• Title, Summary, Keyword: bovine oocyte

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Production of Bovine Embryos Using Follicular Oocytes Matured In Vitro (체외성숙 난포란을 이용한 소배의 생산)

  • 박수봉
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.21-27
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    • 1990
  • The technique for maturation of follicular oocyte has been devised to provide such a low cost and in ptentifut number supply of bovine embryo. Some of problems concerning production of bovine embtyo in vitro were discussed in this paper. Bovine follicular oocytes cultured in vitro achieved normal fertilization but cleavage rates to blastocyst were low compared to the oocyte matured in vivo. It has been concluded that a deficient cytoplasmic maturation occurs in the oocytes matured in vitro. These results indicate that the studies for maturation of bovine follicular oocytes in vitro need improvement of culture conditions and to define the characteristics that might be indicative of healthy oocyte.

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The Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases Activated Differently on In-Vitro Maturation of oocytes Cytoplasm and Cumulus Cells in Bovine (소 난자의 체외성숙시 난구세포와 난세포질에서 다르게 발현되는 Matrix Metalloproteinases의 분석)

  • Kim, Sang-Hwan;Yoon, Jong-Taek
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.99-105
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    • 2018
  • To determine the differences in the in-vitro ovum maturation process of bovine, we compared the expression of MMPs in these oocytes and cumulus cell throughout oocytes maturated. In an attempt to investigate the effect of MMP activation and inhibitors in total protein of cumulus cell and, oocytes during oocytes maturation, we examined and monitored the localization and expression of MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9), TIMPs (TIMP-2 and TIMP-3), as well as their expression profiles (Real-time PCR, Gelatin Zymography and ELISA). Our results that the bovine oocytes MMP-2 and MMP-9 level was significantly associated with the rate of maturity of oocytes (P<0.05). In cumulus cell, MMP-2 was highly expressed in all stages of the oocyte's maturation. The final oocytes maturation exhibited strong gelatinase activity. There was no significant correlation between cumulus cell MMP-9 and the maturation rate of oocytes. However, for the oocyte cytoplasm MMP-9 expression was significant correlation to the maturation oocytes. There was no significant correlation between cumulonimbus cells MMP-9 and oocyte maturation rates; however, for oocyte cytoplasm, MMP-9 expression was significantly correlated with mature oocyte. However, the TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 protein expression patterns are not correlated with the maturation rate of the oocyte. Our results suggest that MMP different expression pattern may regulate the morphological remodeling of oocyte's in the cumulus cell. Further, the MMP-2 expression has a strong relation with a higher maturation rate of the oocyte.

Participation of Protein Synthesis in in vitro Oocyte Maturation and Fertilization in Cattle

  • Nakaya, Y.;Hattori, M.;Fujihara, N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.754-758
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    • 2001
  • Bovine oocytes with compact and complete cumulus cells were cultured for up to 24h in TCM199 buffered with 25mmol/l hepes and supplemented with 10% FBS (fetal bovine serum), 1mg/ml $17{\beta}$-estradiol, 20IU/ml hCG(human chorionic gonadotropin). All of the oocytes were divided into at 6 groups depending upon incubation times (control, 0 hour, 6 hours, 12 hours, 16 hours, 18 hours). To all experimental media, $200{\mu}g/ml$ puromycin was added at different incubation times mentioned above. Following these culture times, in vitro insemination was conducted with frozen-thawed bovine spermatozoa in medium BO (Brackett and Oliphant medium for in vitro insemination) with $10{\mu}g/ml$ BSA(bovine serum albumin) and 10 mg/ml heparin added. After 22h culture, the oocytes were fixed with acetic alcohol solution and stained with orcein acetic solution to evaluate sperm nuclear progression. Addition of puromycin after 0, 6 and 12 h of culture resulted in near of oocyte maturation at the M1 stage. Contrariwise, puromycin addition after 12 h of culture led to restoration of nuclear progression to M2 stage. On the one hand, puromycin affected the synthesis of Cyclin B protein that may be involved in the oocyte maturation and sperm capacitation for in vitro fertilization. The present study suggests the participation of protein synthesis, cyclin B, in the oocyte development from M1 to M2 stages in vitro.

