• Title, Summary, Keyword: browning reaction

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Browning Reaction of Fresh Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) as Affected by Heating Temperature (가열온도에 따른 수삼의 갈변반응 특성)

  • 이종원;이성계
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.249-253
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    • 1995
  • In the browning reaction of Korean ginseng, it appears that enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning reaction occurred in the initial stage of heating fresh ginseng at low temperature, and then non-enzymatic browning reaction followed in the drying period after heating. Activation energy of the browning reaction for red ginseng was about 9.0 kcal/mol. Browning reaction of red ginseng was accede- rated with an increase in steaming time, and a great extent of browning reaction occurred between 60-90 min of steaming at 10$0^{\circ}C$. Browning pigments of red ginseng were mostly water soluble subset.

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Mutagenic and Clastogenic Activities of the Browning Reaction Model Systems

  • Ryu, Beung-Ho;Kim, Dong-Seuk;Kim, Dong-Su;Lee, Chong-Choil
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.13-21
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    • 1986
  • Two short-term bioassays were employed to asses the mutagenic and clastogenic activities in browning reaction of pentose-creatine, pentose-glycine and pentose-creatine-glycine browning reaction model system. Methylene chloride extract of rhamnose-creatine-glycine browning reaction exhibited the strongest mutagenicity toward Salmonella typhimurium TA98 with S-9. Methylene chloride extract of pentose-creatine and pentose-glycine browning reaction solutions was also tested for mutagenicity, with positive responses. Methylene chloride extract of pentose-creatine-glycine browning reaction solutions induced significant increase in chromosome aberrations in the treated Chinese hamster ovary(CHO) cells. Each of pentose-creatine and pentose-glycine browning reaction solutions induced a relatively low frequency of chromosome aberrations in the treated cells.

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A study on the reaction rate of caramel type browning reaction (Caramel형 갈색화 반응속도에 관한 연구)

  • 신민자;안명수
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.363-369
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    • 1999
  • The study was carried out to compare the reaction rate of caramel type browning reaction of xylose(XY), glocose(GL), sucrose(SU), glucose+citric acid(GLCA), glucose+sodiumcitrats(GLSC), glucose+glycine(GLGC) heated at 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140$^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours, respectively. 1. The color intensity (absorbance at 490 nm) of the browning reaction mixtures tends to increase as the browning reaction time gets longer and the browning of reaction temperature gets higher. But the degree of the intensity of SU and GLCA changes very little. 2. The reaction rate constant (K) was increased rapidly above 120$^{\circ}C$ and appeared maximum at 140$^{\circ}C$, especially GLGC (140.25) was the highest. The activation energy (Ea) of sugars. XY had the highest value (124.36 J/mol), while SU the lowest(104.68 J/mol). Mixtures of GLGC was shown to have higher activation energy (144.94 J/mol) than the sugar alone and Q$\_$10/ values of GLGC were 1.68-2.85. 3. The residual amount of reactants such as xylose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, sodium citrate and glycine in each browning mixture were decreased upon the browning reaction temperature increasing. In the GLCA, GLSC and GLGC browning mixtures, respectively, the residual amounts of glucose were less than those with amino acid, organic acid and their salt.

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A Study on the Reaction Rates of Maillard Browning Reaction of Dipeptides with Xylose (Dipeptide류와 당에 의한 Maillard 갈색화반응의 반응속도에 관한 연구)

  • 김희주;안명수
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.108-114
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    • 1996
  • The study was carried out to compare the reaction rate of Maillard browning reaction of 2 dipeptides (Leucylglycine, Tryptophylglycine) and 4 amino acids (Lysine, Glycine, Leucine, Tryptophan) with xylose heated for 0∼24 hours at 60∼100$^{\circ}C$. 1. The color intensity of the browning mixture heated at 100$^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours was the highest in tryptophanxylose, and in order to tryptophylglycine-xylose > lysine-xylose > leucylglycine-ylose > leucine-xylose > glycine-xylose. 2. The reaction rate constants (k) determined from the browning pigment concentrate with time were similar to the result of the color intensity, that is, the k were the highest in the tryptophan-xylose. 3. The residual amounts of dipeptides, amino acids and xylose in the browning mixture diminished as the browning temperature increase. 4. The activation energies (Ea) calculated from k were the highest in leucine-xylose (143.72 J/mol) and the lowest in tryptophan-xylose (117.45 J/mol). The range of Q$\sub$10/ values were 2.84∼3.58.

