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Time use of Rural Housewives -The Amount and the Distribution of Time for daily Activities. (농촌주부의 생활시간 부선 -시간량 및 시간 대별 분석-)

  • 조금희
    • Journal of Korean Home Management Association
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.163-180
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    • 1990
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the time used for daily activities by rural housewives. This study was carried out two aspects-the amount and the distribution of time. However, the characteristics of agriculture and the farming season influenced on rural housewives activities. There fore, in this study, survey areas divided into two groups-the traditional and the commercial agricultural area. And I conducted surveys in two times-the busy farming season and the leisure season for farmers. Data for 286 housewives(76 in traditional area on the leisure season, and 68 in commercial 142 in traditional area on the busy farming season)were collected by interviews, in which wives were asked to recall the used of time on the previous day, and a time record chart broken into fifteen minute intervals. The statistics for data analysis were frequency, percentile, T-test, and F-test by SPSS PC programs. The findings are as follows; 1)The average total time of rural housewives on labour was 8 hours 53 minutes, on socio-cultural activities 4 hours 18 minutes, and on physiological activities 11 hours 2 minutes. 2) The amount of time on agricultural labour was 6 hours 47 minutes in busy farming season, and 2 hour 45 minutes in leisure season. 3) The average time on household labour was 3 hours 51 minutes. 4) The amount of time on socioculture activities was 2 hours 19 minutes in busy farming, and 6 hours 16 minutes in leisure season. 5) The average time on physiological activities was 11 hours 2 minutes.

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Development and Field Application of Meal Service Menu for the Elderly on Busy Farming Season in Hongchun, Gangwon (강원 홍천군 거주 노인의 농번기 급식용 메뉴개발과 적용)

  • Kim, Hye-Yeong;Kim, Haeng Ran
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.12
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    • pp.1785-1793
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    • 2009
  • Meal service menu for the elderly on busy farming season in Hongchun, Gangwon was developed and applied using seasonal foods from local crops. Acceptance of each menu right after the meal service was investigated while unit cost and leftover of each menu were also monitored. Acceptance of the staple food in Menu 4 showed the highest value with a score of 8.97.and side dishes of Menu 4 were greatly prdferred with a score of 8.69(p<0.05). General preference on menu was the highest at Menu 4 scoring 8.87(p<0.05). The amount of leftover for a special meal of Menu 3 was 75.80 g, which was the highest (p<0.05). Males left the least of Menu 4(30.82 g) whereas females did of Menu 2 (10.63 g, p<0.05). The foeld application of preference and satisfaction, and the small amount of leftover of the supplied meals.

A Study on the Menu Development for the Elderly during Busy Farming Season in Gyeongbuk Andong (경북 안동시 농번기 농촌노인 식단개발 연구)

  • Kim, Hae-Young;Park, Chan-Eun;Lee, Hae-Jin;Park, Young-Hee;Lee, Jin-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.10
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    • pp.1381-1391
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    • 2009
  • Dietary life style of the elderly living in rural areas of Gyeongbuk Andong during the busy farming season was surveyed and a monthly meal plan for the elderly was developed using eco-friendly native crops and considering the characteristics of a busy farming season and their preferences. A week meal plan was selected and applied to those fields. The meal plan was developed for an elder's house in Gyeongbuk Andong during the busy farming season. Especially, to increase the intake of calcium and dietary fiber, bamboo sprouts, pepper leaves, dried slices of whitebait, and fried anchovies were used. Considering the busy farming season, the ginseng chicken soup and the soybean noodle soup were served to provide high quality of protein and to improve health condition. A cold soup of cucumber and brown seaweed was used to supplement liquid, vitamins, and minerals. The results are as follows: the highest score of the preference on a staple was 8.77 for the boiled barley of menu 5; the favorite soup was the ginseng chicken soup (8.73) in menu 4; for side dishes, those in menu 5 were most popular (8.69); the favorite meal was the ginseng chicken soup of menu 4 (8.69). Regarding the amount of leftover foods, the lightest was 30.14 g in Gyeongbuk Andong menu 3 which significantly indicates high preference (p<0.05). The current study was a planned meal service menu using local crops and seasonal foods, which was actually applied to the field resulting in high preference and satisfaction levels.

