• Title, Summary, Keyword: butyltin

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Butyltins in Surface Sediments of Kyeonggi Bay, Korea

  • Kim, Gi-Beum;Tanabe, Shinsuke;Koh, Chul-Hwan
    • Journal of the korean society of oceanography
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.64-70
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    • 1998
  • Forty sediment samples from Kyeonggi Bay, Korea were analyzed for butyltins, including tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and monobutyltin (MBT) to determine their distribution and source in this area. Total butyltin concentrations in Kyeonggi Bay sediments ranged from 0.8 to 297 ng/g dry wt. with a mean value of 38 ng/g. The highest butyltin concentration was found in the innermost site in Incheon Harbor basin. The mouth of Han River had higher butyltin levels in sediments compared to open ocean. Butyltin levels correlated well with organic carbon content of sediment, but the major factor was the distance from the source area where antifouling paints were used for vessels and marine structures. Butyltin concentrations in the study area were lower than those reported for bays in other parts of the world. Considering the high toxic potential and sediment/water partition coefficient of TBT, further studies are needed to assess its biological effect in the marine ecosystem of Kyeonggi Bay.

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Assessing Heavy Metals for Estrogenicity Using a Combination of In vitro and In vivo Assays (In vitro 및 In vivo Assay를 통한 중금속의 에스트로겐성 평가)

  • Park, Chul;Kim, So-Jung;Shin, Wan-Chul;Kim, Hae-Gyoung;Choe, Suck-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.9
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    • pp.1486-1491
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    • 2004
  • The estrogenicities of six heavy metal compounds, which contaminate frequently in foods, were assayed using a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays. The assays were 1) estrogen receptor dependent transcriptional expression assay, 2) E-screen assay and, 3) the uterotropic assay in mice. The chemicals studied were 17$\beta$ -estradiol, diethylstilbestrol (DES), arsenic oxide, bis(tri-n-butyltin), cadmium chloride, chromium chloride, lead acetate, and mercuric chloride. Using the estrogen receptor dependent transcriptional expression assay, the following estrogenicity ranking was measured: bis(tri-n-butyltin) > cadmium chloride > chromium chloride >> mercuric chloride >lead acetate = arsenic oxide. Using E-screen test, the following estrogenicity ranking was measured: bis(tri-n-butyltin) > cadmium chloride > chromium chloride >> mercuric chloride > lead acetate = arsenic oxide. Results from the uterotropic assay showed that bis(tri-n-butyltin), cadmium chloride, chromium chloride caused an increase in uterine wet weight, while lead acetate, mercuric chloride, and arsenic oxide failed to do so. Bis(tri-n-butyltin), cadmium chloride and chromium chloride showed the highest estrogenicity in three assay systems. Recent studies suggesting that bis(tri-n-butyltin), cadmium chloride have estrogenicities are compatible with the present finding. Furthermore, our study is suggesting that chromium chloride may be estrogenic. The results demonstrate that this three level-assay combination (transcriptional activation, cell proliferation, and an in vivo effect in an estrogen-responsive tissue) could serve as a useful method to assess the estrogenicity of heavy metals.

Monitoring of Butyltin Compounds in PVC Food Packaging - Determination of Butyltin Compounds in PVC Wrap and Gasket for Food Packaging by GC/MS (식품용 염화비닐수지제 기구 및 용기.포장 중 부틸주석화합물의 모니터링 - GC/MS를 이용한 염화비닐수지제 식품용 랩 및 가스킷 재질 중 부틸주석화합물 잔류량 분석)

  • Sung, Jun-Hyun;Yoon, Hae-Jung;Choi, Hyun-Cheol;Jeon, Dae-Hoon;Eom, Mi-Ok;Kim, Hyung-Il;Park, Na-Young;Lee, Eun-Joon;Lee, Young-Ja
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.715-720
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    • 2007
  • The levels of butyltin compounds in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) food packaging using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were monitored. The analytical method, involving the ethylation with sodium tetraethylborate, was found to be selective and sensitive for mono-n-butyltin (MBT), di-n-butyltin (DBT), and tri-n-butyltin (TBT), validated by a $0.005\;{\mu}g/mL$ limit of detection (LOD), an $R^2>0.999$ for linearity, and >90% of recovery, respectively. Finally, none of the commercial food wraps and gaskets showed detectable levels of butyltin compounds.

