• Title, Summary, Keyword: blood pressure

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Tracking of blood pressure during childhood (아동혈압의 지속성에 관한 시계열 분석)

  • Lee, Soon-Young;Seo, Il;Nam, Jeung-Mo
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.161-170
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    • 1991
  • The purpose of this study is to find the tracking of blood pressure in primary school-age children. A follow-up study was conducted from 1986 to 1990 on 330 first grade children attending primary schools in Kangwha County, Kyungki-Do. Basically we employed a linear regression model with random coefficients to figure out the relation between blood pressure changes and initial blood pressure. We obtained the following results ; 1. The mean blood pressures were increased grade went up in both sexs and were generally higher in female than male except for the systolic blood pressure at first grade. The size of difference was about 0.8 mmHg in mean systolic blood pressure and 1.5 mmHg in mean diastolic blood pressure. 2. The average annual increasing rates of systolic blood pressure were 2.5 mmHg in male and 3.1 mmHg in female respectively. For the diastolic blood pressure IV the average annual increasing rates were observed to be 3.0 mmHg in male and 2.9 mmHg in female respectively. Increasing rate of systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in female than male. 3. The adjusted regression coefficient of systolic blood pressure change on initial value was -0.11 in male and -0.13 in female and that coefficient of diastolic blood pressure change on initial value was -0.01 in male and -0.11 in female. This result shows that children with higher initial blood pressure do not pick up their blood pressure faster than others with lower initial blood pressure. There is no evidence of tracking of blood pressure in children. It is essential to find the earliest age having the tracking of blood pressure and we leave it for the further study.

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Development of Blood Pressure Simulator for Test of the Arm-type Automatic Blood Pressure Monitor (팔뚝형 자동혈압계 평가용 혈압 시뮬레이터 개발)

  • Kim, S.H.;Yun, S.U.;Cho, M.H.;Lee, S.J.;Lim, M.H.;Seo, S.Y.;Jeon, G.R.
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.239-246
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    • 2015
  • Blood pressure is possible to diagnose a disease associated with blood pressure and judgment the current health of patients. Automatic blood pressure monitor capable of measuring a blood pressure easily in hospital and at home have become spread. In this study, we developed the blood pressure simulator (BPS) that can test the arm-type automatic blood pressure monitor that is commonly used in hospital. BPS is to produce a pressure similar to the pressure wave generated in the human blood using a servo disk motor. Then, using the silicon tube, it implements the situations such as human blood vessels, and to output the generated pressure waveform. Simply the BPS's phantom put on the cuff and it is able to simulate blood pressure. So anyone can quickly test the blood pressure monitor within one minute and it is possible to shorten the test time required for the automatic blood pressure monitor. In Performance test, the trends and the standard deviation of the values measured in the BPS is similar to the value of the measured pressure from people with normal blood pressure. Thus, the development BPS showed a possibility of taking into account the actual blood pressure measurement environment simulator.

Compensation of Error in Noninvasive Blood Pressure Measurement System Using Optical Sensor (광학 센서를 이용한 비관혈적 혈압 측정의 오차 보정)

  • Ko, J.I.;Jeong, I.C.;Lee, D.H.;Park, S.W.;Hwang, S.O.;Park, S.M.;Kim, G.Y.;Joo, H.S.;Yoon, H.R.
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.178-186
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    • 2007
  • This study is attempted to correct an error of electronic blood pressure meter with an optical sensor. In general, for a hospitalized patient, ECG, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and respiration are basically measured to monitor the patient's condition. Opening of a blood vessel after it is occluded by pressurizing the cuff influences the blood flow of peripheral blood vessels as well as oscillation changes in the cuff. Blood vessels are occluded and peripheral blood flow disappears at cuff pressure above the examinee's blood pressure, while blood vessels are opened and peripheral blood flow appears again at cuff pressure under the examinee's blood pressure. Then Disappear-Appear Point Length(DAPL) of peripheral blood flow can be judged with the signal of peripheral blood flow, thus is available as a factor of error correction for electronic blood pressure meter. Also, systolic or diastolic blood pressure can be corrected with Appear-Point-Pressure(APP) of cuff pressure at a point where blood flow occurs and Appear-Maximum Pressure(AMP) of cuff pressure at the maximum amplitude point of peripheral blood flow after peripheral blood flow appears again. For verification, 27 examinees were selected, and their blood value was obtained through experimental procedure of 4 stages including induction of blood pressure change. The examinees were divided into two groups of experimental group and control group, regression analysis was conducted for experimental group, and correction of a blood pressure error was verified with optical signal by applying the regression equation calculated in experimental group to control group. As an experimental result, mean of the whole measurement errors was 5mmHg or more, which did not meet the standard fur blood pressure meter. As a result of correcting blood pressure measurements with data of DAPL, APP, and AMP as drawn out of PPG signal, systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were $-0.6{\pm}4.4mmHg,\;-1.0{\pm}3.9mmHg$ and $-1.3{\pm}5.4mmHg$, respectively, indicating that mean of the whole measurement errors was greatly improved, and standard deviation was decreased.