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Effects of Amino Acids and SLlgars on the Maillard Brou'nine Reactions during Extraction and Concentration of Red Ginseng (홍삼추출물 및 농축물의 마이야르 갈색화반응 촉진에 미치는 아미노산 및 당의 영향)

  • 이광승;최강주
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.117-121
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    • 1990
  • Browning intensity is a major factor to estimate the quality of red ginseng or red ginseng products. The Maillard type of browning reaction proceeds nonenzymatically during extraction and concentration of red ginseng. The present studies were carried out to investigate the effects of amino acids and sugars on the browning reaction during extraction and concentration of red ginseng. Red ginseng was pulverized to 115 mesh and then tenfold (v/w) of water was added to the powder to make the substrate of red ginseng. Solution (0.1 M) of fourteen amino acids and of folly silgars were added to the substrates of red ginseng powder and these were then extracted and concentrated to examine their browning intensities. Amino acids were more effective than sligars in acrelerating the browning reaction. Acceleration of the browning reaction in the concentrate was in the order of arginine> histidine>glycine>alanine>lysine phenyl alanine>aspartic acid>lelicine>threonine>gllitamic acid>tyrosine>valine>istleucine>methionine for amino acids, and was glucose>frlictose >silcrose, maltose for sugars.

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Effects of Browning Reaction Products on DNA Damage (효소적 갈변 생성물의 DNA 손상에 대한 효과)

  • Lee, Ji-Eun;Kim, An-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.240-244
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    • 2000
  • Antimutagenicity profiles of the enzymatic browning reaction products(EBRP) were investigated. The rec-assay with Bacillus subtilis strains $H17(rec^+)$ and $M45(rec^-)$ was carried out using their spores. The biological activities were evaluated for seven different enzymatic browning reaction products, which resulted from the reactions of seven polyphenols with polyphenol oxidase isolated from Ginkgo biloba leaves. In the spore $rec^-$ assay, most of the polyphenolic compounds tested were positive, whereas their enzymatic browning reaction products were tested negative. The mutagenicity of enzymic browning mixtures of the polyphenols and the enzymes obtained from Ginkgo biloba leaves showed negative results in the mutagenicity test using Bacillus subtilis strains $H17(rec^+)$ and $M45(rec^-)$. In the case where polyphenol oxidase inhibitors were added in the enzymatic reaction mixtures with polyphenols, the polyphenols showed mutagenic effect in the spore $rec^-$ assay. This suggests that the activity of polyphenol oxidase is decreased.

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Maillard Browning Reaction of D-Psicose as Affected by Reaction Factors

  • Baek, Seung-Hee;Kwon, So-Young;Lee, Hyeon-Gyu;Baek, Hyung-Hee
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.1349-1351
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    • 2008
  • This study examined the effects of temperature, D-psicose concentration, pH, and various amino acids on the Maillard browning reaction of D-psicose and glycine mixture and compared browning color intensity with those of other sugars, such as sucrose, D-glucose, D-fructose, and D-tagatose. When D-psicose (0.1 M) and glycine (0.1 M) mixture was heated at $70-100^{\circ}C$ for 5 hr, the absorbance at 420 nm increased with increasing reaction temperature and time. The Hunter a, b values, and color difference (${\Delta}E$) increased with increasing D-psicose concentration and pH within the range of pH 3-7 except at pH 6, while the L value decreased. The rate of Maillard browning reaction was in order of D-tagatose>D-psicose $\fallingdotseq$ D-fructose>D-glucose>sucrose. The browning color intensity of the D-psicose-basic and non-polar amino acids mixtures was higher than that of the D-psicose-acidic amino acids.

