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Anti-microbial, Anti-oxidant, and Anti-thrombosis Activities of the Lees of Bokbunja Wine (Rubus coreanus Miquel) (복분자주 주박의 항균, 항산화 및 항혈전 활성)

  • Kim, Mi-Sun;Kang, Dong-Kyoon;Shin, Woo-Chang;Sohn, Ho-Yong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.7
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    • pp.757-764
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    • 2015
  • The immature fruit of Rubus coreanus Miquel (bokbunja in Korean) is mainly consumed as a fruit wine due to its sour taste and low sugar content. The lees (LBW) remaining after the production of bokbunja wine are discarded as they have no specific usage. The aim of this study was to develop high-value-added biomaterials for functional foods and beauty/health products by investigating the anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, and anti-thrombosis activities of LBW using ethanol and hot water extracts and their subsequent organic solvent fractions. The ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of LBW extracts has a high polyphenol content (413–459 mg/g), and showed strong anti-microbial activity against gram-positive bacteria. The EA fraction also showed excellent radical-scavenging activity against DPPH anion, ABTS cation, and nitrite, with strong reducing power. The polyphenol-enriched EA fraction strongly inhibited thrombin, prothrombin, and blood coagulation factors. The butanol fraction showed a specific inhibition of coagulation factors, as measured in activated partial thromboplastin time assay, which is linked to intrinsic blood coagulation. The butanol fraction also showed strong inhibition of platelet aggregation, at levels comparable to aspirin. The residue of the hot-water extract, which is produced by sequential solvent fractionation of the LBW extract, showed superior inhibition against platelet aggregation when compared to aspirin. Our results suggest that the LBW, which are currently discarded, are a promising source of novel functional foods and beauty/health products.

Method Development of Ellagic Acid as Marker Compound for Standardization of Gochang Bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miquel) as Functional Ingredient (고창 복분자의 기능성원료 표준화를 위한 지표성분으로서 Ellagic Acid의 분석법 개발)

  • Kim, Yunjeong;Han, Song-Hee;Jeon, Ji-Yeong;Hwang, Minho;Im, Yong-Jin;Chae, Soo-Wan;Kim, Min-Gul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.11
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    • pp.1554-1558
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    • 2012
  • Method development and validation of ellagic acid for the standardization of Gochang Bokbunja as a functional ingredient and health food were accomplished. A Symmetry$^{(R)}$ (C18, $4.6{\times}250mm$, $5.0{\mu}m$) column was used with a gradient elution system of 1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. This method was validated according to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision test, and recovery test. Specificity was confirmed with identical retention time, and calibration curves of ellagic acid showed good linear regression ($R^2$ >0.9996). Relative standard deviations (RSD) of data from the intra- and inter-day experiments were less than 2.28% and 2.84%, except in the low limit of quality control (LLOQ, $1{\mu}g/mL$) sample. The results of the recovery test were from 89.17% to 97.92% with RSD values from 0.05 to 0.14%. Therefore, we performed analysis of ellagic acid as a marker compound in Gochang Bokbunja extracts. The amount of ellagic acid in Gochang Bukbunja was about $1.918{\mu}g/mg$ (0.192%) in the three times analysis, and RSD was less than 2.36% by the validated method. These results suggest that the developed HPLC method is simple, efficient, and could contribute to the quality control of Gochang Bokbunja extract as a functional ingredient.

Changes in the Quality of Ground Beef with Additions of Medicinal Plants(Cinnamon, Licorice and Bokbunja) during Cold Storage (약용 식물을 첨가한 쇠고기 분쇄육의 냉장 저장 중 품질 변화)

