• Title, Summary, Keyword: browning characteristics

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The Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Non-enzymatic Browsing Products from Fresh Ginseng Bxtracts and Those with Arginine or Glucose (수삼추출물 및 Glucose 또는 Arginine첨가 추출물의 특성과 항산화작용에 대하여)

  • 최강주;김동훈
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.8-23
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    • 1981
  • Color is one of the most important quality factors of red ginseng (Hong-sam) which is processed from fresh ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer). Therefore, a study of characteristics of browning mixtures of aqueous fresh ginseng extracts, factors which accelerate the browning of the aqueous extracts, and the antioxidant activity of the browning mixtures may contribute to the improvement of the color and other quality of red ginseng and other ginseng products such as ginseng extracts. In the present study, factors which affect the Maillard-type browning reaction of aqueous extracts of fresh ginseng roots were investigated firstly by adding various concentrations (0.001-0.5M) of arginine or glucose solutions, by varying the browning reaction temperatures and durations. Secondly, some characteristics such as brown color intensity, amounts of water-soluble and ether-soluble extracts, amounts of non-dialyzable materials, pH, viscosity, and reactivity with 2,2'- diphenyl -1 - picrylhydrazyl and antioxidant activity of the browning mixtures of the aqueous fresh ginseng extracts with small amounts of 0.1 M arginine, 0.1 M glucose, and distilled water at various browning temperatures and reaction time were studied. The results of the present study are as follows. 1. Color intensity (absorbance at 470 nm) of the browning mixtures was increased by adding various concentrations of arginine solution to the fresh ginseng extract, but the addition of the same amount of glucose solution did not increase the color intensity. 2 The amounts of water- or ether-soluble extracts, amounts of non-dialyzable materials were slightly greater in case of the browning mixtures of the fresh ginseng extract with 0.1M arginine solution than in case of the browning mixtures of the fresh ginseng extract with the same amount of 0.1 M glucose solution. In the process of the browning reaction, the pH of the browning mixtures of the fresh ginseng extract with 0.1 M arginine solution decreased slightly, while that of the browning mixtures with 0. 1 M glucose solution was almost constant. 3. The color intensity (absorbance at 470 nm) of the browning mixtures of the fresh ginseng extract with 0.1 M arginine or 0.1 M glucose solutions did not correlate well with the reducing power or the antioxidant power of the browning mixtures. The antioxidant activity of 90% ethanol extracts from the earlier stages of the browning mixtures of the fresh ginseng extract with the arginine solution was almost comparable to that of the 90% ethanol extracts from the later stages of the corresponding browning mixtures. The browning mixtures of only the fresh ginseng extract or of the fresh ginseng extract with the glucose solution showed considerable antioxidant activity, although both showed less brown color intensity than the fresh ginseng extract with he arginine solution.

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Browning Inhibition and Quality Characteristics of Minimally Processed Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus Sing) Using Extracts from Natural Materials during Storage (천연 추출물을 이용한 최소가공 양송이버섯 (Agaricus bisporus Sing)의 갈변저해 및 저장 중 품질특성)

  • 류정모;박연주;최소영;황태영;김일환;오덕환;문광덕
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.11-15
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    • 2003
  • Various quality characteristics of minimally processed mushroom were measured to select appropriate browning inhibitor. The treatment of extracts from Asparagi radix, cassia and kiwi on mushrooms have a high effectiveness like ascorbic acid or cysteine, known as a good chemical antibrowning agent. As a results of physical quality characteristics of minimally processed mushroom during storage, 1% cysteine and Asparagi radix were highly effective on degree of browning. Total phenol content and polyphenol oxidase activity showed slight differences among the mushroom treated with each browning inhibitors, but it has gradually increased during storage. Thus, these results suggest browning inhibitors from natural materials can be alternatives to prevent browning on mushrooms instead of chemical browning inhibitors including ascorbic acid or cysteine, has been widely used for antibrowning agent.