In vitro Development of Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos Derived from Murine Embryonic Fibroblasts and Bovine Oocytes

  • Yun, J.I.;Koo, B.S.;Yun, S.W.;Lee, Chang-Kyu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.11
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    • pp.1665-1672
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    • 2008
  • Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a useful method to preserve endangered species and to study the reprogramming event of a nuclear donor cell by the oocyte. Although several studies of iSCNT using murine cells and bovine oocytes have been reported, the development of murine-bovine iSCNT embryos beyond the 8-cell stage has not been successful. In this paper, we examined the developmental potential of embryos reconstructed with a murine embryonic fibroblast as the nuclear donor and a bovine oocyte as the cytoplasm recipient. The reconstructed embryos were cultured in CZB (murine medium) or CR1aa (bovine medium). In addition, for the development of a murine-bovine iSCNT blastocyst, the antioxidant ${\beta}$-mercaptoethanol (${\beta}ME$) was supplemented to CR1aa medium. Furthermore, to verify the mouse genome activation in murine-bovine iSCNT embryos, RT-PCR analysis of murine Xist was performed. The development of the murine-bovine iSCNT embryos cultured in CR1aa was significantly higher than that in CZB (p<0.05). With respect to the effect of BME on the development of the murine-bovine iSCNT blastocyst, addition of BME produced a significant increase in blastocyst development (p<0.05). Karyotype analysis confirmed that the reconstructed embryos were derived from murine cells (40XX). The Xist gene was gradually increased from the 8-cell stage to the blastocyst stage. This is the first report of blastocyst development of iSCNT embryos derived from murine somatic cells and bovine oocytes. These results demonstrate that bovine cytoplasm can support the development of later stages of a preimplantation embryo from murine-bovine iSCNT.

The Factors Affecting Cloning Bovine Embryo (소 수정란 핵 이식에 영향을 주는 요인)

  • 임홍순;박노형;김흥률;김덕임
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.31-41
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    • 1994
  • 핵 이식 기술을 이용한 cloning 송아지 생산이 처음 보고(Prather et al., 1987) 된 후, 소 수정란 Cloning에 대한 많은 연구가 분자 생물학 등 여러 분야에서 꾸준히 계속되고 있다. 이 기술은 빈우의 번식 능력을 향상시켜 유전적 개량량을 증대할 수 있는 번식과 육종을 위한 도구로써 많은 잠재력을 지니고 있다. 최근 핵 이식 기술을 이용하여 유전적으로 우수한 빈우로부터 수천개의 수정란을 생산하여, 이들 수정란에게 생산된 송아지가 번식 축군으로 공시되어 있으므로, 그 결과가 주목되나 아직까지는 비용이 많이 들고 송아지 생산 효율이 저조하므로, 가까운 장래에 일반 양축가에 이용될 가능성이 낮다. 그러나 이 기술의 실용화를 위하여 선결되어야 할 많은 문제점들 중, 지난 몇 년 동안 많은 연구기관에서 수행된 활발한 연구의 결실로써, 난포란 제핵, cell fusion 과 oocyte activation의 방법등 주요 장애 요인들이 점차 극복되면서 실용화를 위한 접근이 예견되어지며, 구미의 일부 개량 기관에서는 이를 상업화 하기 위한 여건을 다지고 있다. 그러므로 이 Review에서는 fllicular dynamics, 난포란의 성숙, cell cycle, 난포란 제핵, cell fusion과 oocyte activation, 이식후 핵의 remodeling과 reprogramming에 대한 현재까지의 보고된 자료를 기초로 그 기본 원리를 재고하는데 초점을 맞추었다.

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Co-culture of In Vitro Matured and Fertilized Bovine Oocytes with Oviductal Epithelium (체외성숙, 체외수정 우 난포란의 Co-culture에 관한 연구)