Antioxidant Activity of Amino Acid-Xylose Browning Reaction Products 2. Isolation of Antioxigenic Substrates from Browning Reaction Products by TLC and Dialysis (Amino 산-Xylose 갈변반응 물질의 항산화성 2. TLC와 투석을 이용한 항산화성 갈변물질의 분리)

  • YOU Byeong-Jin;LEE Kang-HO;LEE Jong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.212-218
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    • 1986
  • In order to isolate antioxigenic substrates, the browning reaction products of xylose and various amino acids were analysed by TLC and dialysis. Rf values of browning reaction products of xylose and hydrophobic amino acids separated on silica gel TLC plate were shown in the range of 0.38 to 0.56 and that of basic amino acids was around 0.2. Browning reaction products made from xylose and Trp were separated on TLC into four bands with Rf values of 0.25, 0.55, 0.81 and 0.91 respectively. Among these the bands with Rf values of 0.25 and 0.55 appeared having strong antioxidant activity. The band of Rf 0.55 which showed the highest activity was positive to Prochazka reagent and had an absorption maximum at 275 nm. In dialysis of the xylose-Trp browning reaction products, the undialysed fraction (inner solution) was repsponsible to the antioxidant activity, which was separated into two bands with Rf values of 0.25 and 0.55 on TLC. The inner fractions of the browning products of xylose and His or Arg were also apparent in antioxdant activity.

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Antioxidant Activity of Amino Acid-Xylose Browning Reaction Products 1. Antioxidant Activity of Various Amino Acids and Their Browning Reaction Products (Amino산-Xylose 갈변반응 물질의 항산화성 1. 아미노산과 갈변 반응 물질의 항산화성)

  • YOU Byeong-Jin;LEE Kang-Ho;KIM Chang-Yang;LEE Jong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 1986
  • In order to isolate and clarify the antioxygenic substances from the browning reaction products, the antioxidant activity of various amino acids and their browning reaction products were measured when they were reacted with xylose. Among nonpolar amino acids Met and Trp appeared to have stronger antioxidant effect than others. Most of polar and basic amino acids, however, did not have antioxidant activity. Ser and Cys showed a rather slight prooxidant effect. The browning reaction products of Trp and His had a higher level of antioxidant activity than that they were reacted as free amino acids. But the browning product of Met did not show the antioxidant activity. When all amino acids were divided on their polar characteristics, the higher optical density of the browning reaction products showed, the stronger antioxidant activity revealed.

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A study on the reaction rate and the antioxidant effects of caramelization reaction mixtures (Caramelization 온도별 반응속도와 반응 생성물의 유지에 대한 항산화효과에 관한 연구)

  • 최인덕;안명수
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.396-400
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    • 1995
  • The antioxidant effects in soybean oil was investigated by browning reaction mixtures formed by sugar and reaction temperatures above 110$^{\circ}C$. 0.1 M solution of xylose, glucose and sucrose were heated at 110, 120, 130, 140 and 150$^{\circ}C$ for 24 hrs respectively. A reaction rate constant(k), activation energy (Ea) and Q$\sub$10/ value were determined by color intensity that was measured absorbance at 490 nm in each temperature. Soybean oil containing the ethanol extracts taken from the browning reaction mixtures that were heated at 110, 130 and 150$^{\circ}C$ was stored in an incubator kept at 45.0${\pm}$1.0$^{\circ}C$ for 24 days. The results are as follows: 1. When 0.1 M solution of xylose, glucose and sucrose were heated at 110$^{\circ}C$ and 120$^{\circ}C$, the intensity of glucose browning mixtures was the highest, but heated at 150$^{\circ}C$, the color intensity increased in order of xylose > glucose > sucrose after 24 hrs. 2. The reaction rate constant (k) was increased rapidly above 140$^{\circ}C$ and appeared maximum at 150$^{\circ}C$, esp. xylose was the highest. The activation onergy (Ea) of xylose was the highest as 93.28 Joule/mole and the Q$\sub$10/ value of xylose was appeared 1.28. Q$\sub$10/ value was also the highest in xylose. 3. The browning reaction mixtures that were heated at 110$^{\circ}C$ appeared little antioxidant effects. But, in heated at 130$^{\circ}C$ and 150$^{\circ}C$, the antioxidant effects appeared in sucrose browning reaction mixtures. Therefore, in browning reaction mixtures that heated above 110$^{\circ}C$, only sucrose browning reaction mixtures appeared antioxidant effects and xylose, glucose appeared little antioxidant effects. On the contrary xylose and glucose increased peroxide values of soybean oil.

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