Characteristics of the Water Soluble Browning Reaction of Korean Red Ginseng as Affected by Heating Treatment (열처리에 따른 고려홍삼의 수용성 갈변물질의 특성)

  • 이종원;이성계
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.193-199
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to Investigate characteristics of the water soluble browning reaction products (WS-BRPs) from Korean red ginseng by heat treatment. Absorbance of WS- BRPs was increased with increases of heating temperature and time, but pH value were decreased In Muter color value L and b value were decreased, while a value was increased. and absorbance at 280 nm in spectrum of the WS-BRPs was increased according to the increase of heating temperature. When the WS-BRPs were applied on Bio-Gel P-30 column after heating and pH treatment, two majors browning products increased according to the progress on time. And pH 3.0 increased in quantity of high molecular fractions and pH 8.0 increased in quantity of low molecular fractions.

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Cultural characteristics on collected strains of Lentinula edodes and correlation with mycelial browning (표고 수집균주의 재배적 특성 및 갈변과의 상관관계)

  • Kim, Young-Ho;Jhune, Chang-Sung;Park, Soo-Cheol;You, Chang-Hyun;Sung, Jae-Mo;Kong, Won-Sik
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.145-154
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    • 2011
  • Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) is usually cultivated on the oak log. Log cultivation of this mushroom is getting difficult to get oak logs and has a weak point of its long cultivation period. Recently sawdust cultivation is getting increase. It is important to make mycelia browning on the substrate surface. This browned surface in sawdust cultivation plays an important role like as artificial bark of the oak log, which protects the other pests and suppresses water evaporation in the substrate. The period for mycelia browning is so long that the sawdust cultivation of Shiitake mushroom can not spread well into the mushroom farms. The development of methods for the rapid mycelia browning is quite required. In this article we would like to find cultural characteristics of collected strains and to see the correlation with mycelial browning. Mycelial growth in the media was different according to kinds of media and strains. The optimal temperature on mycelial growth was $20-25^{\circ}C$. Browning patterns of mycelium under 200 Lux seemed to be used for a key to differentiate the strains for sawdust cultivation. Browning period was 30-40 days in the agar media and 70-100 days in the sawdust bag cultivation. When we considered the productivity and the other characteristics, ASI 3046 is the best for the bag cultivation. Significance between mycelial growth and browning was not accepted, but that of mycelial growth between on PDA and sawdust was accepted. Browning period on the PDA and sawdust showed a strong relationships. These results suggested that the browning habits could not be depend on the difference of media, but on their own properties. To select the strain showed fast browning can be done by using agar media for saving time.

Mass Transfer Characteristics and Browning Inhibition by Osmotic Dehydration of Mushrooms (양송이의 삼투압 건조에 따른 물질이동 특성과 갈변억제)

    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.903-907
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    • 1998
  • Mass transfer characteristics during osmotic dehydration of mushrooms(Agaricus bisporus) in sugar solution were studied as a function of sugar concentration, immersion time and temperature, and the effect of osmotic dehydration on browning inhibition of air-dried mushrooms was also evaluated. Increasing the sugar concentration, immersion time and temperature increased moisture loss, sugar gain, molality and rate parameter. The changes of sugar gain and rate parameter were more significantly affected by concentration than by temperature of sugar solutions, while 1$0^{\circ}C$ increase in temperature or 10 Brix increase in concentration had the same effect on water loss. Water loss, sugar gain, molality were rapid in the first period of osmotic dehydration especially in the case of higher concentration and temperature of sugar solutions. Effects of osmotic dehydration in sugar solution(60 Brix, 8$0^{\circ}C$) with 18 min of immersion time(O.D.=0.099) rior to air dehydration on browning inhibition of dried mushrooms were more significant than blanching in water(8$0^{\circ}C$) with the same immersion time(O.D.=0.330) and the control (O.D.=0.559).