  • 고광두;양부근;김정익
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.50-56
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    • 1990
  • Bovine oocytes obtained from follicles(2~5mm) of ovaries after slaughter were cultured in TCM 199 medium with 10~20% heat-inactivated estrus cow serum(ECS) for 25~27 hr, at 39$^{\circ}C$ under 5% CO2 in air. At the end of culture period, some oocytes were stained with 1% acetoorcein and examined for the evidence of oocyte maturation. The remainder were used to assess the potential of in vitro fertilization(IVF) with frozen-thawed spermatozoa and subsequent development in media with or without bovine oviduct epithelial cell (BOEC) co-culture. The results obtained were summarized as follows ; 1. The maturation rate of oocyte in vitro in TCM 199 medium with 15% ECS group(76.3) was superior to 10% ECS group(68.3%) and 20% ECS group(64.5%). 2. The IVF rates of oocytes matured in vitro, and formation rate of male and female pronuclei were 63.6%(77/121) and 93.5%(72/77), respectively. The incidence of polyspermy was very low(2.4%). 3. Of 73 oocytes fertilized in vitro and cultured in TCM 199 medium with 10% fetal calf serum for 7 days, 41(56.3%) were cleaved over 2-cell and only 1(2.4%) was developed beyond the 16-cell stage. 4. Of 76 oocytes co-cultured with BOEC, 58(76.3%) were cleavaged and 23(39.7%) were developed to morula and blastocyst stage. The results of this study indicate that co-culture with BOEC deserved a positive effect on the IVF oocyte development through the 16-cell block.

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Effect of EGF on In Vitro Oocyte Maturation and Embryo Development and Expression of EGF mRNA in Bovine Oocytes and Embryo II. Detection of Epidermal Growth Factor mRNA in bovine Ova during In Vitro Maturation and after Fertilization In Vitro

  • Kim, Kwang-Sig;Kim, Chang-Keun;Chung, Yung-Chai;Hwang, Seong-Soo;Chang, Won-Kyong;Cheong, Il-Cheong;Park, Jin-Ki;Min, Kwan-Sik;Lee, Yun-Keun
    • Proceedings of the KSAR Conference
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    • pp.29-29
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to examine, by the reverse transcription chain reaction(RT-PCR)and Immunostain assays, epidermal growth factor mRNA expression in bovine ova during oocyte maturation in vitro(0-2lh)and after fertilization in vitro(6-144hr: zygotes to blastocysts). In this study, the transcripts of EGF was detected in oocytes using primers for EGF. Transcripts for EGF mRNA was not detected in oocytes through in vitro maturation. But EGF mRNA were present after fertilization up to the 2-cell stage and the blastocyst stage. The highest mRNA levels in 4-cell stage embryos were decreased at 8cell stage and then reincreased upto morulae and blastocysts. The results of this study showed EGF mRNA are present in embryo after fertilization and this factors are involved in the regulation of bovine embryo development.

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Effect of Bovine Follicular Fluid and Hormones on In Vitro Oocyte Fertilization and Development of Bovine Embryos (소의 난포액과 호르몬이 난포란의 체외수정 및 체외발달에 미치는 영향)

  • 최양석;송상현;최창용;하란조;강다원;최상용;윤창현;박충생
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.181-188
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    • 1997
  • This study was carried out to determine the effect of bovine follicular fluid(bFF), hormones, and fetal bovine serum(FBS) supplemented in the medium on the in vitro fertilization and development of bovine embryos. The ovaries were obtained from a local abattoir and placed in physiological saline kept at 30~32˚C and brought to the laboratory within 3~4 hours. The oocytes and follicular fluid were collected by aspiration from visible follicles, and the oocytes of grades I on the basis of the morphology of cumulus cells attached and the homogeneity of cytoplasmic granules were selected and used for maturation. The basal media used for oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo development in vitro were Ham' F-10, TALP and TCM-199, respectively. The hormones supplemented in maturation medium were consisted of 35 pg /ml FSH, 10 pg /ml LH and 1 pg/mi estradiol-l7$\beta$. The bFF collected from 5~9 mm follicles was centrifuged, filtered and inactivated by heat-treatment at 56˚C for 30 min. FBS also was inactivated with the same method and kept at -20˚C until use. The embryos were co-cultured with the monolayer of bovine oviductal epithelial cells at 39˚C under 5% $CO_2$ in air for 9 days. The results obtained were summarized as follows: The fertilization rate of oocytes was found 87.4% from 10% FBS and hormones treatment for IVM, and 37.1% of these TVF embryos were developed to blastocyst stage in 10% FBS groups. Compared with this control system, the fertilization rate was decreased significantly(P<0.05) in the maturation without either FBS or hormones. These IVF embryos were developed to morula stage at the similar rate, but to blastocyst at significantly(P<0.05) lower rate in the embryo culture with or without FBS supplementation. The fertilization rate(82.9%) in hormones and 10% inactivated bFF was similar with 10% FBS and hormone groups(87.4%), but decreased significantly(P<0.05) in 20 or 30% bFF (61.0 or 66.0%), respectively. In vitro developmental competence to blastocyst stage in 10% FBS and 20% inactivated bFF(37.1% and 31.4%) was higher than in 10 or 30% inactivated bFF(20.0 or 19.2%) or 10, 20 and 30% fresh bFF(19.1, 21.0 and 17.5%) The results indicated that the in vitro fertillzation and development rate of the embryos should be improved in 10% FBS or 20% inactivated culture system and 20% inactivated bFF might be available economically for bovine oocyte maturation and embryo culture instead of fetal bovine serum.