  • Jung, In-Chul;Lee, Kyung-Soo;Moon, Yoon-Hee
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.224-230
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    • 2009
  • This study was to investigated the effects of adding of medicinal herbal (cinnamon, licorice and Bokbunja) to ground beef during storage by examining surface color, water holding capacity, cooking loss, increased rate of thickness, decreased rate of diameter, pH, VBN (volatile basic nitrogen) content and TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values of the beef under cold ($4{\pm}1$) storage conditions for 9 days. Four types of ground beef were prepared by adding the follow: 10% water (control), 10% cinnamon extracts (T-1), 10% licorice extracts (T-2), and 10% Bokbunja extracts (T-3). The $L^*$ (Lightness) and $a^*$ (Redness) values of the beef significantly decreased (p<0.05) whereas no significant changes were shown in the $b^*$ (Yellowness) value during storage, and which were not influenced by the additions of herbal extracts. Water holding capacity was significantly increased during cold storage (p<0.05), and was not influenced by the addition of the extracts. The cooking loss of the control, T-2 and T-3 were significantly decreased during cold storage (p<0.05), and T-1 had no significant changes in cooking loss. There were no significant changes in the thickness and diameter during cold storage, and which were not influenced by the addition of the extracts. The pH of the control decreased until 6 days of storage, but increased at 9 days, and the pH levels of T-1, T-2 and T-3 decreased during cold storage. VBN content was increased during cold storage and the VBN contents of the samples containing herbal extracts were lower than that of the control. In addition, the TBARS values of the ground beef containing the extracts were lower than that of the control.

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Comparison of Physiological Activities between Hot-Water and Ethanol Extracts of Bokbunja (Rubus coreanum F.) (복분자(Rubus coreanum F.) 열수 및 에탄올추출물의 생리활성비교)

  • Cho, Young-Je;Chun, Sung-Sook;Kwon, Hyo-Jung;Kim, Jeung-Hoan;Yoon, So-Jung;Lee, Kyoung-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.790-796
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    • 2005
  • Physiological activities of hot-water extract and various concentration ethanol extracts from Bokbunja (Rubus coreanum F. ) were examined. Total phenol content of extract showed higher content in hot-water extract (41.4 mg/g) than other extracts, Optimum condition of extraction for phenolic was $60\%$ ethanol extract (41.3 mg/g). The ABTS radical decolorilization and antioxidant protection factor were determined. Results shown inhibition rate on ABTS of $60\%$ ethanol extract $(99.8\%)$ and antioxidant protection factor of water extract (1.2 PF). Electron donation ability on DPPH was higher 60$\%$ ethanol extract than another percent ethanol extracts. Also hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of extracts was higher $60\%$ ethanol extracts $(0.03\times100\mu\;M)$ than another extracts because the value of TBARS was lower than another extracts. But hot-water extract had higher inhibitory activities on xanthine oxidase and pancreatin $\alpha$ -amylase than $60\%$ ethanol extract. ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitory activities were equaled to hot water exract and $60\%$ ethanol extract. Protocatecuic acid was the most abundant phenolic compounds as analyzed by HPLC. The results will be useful as natural antioxidants and functional foods for understanding the physiological activities of Bukbunja extracts.

Physico-chemical Characteristics of Black Raspberry Fruits (Bokbunja) and Wines in Korea (산지별 복분자와 시판 복분자주의 이화학적 특성 분석)

  • Lee, Seung-Joo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.451-459
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    • 2013
  • Korean black raspberry fruits (bokbunja) were collected from 11 different producing regions, and commercial black raspberry wines were obtained from 24 manufacturers. Samples were analyzed for soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, reducing sugar content, hunter color values, intensity, hue, total phenolic content, and organic acids. The fruit samples showed similar pH levels (3.43-3.52), but significantly differed in total acidity levels (9.98-16.2 g/L). The predominant organic acids in the fruit samples were citric acids (1.39-5.63 mg/mL) and succinic acids (0.25-6.53 mg/mL). Among the samples, black raspberry fruits from Goksung and Nonsan showed the lowest levels of total phenolic content, and the lowest values in intensity. The fruits from Jeongeup and Sunchang showed higher levels of phenolic content, soluble solids, and intensity. Some wine samples, including BH, KO, SR, and SE, showed overall high levels of phenolic content, organic acids like citric and succinic acid, and color values such as $a^*$, $b^*$, and intensity. Other wine samples, including DW, SC, GJ, and NB, were high in acetic acid, color values like $L^*$, and hue.