The change in blood pressure and factors affecting the change in blood pressure for Korean children: A six-year follow-up study (국민학생의 6년간 혈압의 변화양상과 혈압변화와 관련된 요인 분석)

  • Suh, Il;Lee, Soon-Young;Nam, Chung-Mo;Kim, Il-Soon
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.96-109
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    • 1993
  • For the purposes of analyzing the distribution and the change in blood pressure according to age and determining the factors affecting the change in blood pressure, a follow-up study had been conducted for 6 years from 1986 to 1991 for 430 primary school children aged 6 years old in 1986 in Kangwha County, Korea. The mean blood pressure increased according to age. Specifically mean systolic blood pressure increased from 97.3 mmHg for male and 96.4mmHg for female (at 6 years of age) to 108.8mmHg fur male and 112.1mmHg for female (at 11 years of age). Mean diastolic blood pressure increased from 60.0mmHg for male and 61.8mmHg for female (at 6 years of age) to 72.9mmHg for male and 73.8mmHg for female (at 11 years of age). The average annual increase in blood pressure was 2.3mmHg (in systolic blood pressure) and 2.6 mmHg (in diastolic blood pressure) for male : and 3.1mmHg (in systolic blood pressure) and 2.4mmHg (in diastolic blood pressure) for female, respectively. To determine the factors affecting the change in blood pressure, the stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Children were divided into the three groups(low, middle, and upper) according to the level of systolic and diastolic blood pressure at the age of 6, and the regression analysis was performed in each group. For the change in systolic blood pressure, the changes in weight and skinfold thickness or initial skinfold thickness fer male, and the change in weight for female were selected as significant factors for children in middle and upper group. For the change of blood pressure in diastolic blood pressure, no variables was significant.

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Comparison of Sphygmomanometer, Fully Automatic Electronic Blood Pressure Meters with Standard Digital Blood Pressure Monitor : Pilot Study (표준전자식 혈압계와 수은혈압계, 전자혈압계의 비교 선행연구)

  • Yahng, J.S.;Lim, H.K.;Cho, D.H.
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.155-162
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    • 2012
  • Devices to measure the blood pressure of patients are being used without any calibration in a hospital. It is an important to show consistent values when any medical devices measure the same patients regardless they are sphygmomanometer or fully automatic electronic blood pressure meter. We compared sphygmomanometer and fully automatic electronic blood pressure meters with standard digital blood pressure monitor (SDBPM) to evaluate the consistency of the small healthy subjects. We measured the blood pressure from six healthy subjects (three of 20~40 years and three of 40~60 years old). Two sphygmomanometer and two fully automatic electronic blood pressure meters were used and compared with the SDBPM. Blood pressures measured from right and left arms each and were compared. All six healthy subjects showed normal blood pressure values. In general, left blood pressure values showed higher values than right side. Comparing SDBPM, with the other monitors, the systolic pressure showed ${\pm}$ 34.8% difference and ${\pm}$ 33.3% for the diastolic pressure. Correlation between SDBPM and Sphygmomanometer was 0.59~0.71, and 0.50~0.70 for fully automated digital BP monitors. It fell in grade-D when we apply the BHS(British hypertension society). AAMI(American association for the advancement of medical instrumentation) also showed unsatisfactory results for the mean value (${\leq}$ 5 mmHg) and standard deviation (${\leq}$ 8 mmHg). We tested sphygmomanometer and fully automatic electronic blood pressure meters and compared with a standard digital blood pressure monitor. All devices showed inconsistent blood pressures. A reliable calibration system is highly needed for all devices in all hospitals.

Differences in Blood Pressure among Adults in the Community according to Blood Pressure Measurement Time and Age (지역사회 성인의 혈압측정횟수 및 연령에 따른 혈압의 차이)

  • Park, Kyung-Yeon
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.275-282
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: This study aimed to identify the differences in blood pressure among adults in the community according to age and time of the blood pressure measurement. Methods: This was a secondary analysis study, using data from a 2015 community health survey, conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The data of three-time-measured blood pressure were collected from 337 subjects, 25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75 years old, which are median ages by each age group. Results: The primary systolic pressure was significantly higher than the secondary systolic pressure (t= 3.46, p= .001) and the tertiary systolic pressure (t= 4.83, p= .001). The secondary systolic pressure was higher than the tertiary measurement (t= 2.05, p= .041). There was no significant difference between the three-time-measured values for diastolic pressure. There was a significant interaction between measurement times and age in the systoic blood pressure readings (F= 1.95, p= .036). However, there was no significant interaction between measurement times and age in the diastolic blood pressure readings (F= 1.03, p= .418). Conclusion: The findings suggest that attention must be paid to the use of blood pressure values in studies or one-time-measured clinical blood pressure values. In particular, the differences in systolic pressure readings taken at different times in the older age groups were significant. Therefore, it is more important to carefully assess blood pressure in adults over the age of 45 compared to other age groups.