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Antioxidant Activity of Amino Acid-Xylose Browning Reaction Products 1. Antioxidant Activity of Various Amino Acids and Their Browning Reaction Products (Amino산-Xylose 갈변반응 물질의 항산화성 1. 아미노산과 갈변 반응 물질의 항산화성)

  • YOU Byeong-Jin;LEE Kang-Ho;KIM Chang-Yang;LEE Jong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 1986
  • In order to isolate and clarify the antioxygenic substances from the browning reaction products, the antioxidant activity of various amino acids and their browning reaction products were measured when they were reacted with xylose. Among nonpolar amino acids Met and Trp appeared to have stronger antioxidant effect than others. Most of polar and basic amino acids, however, did not have antioxidant activity. Ser and Cys showed a rather slight prooxidant effect. The browning reaction products of Trp and His had a higher level of antioxidant activity than that they were reacted as free amino acids. But the browning product of Met did not show the antioxidant activity. When all amino acids were divided on their polar characteristics, the higher optical density of the browning reaction products showed, the stronger antioxidant activity revealed.

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Storage Stability of Ginger(Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Paste (생강 페이스트의 저장 안정성)

  • 조길석;장영상;신효선
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.1140-1146
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    • 1997
  • Storage stability of ginger paste product was investigated from the standpoint of the inhibition of nonenzymatic browning and loss of gingerol contents. For the experimentations, control, 0.04% of N-acetyl-L-cysteine in ginger paste(NAcCys), and combination treatment of NAcCys, 0.92 of water activity and 6.30 of pH in ginger paste (mixed treatment) were stored at 3$0^{\circ}C$ for 40 days and analyzed for browning and gingerol contents. In addition the changes in sugars, organic acids, ascorbic acids, amino acids, and sensory quality were determined. The results revealed that the mixed treatment agent was effective in preventing both nonenzymatic browning and loss of gingerol contents. The inhibition by combination treatment might be resulted from the control of radical formations by sulfhydryl groups of NAcCys and the increase of diffusion resistance in lower water activity. Browning development and total gingerol contents were found to be correlated to some physicochemical characteristics of ginger paste; that is, browning development to amino acid and color value in sensory evaluation, and total gingerol contents to flavor in sensory evaluation.

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Browning Prevention of Black Carrot Extract and the Quality Characteristics of Jelly Supplemented with Black Carrot Extract (자색 당근즙의 갈변 방지와 자색 당근즙 첨가 젤리의 품질 특성)

  • Nho, Hyun-Jung;Jang, Soo-Yeon;Park, Jae Jung;Yun, Ho Sik;Park, Sunmin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.293-302
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    • 2013
  • We investigated treatments for the browning prevention of black carrot extracts and determined the characteristics and qualities of jelly supplemented with black carrot extract. Ascorbic acid, citric acid, and NaCl were added to black carrot extract and changes in color, texture, and anthocyanin content were evaluated. Changes were also determined and a sensory evaluation was performed for jelly supplemented with black carrot extract. The addition of 0.15 and 0.20% ascorbic acid prevented the browning of black carrot extracts and decreased anthocyanin content during the storage period. However, citric acid did not have a preventative effect, despite decreasing the pH below 5.0. Similar to results on the extract, 0.15% ascorbic acid maintained a reddish-violet color in jelly supplemented with black carrot extract by lowering browning during the storage period. Jelly supplemented with 0.15% ascorbic acid had an increased elasticity, gumminess, and chewiness, but jelly supplemented with 0.15% ascorbic acid+0.05% NaCl had a lowered hardness compared with the control during the storage period. In a sensory evaluation, the overall preference, in descending order, was: 0.15% ascorbic acid+0.05% NaCl > 0.15% ascorbic acid > control. In conclusion, 0.15~0.20% ascorbic acid prevented the browning of black carrot extract and inhibited a decrease in anthocyanin content. Jelly supplemented with black carrot extract and 0.15% ascorbic acid+0.05% NaCl were optimal for producing a soft jelly texture.

