보리면의 혈당조절효과)

  • Park, Chung-Mu;Yoon, Hyun-Seo
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.9 no.8
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    • pp.101-108
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    • 2018
  • This study aimed to investigate the blood glucose regulatory effect of barley noodles contained mulberry leaves water extract (MLWE) in diabetic mice in order to provide fundamental data as a functional food. ICR mice were divided into six groups as follows: normal control, positive control, barley control, mulberry control, barley+MLWE 2.5% and barley+MLWE 5% groups. High fat/high carbohydrate diet was fed for 4 weeks and diabetes mellitus was induced by i.p. injection of streptozotocin and nicotinamide. After diabetes induction, experimental diet was supplemented for 2 weeks and simultaneous measurement of body weight, blood glucose (including glucose tolerance test), liver function and blood lipid profile was conducted. As a result, there was less decrease in body weight compared to the positive control group in the groups that supplemented barley and MLWE together than the group ingesting barley and MLWE alone. In addition, regulatory effects on blood glucose, liver function and blood lipid concentration were also stronger in barley and MLWE concurrently supplemented groups. Consequently, combination of barley and MLWE was effective in the regulation of body weight, blood glucose, liver function, and blood lipid in diabetic mice. Therefore, this recipe could be a promising strategy for beneficial effects in the patients of diabetes mellitus.

Inhibition of carbohydrate digestion using egg yolk antibody (난황 항체를 이용한 탄수화물의 체내 소화흡수 저해)

  • 홍성길;김대원;김정원;이홍석
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.94-100
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    • 2002
  • The dietary carbohydrates are mainly digested and adsorbed at small intestine. We developed a new food additive as an egg yolk antibody(1gY) against maltase, sucrase and sodium dependent g1ucose cotransporter(SGLT) for the regulation of blood glucose level and weight control. The maltase, sucrase and SGLT were purified from porcine small intestine which is very similar to that of human in physiological characteristics. The purification step contained an ultracentrifugation, ion exchange chromatography and hydrophobic chromatography. The hens were immunized by purified protein and the IgY activities against immunized antigens were determined. This antibody obtained from the immunized hen's egg yolks directly inhibited the activities of maltase and sucrase in vitro. And the IgY delayed and decreased the increment of blood g1ucose level after administration of maltose, sucrose and glucose in rat about 30 to 60%. The results of this study suggest that the IgY inhibiting the carbohydrate digestion could be used as functional food materials for weight control and regulation of blood glucose level in diabetes.