Analysis of Butyltin Compounds(mono-, di-, and tributyltin) in Human Blood (혈액 중의 주석화합물(MBT, DBT, TBT)의 분석과 농도에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Nam Sook;Park, Dong Uk;Oh, Jae Ryoung;Shim, Woon Joon
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.115-122
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    • 2001
  • Butyltin compounds, including mono-(MBT), di-(DBT) and tributyltin(TBT) were analyzed in 44 human blood samples randomly collected from a hospital in "K" a city. Gas chromatograph equipped with flame photometric detector(FPD) was used to quantify the amounts of butylin compounds. Method detection limits(MDL) of this analytical method were 3.69ng Sn/g for MBT, 0.91ng Sn/g for DBT and 1.09ng Sn/g wet wt for TBT respectively. Standard reference material(SRM) containing of $1.3{\mu}g/g$ TBT as chloride was analyzed to check if this analytical results would be reliable. Recovery of about 90% was obtained through this analysis, indicating that the analytical method from butyltin compounds blood was reliable. The concentrations of butyltin compounds ranged MDL(<3.69) to 7.93ng Sn/g for MBT and 1.15 to 5.41ng Sn/g wet wt for DBT. Tributyltin was below detection limit in all samples. Detection limits of our results are lower than those reported by Kannan et al. who reported butyltin compounds in 33 human blood samples in the United States. Detection of MBT and DBT on blood sample implies that butyltin compounds could be absorbed through consumption of seafoods or exposure to food stuffs made of plastics and household items. Further study is needed to examine if butyltin compounds in blood can be reliably analyzed and used as intake index.

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Distribution of Butyltin Compounds in Surface Sediments inside Hallim Harbor of Jeiu Island, Korea (제주도 한림항내 표층퇴적물 중의 부틸주석화합물의 분포)

  • 감상규;김현정;허철구;최영찬;이민규
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.12 no.7
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    • pp.753-762
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    • 2003
  • Butyltin compounds (BTs), namely tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT), were measured in surface sediments collected in 2001 inside Hallim Harbor where a lot of shipping occurs as one of major harbors of Jeju Island, in order to evaluate their distribution. BTs were detected in surface sediments of all stations and their concentrations were comparable to those in surface sediments of other sites of domestic and foreign countries. The main species among BTs was MBT, although there was a little difference with a survey site. No correlations were obtained between organic matter or particles size of surface sediments and total BTs, indicating that these factors did not affect on the distribution of BTs. It was estimated that more complex factors including BTs loads and surrounding sedimentary environments, affected on the distribution of BTs. The high correlations between BTs indicated that DBT and MBT were mainly degraded from TBT based on antifouling paints of vessel etc. and other sources, such as DBT and MBT, could be ignored. The butyltin degradation indexes ([DBT] + [MBT]/[TBT]) Ivere in the range of 1.5∼3.3 (mean 2.5), indicating that the parent compound, TBT, were inflowed into the surface sediments a long years ago and degraded.

Occurrence of butyltin compounds in marine environment of Gwangyang Bay, Korea

  • Park, Hee-Gu;Kim, Sang-Soo;Moon, Hyo-Bang;Gu, Bon-Kyu
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.11 no.8
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    • pp.793-800
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    • 2002
  • Butyltin (BT) compounds were measured in seawater, sediment, sediment core, settling solids, and plankton from Gwangyang Bay in 2001, Tributyltin (TBT) was detected in seawater from 1 out of the 7 seawater sampling sites and in sediment from 18 out of the 35 sediment sampling sites. The highest concentration of TBT was found in the sediment from the site near Yeosu Harbor (53 ng Sn/g dry wt), acting as the point source for TBT The mean concentrations of TBT were in the order of plankton> settling solids> sediment. The degradation indexes ([DBT]+[MBT]/[TBT]) for the plankton were less than 1, indicating the possibility of recent inputs of TBT. The indexes for the sediment and settling solids ranged from 1.14 to 8.73. The composition of the BT compounds found in the settling solids was similar to that found in the sediment. The vertical profile of the total BT compounds in the sediment was characterized by an abrupt decline from the surface. However, no butyltin compounds appeared below a depth of 10 cm, corresponding to the 1980s. Accordingly, the current results demonstrated that the levels of all butyltin species in the environment of Gwangyang Bay were relatively lower than those in other polluted coastal areas. The vertical profile also suggested a fairly recent history for the down-core.