The Effect of Auricular Acupuncture Therapy on Blood Pressure (이침시술이 혈압에 미치는 영향)

  • 이진구;이영구;윤희식
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.12-18
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    • 2003
  • Objectives : Hypertension is very prevalent disease, and causes serious cardiovascular complications. Nowadays optimal hypertension treatment is emphasized to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular complications. Auricular acupuncture therapy is economical, safe and effective. Its clinical application is various, and it can be used to control blood pressure. So The effect of auricular acupuncture therapy was investigated. Daily variation of blood pressure during needle-embedded period and variation of blood pressure by blood pressure classification were observed. Methods : The auricular acupuncture points we used were Gangapjeom (降壓點), Sinmun (神門), Gyogam (交感), Sim(心), and Icheom (耳尖). Auricular acupuncture needles were embedded for three days. Blood pressure was checked four times per day and the mean obtained. Results : The following results were obtained : 1. During needle-embedded period, systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased. Blood pressure decreased most significantly 2 days after treatment. 2. The change of blood pressure in the higher blood pressure group was more remarkable than that of the lower blood pressure group. Conclusions : Through this research, auricular acupuncture therapy is considered as an effective and safe method to lower blood pressure.

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The Change of Children's Blood Pressure and Factors Affecting the Level of Blood Pressure In Children (아동혈압의 시계열 변화 양상 및 평균혈압에 관련된 요인 분석)

  • Suh, Il;Kim, Il-Soon;Nam, Chung-Mo;Lee, Soon-Young;Oh, Hee-Chul;Kim, Chun-Bae;Park, Eun-Cheol
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.303-312
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    • 1989
  • To show the distribution and change of blood pressure according to age and to find factors affecting the level of blood pressure in primary school children, a follow-up study was conducted from 1986 to 1989 on 401 first grade children attending primary school in Kangwha County in 1986 and their parents. The blood pressure of the children was significantly increased according to age. The average annual increase was 1.8mmHg in systolic blood pressure and 2.5mmHg in diastolic blood pressure. The level of blood pressure did not show any significant difference in both sexes. Among children who were at or above the 80th percentile of blood pressure in the first grade, 35 and 30% of them have remained at the same level of systolic and diastolic blood pressure respectively in the fourth grade. But we could not find any significance in the tracking of blood pressure of children who were at or above the 90th percentile of blood pressure in the first grade. Weight and pulse rate were shown to be significant factors affecting systolic blood pressure in children of both sexes and mother's blood pressure and skinfold thickness were also affected systolic blood pressure in girls. The variables significantly affecting diastolic blood pressure were arm circumference and pulse rate for boys and height and pulse rate for girls.

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Toward a More Complete Understanding of the Effects of Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng) on Blood Pressure (고려인삼의 혈압에 미치는 영향에 대한 이해)

  • Nam, Ki Yeul;Yang, Byung Wook;Shin, Wang Soo;Park, Jong Dae
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.97-107
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    • 2017
  • There is no doubt that the effect of ginseng on blood pressure could be different depending upon the type of ginseng employed for the experiment and methodology, thereby can exert bilateral modulatory activity on blood pressure. It has been reported that ginseng induced no significant change in blood pressure in those subjects with normal blood pressure, but had a normalizing effect on the subjects with abnormal blood pressure. Especially, experimental evidence indicates that ginsenoside Rg3, a major component of red ginseng, has been found to lower blood pressure, which is mediated by release of endothelium-derived NO, enhancing the accumulation of cGMP in the rat aorta. This clinical results further support the beneficial effect of Korean ginseng on blood pressure elucidated by animal experiment. As expected, a multicentric non-controlled clinical study shows that the effect of ginseng consumption has been found to normalize blood pressure in hypertensive or hypotensive individuals as compared to virtually no effect in normotensives. In addition, ginseng has been known to exhibit blood pressure decreased with no significant side effect and deteriorated QOL during the combination therapy of ginseng and anti-hypertensive drugs. This review provides a comprehensive overview on the effects of Korean ginseng on blood pressure.

Automatic Blood Pressure Control Using PI Controller with $H_{\infty}$ Loop-Shaping

  • Han, Jeong-Yup;Lee, Sang-Kyung;Park, Hong-Bae
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.326-329
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    • 2004
  • In this paper, we show a new form of blood pressure controller combined PI control with $H_{\infty}$ loop-shaping. Hypertensive patients or post-operative patients need to maintain normally blood pressure. Exact regulation of blood pressure is needed for maintaining variable blood pressure of preventing complications. The regulation of blood pressure is achieved by injecting drugs, and usually sodium nitroprusside is used as those kinds of drugs. It is necessary to control the infusion rate sodium-nitroprusside carefully to achieve the desired blood pressure. It has been known that regulation of blood pressure by automatic controller is more effective than regulation of blood pressure by human operators. The control of blood pressure has many constraints and uncertainties. Most of biological system has the time-varying variables and the side effects such as increased risk of sepsis and organ failure. To solve such a problem, we design a new robust PI controller using $H_{\infty}$ loop-shaping to decrease noise effects that come out from human body and errors for time delay. The system with designed controller shows more stable control of mean blood pressure and more robust performance for uncertainties. Validation methods for the control performance are confirmed to computer simulations.

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