Reduction of Plasma Triglycerides and Cholesterol in High Fat Diet-Induced Hyper-Lipidemic Mice by n-3 Fatty Acid from Bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miquel) Seed Oil (오메가-3 지방산 함유 복분자종자유에 의한 고지방식이 유도 고지혈증 마우스의 혈중 중성지방 및 콜레스테롤 감소 효과)

  • Jeon, Hyelin;Oh, Su-Jin;Nam, Hyun Soo;Song, Yoon Seok;Choi, Kyung-Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.7
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    • pp.961-969
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    • 2015
  • To investigate the effect of n-3 fatty acid from Bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miq.) seed oil (BSO), we examined improvement of plasma triglycerides and cholesterol in vivo. Five-week-old ICR mice were divided into five groups of six mice each; Control, high fat diet (HFD) control (negative control), salmon oil control (positive control, HFD+commercial n-3 fatty acid), and BSO experimental groups (HFD+1 g/60 kg BW/d, HFD+2 g/60 kg BW/d). After 4 weeks of BSO treatment, we measured serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels. The levels of low-density lipoprotein/very-low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and total cholesterol were significantly (P<0.05) reduced in the group fed BSO at 2 g/60 kg BW/d compared to the negative control. Levels of triglycerides, which are similar to cholesterol, were also significantly (P<0.05) reduced in the same group. To investigate further, we tested blood coagulation parameters. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were not significantly different among the five groups according to BSO. However, the 2 g/60 kg BW/d BSO group treated with PT and aPTT showed a tendency to live longer than the negative control. Taken together, BSO might improve blood homeostasis mediated via hypo-lipidemic and anti-coagulation activities.

Quality Properties of Yoghurt Added with Bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miquel) Wine (복분자 와인을 첨가한 요구르트의 품질 특성)

  • Lee, Jai-Sung;Choi, Hee-Young;Bae, Inhyu
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.806-816
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the quality characteristics of yoghurt added with 1.0%, 3.0% and 5.0% Bokbunja wine (BW) during the preparation of yoghurt. Changes of lactic acid bacterial population, pH, and total titratable acidity (TA) were monitored during the fermentation and storage of yoghurt. The pH was decreased in all the treatments, also TA and viscosity were gradually increased during the fermentation. The viscosity of yoghurt added with 5.0% BW was higher than another group. The sensory test, total phenolic acid and the anthocyanins content of the yoghurt were measured. The results of this analysis showed that higher amounts of total TA, viscosity, lactic acid bacterial population, total phenolic acid content and sensory test were observed in the yoghurt supplemented with the BW than those of yoghurt not supplemented with the BW. Sensory scores in yoghurt added 5.0% BW were significantly higher than the other groups in taste. When the BW yoghurt was kept at $4^{\circ}C$ for 12 d, its quality-keeping properties were relatively good. The combined results of this study suggest that yoghurt supplementing with BW produces additional nutrients while maintaining the flavor and quality.

Comparison of Chemical Properties and Phenolic Compound for Ethanol Extract of Blueberry, Bokbunja and Mulberry and their Pomaces (블루베리·복분자와 오디 그리고 이들 부산물 주정 추출물의 이화학적 특성 및 페놀화합물 함량 비교)