Determination of Mono-, Di-, and Tri-Butyltin Compounds in Seawater of Several Bays in Korea

  • Choi, Hwa-Seon;Kwon, Ee-Yol;Lee, Dong-Sup
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.234-238
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    • 1993
  • The method of study describes the determination of the nanogram amounts of mono-, di-, and tri-butyltin compounds in sea water. The procedure is based on 1) the conversion of tin compounds to non-ionic species by sodium tetraethyl borate as an alkylation reagent, 2) one-step ethylation and 3) extraction. No further purification or concentration of the extract was required before GC-FPD (Flame Photometric Detector). The detection limits for mono-, di- and tri-butyltin were 12.50, 6.02, and 4.19 ng/L. The linear range (0-120 ng/L) was solely dependent on the detector response height. Sea water samples (n=24) were obtained from Masan Bay, Busan, Ullsan, Gunsan, Sockcho, Yeasu, Donghae, Inchun, Kanghwa, and Ahsan in Korea. The samples were collected between June, 1992 to July, 1992 and the distribution of monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC), dibutyltindichloride (DBTC), and tributyltinchloride (TBTC) in sea water was recorded. The concentrations of butyltin compounds in seawater were found to be in the range of N.D. (not detected)-61.93 ng/L for MBTC, N.D.-32.16 ng/L for DBTC, and N.D.-55.76 ng/L for TBTC.

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Butyltin Compounds Concentrations in Masan Bay

  • CHOI Hee Gu;KIM Pyoung Joong;LEE Won Chan
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.923-928
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    • 1997
  • The occurrence of butyltin compounds in the seawater and sediment of Masan Bay was investigated. The concentrations were in the range of $ND-0.059{\mu}g/\ell$ for tributyltin (TBT), $ND-0.091{\mu}g/\ell$ for dibutyltin (DBT) and $ND-0.720{\mu}g/\ell$ for monobutyltin (MBT) in the seawater, and $ND-0.233{\mu}g\;TBT/g.dry$, $ND-0.197{\mu}g-DBT/g.dry$ and $ND-0.684{\mu}g-MBT/g.dry$ in the sediment. Among the butyltin compounds, the major component in the seawater was MBT, while the predominant species in the sediment changed with time. The tributyltin concentrations in the sediment are approximately three orders of magnitude greater than the associated water column levels. Sediment/water partition coefficients (K) of TBT were between $0.6\times10^3\;and\;5.0\times10^3$.

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Contamination of Butyltin Compounds in Sediments inside Jeju Harbor of Jeju Island (제주도 제주항내 퇴적물 중의 부틸주석화합물의 오염)

  • Kam, Sang-Kyu;Hu, Chul-Goo;Lee, Min-Gyu
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.655-665
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    • 2011
  • Contamination of butyltin compounds (BTs), namely tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT), was evaluated in sediments collected inside Jeju Harbor in 2001. The concentrations of BTs in surface sediments were comparable to those in other sites of domestic and foreign countries. The high correlations between BTs in surface ($r^2$ = 0.83~0.91) and core ($r^2$ = 0.70~0.79) sediments and the significant correlations between BTs concentrations and the number of incoming and outgoing vessels indicated that DBT and MBT were mainly degraded from TBT based on antifouling paints of vessels etc. and other sources, such as DBT and MBT, could be ignored. The butyltin degradation indices ([DBT] + [MBT]/[TBT]) in surface sediments were in the range of 2.2~3.6 (mean 2.7), indicating that the parent compound, TBT, was inflowed into the surface sediments a long ago, degraded and deposited. The sedimentation age of BTs contaminated core sediments could not estimated because the content of $^{210}Pb$ activity was nearly all the same and so the sedimentation rate could not obtained.

Application of a Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric Method for the Determination of Butyltin Compounds in Sediment

  • Won, Yong-Il;Jung, Pyong-Gil;Chung, Min-Young;Kim, Byung-Joo;Yim, Yong-Heon;So, Hun-Young;Kim, Yong-Seong
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.25 no.10
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    • pp.1508-1512
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    • 2004
  • A gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) method has been developed for the determination of trace mono-n-butyltin (MBT), di-n-butyltin (DBT), and tri-n-butyltin (TBT) compounds in sediments. Samples were extracted by 10% acetic acid in methanol containing 0.03% tropolone and were then derivatized for GC/MS analysis. Ethylation by sodium tetraethylborate and phenylation by sodium tetraphenylborate were evaluated as a derivatization reaction of the organotins in sample extract. n-Hexane was added into reaction media in the beginning of the reaction for the continuous extraction of derivatized organotins. Ethylation requires less than 2 hours to get proper derivatization yields for MBT, DBT, and TBT altogether and produces relatively low amounts of side reaction products. Compared to ethylation, phenylation requires much longer time but provides relatively lower yield and produces considerable amounts of side reaction products. Therefore, the ethylation reaction was applied for the analysis of organotin compounds in sediment. An isotope dilution mass spectrometric (IDMS) method based on GC/MS has been applied to the accurate determination of DBT compounds in the sediments. The IDMS results from the analyses of sediment samples showed a reasonable repeatability and a good agreement with the values obtained by IDMS based on liquid chromatography/induced coupled plasma/mass spectrometry.