Current Studies on Browning Reaction Products and Acidic Polysaccharide in Korean Red Ginseng (홍삼에 함유된 갈변물질 및 산성다당체에 대한 연구현황)

  • Lee, Jong-Won;Do, Jae-Ho
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.41-48
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    • 2006
  • In the browning reaction of Korean ginseng, it appears that enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning reaction occurred In initial stage of steaming fresh ginseng at low temperature, and then non-enzymatic browning reaction followed in the drying period after steaming. Browning reaction of red ginseng occurred between $60{\sim}90$ min of steaming at $100^{\circ}C$, and browning pigments of red ginseng were mostly water soluble substances. The structural characteristics of water soluble browning reaction products(WS-BRPs) isolated from Korean red ginseng were showed the presence of hydroxyl, amide carbonyl and aliphatic methane groups. From sugar analysis it was identified that L and S-1, melanoidins isolated from red ginseng, contained two kinds of sugars, glucose and xylose, and the other melanoidin S-2 contained the previous and fructose. In order to find out pertinent methods for the acceleration of browning during ginseng processing, various treatment were made on fresh ginseng with sugars, amino acids and inorganic nitrogenous compounds and the extent of browning was measured. Among sugar tested, maltose resulted in the greatest acceleration of browning followed in decreasing order by glucose and lactose, whereas pentoses, fructose, sucrose and raffinose had negligible effect. A marked browning occurred in ginseng treated with basic amino acids, while the extent of browning was not greatly increased when ginseng was treated with aliphatic amino acids, hydroxyl amino acids, or acidic amino acids. The brown color intensity gradually increased with an increase of glucose concentration far up to 0.5M. L, S-1, and S-2 were found to have an ability to donate hydrogen to DPPH, and also they had anti-oxidative activity in the experiments of hydrogen peroxide scavenging, inhibitory activity in the formation of MDA from linoleic acid, auto oxidation of ok-brain homogenates, lipid peroxidation by the enzymatic and non-enzymatic system in liver microsome fraction, and mitochondrial fraction etc. The amounts of acidic polysaccharide(AP) in red ginseng were higher than those of wild and cultured Panax quinquefolius, Panax notoginseng as well as white ginseng (Panax ginseng). In white ginseng, the AP amount is no difference in root ages or sizes, also, the AP amount of ginseng body was similar to that of rhizome, but was higher than that of leaf and epidermis. Addition of red ginseng acidic polysaccharide(RGAP) increased production of nitric oxide(NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-$\alpha$ in the rodent macrophage cultures, and treatment of RGAP in vivo stimulated tumoricidal activities of natural killer (NK) cells.

Structural Characteristics of the Water Soluble Browning Reeaction Products Isolated from Korean Red Ginseng (홍삼으로부터 분리한 수용성 갈변물질의 구조 특성)

  • 이종원;고학룡;심기환
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.499-505
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to ivestigate the structural characteristics of waste soulble browning reaction prodcuts (WS-BRPs) isolated from Korean red ginseng. They all showed the maximum absorbances at near 280 nm. Their IR spectra suggested the presence of hydroxyl, amide carbonyl and aliphatic methine groups. From sugar analysis it was identified that L and S-1 contained two kinds of suggar, glucose and xylose, and S-2, a fructose together with glucose and xylose. Thirteen different amino acids were identified in L. Ten amino acids from S-1 and seven amino acids from S-2 were identified using Auto Amino Acid Analyzer. Glycine, serine and glutamic acid in S-1 and one unknown amino acid and glycine in S-2 were detected as the major amino acids, respectively. From the 1H-and 13C-NMR spectra, it was identified that a number of sugar moieties, carbonyl and carbon double bonds (only in S-2) were contained in the three WS-BRP components. Approximate number of sugar moiety of L, S-1 and S-2 was determined to be 8∼10, 9∼11 and 4∼5, respectively. Contents of nitrogen, carbon and hydrogen showed L>S-1>S-2.

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