  • Kang, Da-Rae;Chung, Yi-Hyung;Shim, Kwan-Seob;Shin, Dae-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.535-547
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    • 2015
  • In this study, the chemical properties and phenolic compound of blueberry, bokbunja and mulberry and their pomace were determined to develop them as functional food materials. Water content of individual whole berry was ranged from 84.25-86.20%, and water content was significantly high in whole berries rather than their pomace (p<0.01). Additionally, each berry and its pomace's pH was 3.32-5.18. Among them, whole mulberry showed the highest pH which is 5.18 (p<0.01). Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were the greatest in blueberry pomace and they were 24.81 mg/g and 2.13 mg/g, respectively (p<0.01). However, mulberry pomace generated the greatest anthocyanin content compared to others (p<0.01). In phenolic compound profiles, cyanin chloride was detected in mulberry and bokbunja. Epigallocatechin, gallocatechin and isorhamnetin were found only in blueberry. Catechin (hydrate) and epicatechin were greater in pomaces than whole berries except blueberry (p<0.01), otherwise, significantly great rutin (trihydrate) and quercetin contents were found in whole berries as compared to their pomace except blueberry (p<0.01). Gallic acid was significantly greatest in mulberry (p<0.01) and quercetin 3-D-galactoside was significantly greatest in blueberry (p<0.01). Apigenin and luteolin were traced in mulberry, and mulberry pomace showed greater apigenin and luteolin contents than whole mulberry (p<0.01). Naringenin was greater in pomaces than whole berries (p<0.01). As a result, it was found that all berry extracts used in this study were able to be applied as functional food materials and their pomace contained high phenolic compound enough to be a good source of phytochemical for nutraceutical use.

Phylogenic Relationship of Rubus Cultivated in Korea Revealed by Chloroplast DNA Spacers (Chloroplast DNA Spacers로 분석한 국내 Rubus 재배종의 계통학적 유연관계)

  • Eu, Gee-Suck;Park, Myoung-Ryoul;Baek, So-Hyeon;Yun, Song-Joong
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.266-272
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    • 2010
  • There is a considerable difference in morphological traits between Bokbunja cultivated in Korea (KCB) and Korea native Rubus coreanus, contrary to the conviction that the cultivated Bokbunja is the domestication of R. coreanus. To infer the phylogenetic relationship of KCB with other Rubus species, we compared the chloroplast DNA spacers of KCB with those of several Rubus species including black raspberry, R. occidentalis. The three chloroplast DNA spacers, atpB~rbcL, trnL~trnF, and trnT~trnL, were amplified using the specific primer pairs and converted to Single Strand Conformational Polymorphism (SSCP) markers. The SSCP makers of the chloroplast DNA spacers showed a considerable variation both within and among Rubus species. In the phylogenetic tree generated by the SSCP markers, KCB accessions were located in the same clade with R. occidentalis, but R. coreanus accessions in the different clade. Also, in the phylogenetic tree by the nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast DNA spacer trnL~trnF, KCB located in the same clade with R. occidentalis but not with R. coreanus. These results suggest that the three KCB accessions share higher similarity with R. occidentalis than with R. coreanus in the three chloroplast DNA spacers.

A Literature Review of on the Sujeonggwa in the Royal Palace of Joseon Dynasty (조선왕조 궁중음식(宮中飮食) 중 수정과류(水正果類)의 문헌적 고찰)

  • Oh, Soonduk
    • The Journal of the Convergence on Culture Technology
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2015
  • This article examines the types of Sujeonggwa as recorded in 15 royal palace studies of the Joseon dynasty (1392-1909). The types of Sujeonggwa during the Joseon dynasty appeared Sujeonggwa(水正果), Geunsi-Sujeonggwa, Saengri-Sujeonggwa(生梨水正果), Weigamja-Sujeonggwa(倭柑子水正果), Gareun-Sujeonggwa(假蓮水正果), Yuja-Sujeonggwa(柚子水正果), Jabgwa-Sujeonggwa(雜果水正果), Duchung-Sujeonggwa (杜沖水正果), Yukyeldo-Sujeonggwa(六月桃水正果), Bokbunja-Sujeonggwa(覆盆子水正果), Aengdo-Sujeonggwa(櫻桃水正 果), Sansa-Sujeonggwa(山査水正果. The frequency of the Sujeonggwa types during the Joseon dynasty in order were; Geunsi-Sujeonggwa(20%), Saengri-Sujeonggwa(生梨水正果)r(15%), Sujeonggwa(水正果)(10%), Weigamja-Sujeonggwa(倭柑子水正果)(10%), Gareun-Sujeonggwa(假蓮水正果)(10%). The other Sujeonggwa each(5%). Through this study, through new lighting and menu development for Sujeonggwa used as a basis for hope to contribute to the globalization of Korean food.