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In Vitro Development of Nuclear Transplantation Bovine Embryos Using In Vitro Fertilized Embryos of Korean Native Heifers (한우 체외수정란을 이용한 핵 이식배의 체외발달에 관한 연구)

  • 박충생;공일근;노규진;이효종;최상용
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.113-119
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    • 1994
  • To improve nuclear transplantation(NT) efficiency and to produce a large scale genetically identical cloned calves, examined the in vitro development capacity after co-culture of bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC) and granulosa cells in TCM-199 supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) with early bovine embryos derived from in vitro matured fertilized(IVM-IVF) oocyte. In addition, the age dependence of IVM oocyte on electro-stimulation and the effective electric voltage on in ivtro development of bovine NT embryos were examined. The results obtained were summerized as follows; 1. The cleavage rates of IVM-IVF bovine embryos in co-culture with bovine oviductal epithelial cells and granulosa cells were not significantly different(P<0.05), but the developmental rate into morula and blastocyst stage were different showing 38.3 and 20.2%, respectively. 2. The activation (82.5%) and development in vitro(8.6%) into later embryo stages of the aging oocytes of 32 hours post-maturation (hpm) were significantly higher than those of 24 hpm at direct current (DC) voltage of 1.5kV/cm, 60$\mu$sec pulse duration and 1 pulse time. 3. The fusion rates of NT eggs of 32 hpm following to different DC voltages from range 0.75 to 1.5kV/cm were not differ, but the developmental rate into morula and blastocyst stages at DC voltages of 0.75 and 1.0kV/cm were higher(11.4 and 12.6%, respectively) than those of 1.5kV/cm(0%). From these results, it can be suggested the optimal culture system for in vitro culture of IVM-IVF bovine embryos is a co-culture system with BOEC in TCM-199 supplemented 10% FCS. The effective time and the DC voltage for activation, electrofusion and in vitro development of NT embryos derived from IVM-IVF bovine embryo are 32hpm and 0.75~1.0kV/cm. But to improve NT efficiency, the advanced research (cell cycle synchronization, micromanipulation, culture system, etc.) is needed.

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Expression and Characterization of Bovine DNA Methyltransferase I

  • Chang, Yoo-Min;Yang, Byoung-Chul;Hwang, Seong-Soo;Yoon, Jong-Taek;Min, Kwan-Sik
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.93-98
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    • 2009
  • In this study, bovine Dnmt1 cDNA was sequenced and detected Dnmt1 mRNA level in bovine tissues by northern blot, methylation pattern of genome by southern blot, specific localization of Dnmt1 in mouse and bovine preimplantation embryos by immunocytostaining and Dnmt1 protein level in ovary and testis by western blot. Bovine Dnmt1 cDNA sequence showed more homology with that of human than mouse and rat. The RNA level of Dnmt1 was 10 times higher expression in placenta than other tissues. This indicates that placenta was hypermethylated compared to others organs. The genomic DNA could not be cut by a specific restriction enzyme (HpaII) in placenta, lung and liver of bovine. It suggests that Dnmt1 in some somatic cells was already methylated. Dnmt1, which has the antibody epitope 1316~1616, was distributed in nucleus and cytoplasm including the stage of pronuclear stage and maturation of oocyte and gradually weaken to blastocyst stage compare to negative. In addition, Dnmt1 was strongly expressed in tetraploid embryo and cloned 8-cell than IVF 8-cell. An aberrant pattern of DNA methylation in cloned embryo may be abnormal development of fetus, embryonic lethality and placenta dysfunction. The somatic specific band (190kDa) was appeared in ovary and testis, but oocyte specific band (175kDa) was not. Further investigations are necessary to understand the complex links between the methyltransferases and the transcriptional activity of genes in the cloned bovine tissues.