Assessment of Physical Activity Level of Korean Farmers to Establish Estimated Energy Requirements during Busy Farming Season (농번기 농업인의 에너지필요추정량 설정을 위한 활동량 및 신체활동수준 평가)

  • Kim, Eun-Kyung;Lee, Sun-Hee;Ko, Su-Young;Yeon, Seo-Eun;Choe, Jeong-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.751-761
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the physical activity level of Korean farmers to establish their estimated energy requirements during busy farming season. 113 farmers (mean age $51.9{\pm}7.2$ years, male 42, female 71) who own farmland area above 300 pyung participated in measurement of body weight and height and interviewing of one-day activity diaries. There was no significant difference in age, BMI between male and female. Obesity prevalence according to BMI among male and female farmers was 40.5% and 50.7% respectively. The farmers spent about 7 hours in sleeping and spent about 4 hours 35 minutes working on the farm and spent about 15 hours 30 minutes (64.6% of 24 hours) in "very light activities" and spent about 3 hours 31 minutes (14.7%) in "light activities". Physical activity level (PAL, activity coefficient) of male farmers was 2.63 which was significantly higher than that (2.19) of female farmers (p < 0.05). Estimated energy requirements (EER) for farmers who were different in age and gender were suggested. For example, the estimated energy requirements for male and female farmers were 3058 kcal/day and 2279 kcal/day, respectively. The results of this study suggest that estimated energy requirements (EER) of farmers should be differentiated according to seasonal workload and energy balance of farmers should be evaluated to prevent obesity.

Menu Development and Evaluation using Food Intake Status of the Elerly in busy farming season of Damyang Jeonnam (전남 담양군 노인의 농번기 식생활실태 조사에 의한 식단 개발과 평가)

  • Park, Chan-Eun;Joo, Min-Jung;Lee, Hye-Jin;Kim, Hae-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.41-47
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    • 2008
  • Survey on the food intake status and health condition of the elerly over 65 years old living in Damyang Jeonnam was performed and meal menus for the pavillion were developed using local products. Allowance of the elderly less than 100,000 won was 45%. The local products of the area recognized by the elderly were bamboo shoot (30%) > bamboo (22.5%) > bamboo basket (12.5%) > do not know (15%) > green tea (10%) > rice(7.5%) > vegetable. In dental health, 52.5% of them had bad condition but 62.5% did not use denture at all. The most favorate foods were Korean (92.5%) and Chinese and Japanese were favored by 5%, and 2.5%, respectively. In percentage of eat-out and use of instant foods, 42.5% of them answered that eating-out chances were very rare and 62.5% answered that they do not use instant foods at all. Potassium intakes for the male and female elderly were significantly very low with values of 2579.2 mg and 2601 mg, respectively (p < 0.05). Calorie intakes for men were 1678.5 kcal, which was only 84% of RI and 1470.8 kcal for women (92%). Shortages of nutrition including calcium intake and others were very serious and the meal was not nutritionally balanced based upon the study of GMDFO. The menu for the elderly in busy farming season of the area were developed with the use of local products and the information from the study.

Analysis of Micropollutants Present in Raw Water Supplied for the Several Drinking Water Treatment Plants in Seoul (서울시 정수장 유입 원수내 미량유해물질의 조사)

  • Oh, Byung-Soo;Kim, Kyoung-Suk;Ju, Seul;Kang, Joon-Wun
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.245-250
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    • 2004
  • This study investigated the micropollutants present in raw water supplied for the several drinking water treatment plants in Seoul. The target sample waters were collected from the several sites, such as Jayang (JY), Kuui (KI), Paldang (PD) and Kangbuk (KB) at the Han-River stream. The analytical method used in this study enable us to detect about 300 kinds of chemicals commonly found in surface water at ppt level by GC-ion trap MS. In this study, the consideration on the analytic results focused on the four hazardous organics, such as benzenes, phenols, phthalates and pesticides. The numbers of each detected micropollutant were 1~8 kinds for benzenes, 1~7 kinds for phenols, 5~7 kinds for phthalates and 1~9 kinds for pesticides. For the pesticides, the higher concentration was detected in the water samples collected from PD and KB adjacent to the farming area, and at June and July, which is the busy farming season. The total concentrations of each micropollutants detected at all the sites were significantly lower than those of drinking water regulation in Korea as well as other advanced countries. However, the frequently detected micropollutants requires the steady and precise monitoring for the effective management of drinking water source.

A Comparison of the Pattern and the Investigation of Determinants in Rural Couples′ Time-Use (농촌지역 부부의 시간사용 실태 비교 및 관련요인 분석)

  • 김인숙;허경옥
    • Korean Journal of Rural Living Science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.67-78
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    • 1998
  • This study compared the pattern of couples' time-use in rural areas. Wives' and husbands' time spent in household work, leisure, and agricultural labor were compared. In addition, this study examined what factors determine the amount of time of couples spent in such activities. According to the results, in general, the pattern of couple's time-use in rural area was different. Regarding the pattern of time-use, three major results could be mentioned. First of all, husband in rural area spent most agricultural labour time in busy farming season. And then husband spent much time in leisure activities and wife spent in household work. Second, wife spent more time in inactive leisure and husband spent more time in active leisure. Third, husband in rural area spent less time in household work. In particular. they spent less time in female-typed work than male-typed work. To examine what factors determine the extent of time spent in such activities, three theories were employed and tested. According to the results, the models employed in this study were realistic in explaining the amount of time of couple in rural area, and more adjustable wife than husband. In conclusion, a combination of the multidimensional theoretical perspectives used in this study helpfully explains the variation in the amount of time-use of couple in rural area.

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The Structure of Time Use by Rural Housewives and their Husbands (농가주부와 경영주의 생활시간 사용)

  • 김인숙;임평자;김희순
    • Korean Journal of Rural Living Science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.81-97
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the structure of time use by housewives in rural households, and to compare the time use structure of housewives with that of their husbands. To attain this goals, we have selected 108 farmhouses considering agricultural area and size in L993. Data was collected by observing how (i. e., doing what kinds of work) housewives and husbands spend time, Time use was divided into four categories : physiological time, socio-cultural time, household work time and agricultural labor time. The results in this study present a valuable insight to assuage the overloaded works of rural housewives. The major results can be outlined as follows : 1. Rural housewives worked 1.2 times longer hours a day than their husbands did. 2, There existed a severe labour time imbalance between housewives and husbands during the busy farming season. 3. The time use patterns of housewives and husbands were significantly different across agricultural areas. Also, the education level of a housewife was associated with the length of her labor time.

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Study on the Dietary Behavior and Local Products for Menu development of the Elerly in Yeongi Chungnam (충남연기군 장수노인의 식생활 및 지역 특산물조사 활용 노인정 식단개발)

  • Kim, Hae-Young;Lee, Hye-Jin;Park, Chan-Eun;Kim, Yang-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.775-782
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    • 2007
  • Dietary behavior of the elerly over 65 and local products in Yeongi Chungnam were studied during busy farming season and meal menu was developed based upon the information surveyed. In allowance, 45% of them lived with less then one hundred thousand won but 95% had their own residence(P<0.001). The dental health conditions of the male and female elderly did not show significant differences but had tendencies of bad conditions with 68% and 80%, respectively. Percentage of using denture at least one side was only 48%(P<0.05). Meal preparation was mostly done by 75% of the female elderly and only 64% of the elderly in the area took meals regularly. Recommended intakes(RIs) of calorie, protein, dietary fiber, calcium for the elderly were significantly very low(P<0.001), but those of sodium were high(P<0.05). Meal menu was developed for the meal service introduction in the pavilion of the elderly with considerations of the food habits, nutritional status, and local products studied.

Characteristics and Management Plan of Water Quality at the Water Pollution Deterioration Area of the Upper Stream of Gapcheon (갑천 상류부의 수질오염 우려구간 수질특성 및 수질관리방안)

  • Jang, Yuho;Son, Bongho;Chu, Shaoxiong;Lim, Bongsu
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.399-408
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    • 2019
  • The average annual water quality at Yongchon Bridge, Bonggok 2 Bridge, and Gasuwon Bridge in upstream of Gapcheon in 2018 was Ib grade (good) in organic matters, including BOD and TOC compared to the local environmental standard in Daejeon. However, their monthly changes for TOC partially exceeded the standard during the busy farming season at Bonggok 2 Bridge and Gasuwon Bridge. Although the annual average TP was within the standard, the monthly change at Bonggok 2 Bridge partially exceeded the standard. For Dugyecheon, the annual average water quality in 2018 at Umyeon-dong Bridge and Wonjeong Bridge, which are downstream of the Gyeryong public sewage treatment plant, exceeded the local environmental standard in BOD. COD was exceeded, and TP was within the standard. It seemed that the causes of deteriorated water quality downstream of Dugyecheon were discharges of agricultural water from agricultural land and effluent from the Gyeryong public sewage treatment plant. Assuming the pollution load of 100% based at the Mulangil point of the mainstream of Gapcheon, the ratio of BOD load and TOC load were as high as 58% and 47%, respectively. At the basin of Bonggok 2 Bridge and Mulangil, the loads downstream of Dugyecheon including the Gyeryong public sewage treatment plant were as high as 43% for TN and 56% for TP, respectively, indicating that Dugyecheon had a major impact on the water quality at the mainstream of Gapcheon.